Chapter-5-KW - Chapter 5 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1...

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1 Chapter 5 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
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5.1. Oxidation-reduction reactions involve electron transfer 2 Index 5.1 Oxidation-reduction reactions involve electron transfer 5.2 The ion-electron method creates balanced net ionic equations for redox reactions 5.3 Metals are oxidized when they react with acids 5.4 A more active metal will displace a less active one from its compounds 5.5 Molecular oxygen is a powerful oxidizing agent 5.6 Redox reactions follow the same stoichiometric principles as other reactions
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5.1. Oxidation-reduction reactions involve electron transfer Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Involve two processes: § Oxidation - the loss of electrons § Reduction - the gain of electrons Ca( s ) + 2H2O → Ca(OH)2( s ) + H2( g ) Oxidizer = Oxidizing agent = received the electrons Reducer = Reducing agent = donated the electrons Ca get oxidized H2O Get reduced Reducing agent Oxidizing agent
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5.1. Oxidation-reduction reactions involve electron transfer 4 Guidelines for Redox Reactions Oxidation and reduction always occur together Total number of e - lost by one substance is the same as the total number of e - gained by the other For a redox reaction to occur, something must accept the e - that are lost by another substance
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5.1. Oxidation-reduction reactions involve electron transfer 5 Oxidation number : § of any free element is zero § of any simple, monoatomic ion is equal to the charge on the ion § of fluorine in its compounds is -1 § of hydrogen in its compounds is +1 § of oxygen in its compounds is -2 The sum of all oxidation numbers of the atoms in a molecule or polyatomic ion must equal the charge on the particle Oxidation Numbers
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5.1. Oxidation-reduction reactions involve electron transfer 6 Special Rules If there is a conflict between two rules apply the rule that is higher on the list and ignore the conflicting rule In binary ionic compounds with metals, the nonmetals have oxidation numbers equal to the charges on their anions Note that fractional values of oxidation numbers are allowed
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5.1. Oxidation-reduction reactions involve electron transfer 7 Assign Oxidation States to All Atoms: Fe2O3 § O: -2; Fe: +3 Na2CO3 § Na: +1; O: -2; C: +4 V(OH)3 § H: +1; O: -2; V: +3 K2Cr2O7 § K: +1; O: -2; Cr: +6
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5.2 The ion–electron method creates balanced net ionic equations for redox reactions 8 Balancing Redox Reactions: Ion-Electron Method 1. Identify the half-reactions 2. Balance each atom in the half-reaction, saving H and O for last 3. Balance O by adding 1 water molecule for each needed O 4. Balance H by adding 1 H+ ion for each needed H
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5.2 The ion–electron method creates balanced net ionic equations for redox reactions 9 Balancing Redox Reactions: (Cont.) 5. Balance charges by adding electrons to the
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Chapter-5-KW - Chapter 5 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1...

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