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Chapter-7-KW - Chapter 7 The Quantum Mechanical Atom Index...

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Chapter 7 The Quantum Mechanical Atom
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Index 7.1 Electromagnetic radiation provides the clue to the electronic structures of atoms 7.2 Atomic line spectra are evidence that electrons in atoms have quantized energies 7.3 Electrons have properties of both particles and waves 7.4 Electron spin affects the distribution of electrons among orbitals in atoms 7.5 The ground state electron configuration is the lowest energy distribution of electrons among orbitals 7.6 Electron configurations explain the structure of the periodic table 7.7 Quantum theory predicts the shapes of atomic orbitals 7.8 Atomic properties correlate with an atom's electron configuration
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7.1 Electromagnetic radiation provides the clue to the electronic structures of atoms 3 Light Acts as a Wave Wavelength ( λ ) - the distance light travels to complete one cycle Frequency ( ν ) - the number of wave cycles in one second § Units are cycles per second (cps or s-1) or Hertz (Hz) § Hz = s-1
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7.1 Electromagnetic radiation provides the clue to the electronic structures of atoms 4 Frequency and Wavelength are Related Note that as the frequency of the wave increases, the wavelength decreases Regardless of the frequency, light travels at the same speed, c c = λ × ν § The speed of light ( c ) = 2.99792458 × 108 m/s Learning Check : If the frequency of a radio station is 300 MHz, what is the wavelength in m? 0.999 m
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7.1 Electromagnetic radiation provides the clue to the electronic structures of atoms 5 high energy short waves low energy long waves
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7.1 Electromagnetic radiation provides the clue to the electronic structures of atoms 6 Photoelectric Effect (Particle Theory of Light) Albert Einstein (1905) E = h ν Shining light on a clean metal surface may eject electrons There is a threshold level needed to eject the electrons (a work function specific to the metal) § Increasing intensity does not cause the effect § Increasing the frequency of the light does
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7.1 Electromagnetic radiation provides the clue to the electronic structures of atoms 7 Energy and Light Waves The energy of a wave is proportional to the wave frequency, E = h ν § h = Planck’s constant , 6.626 × 10-34 J•s/photon Learning Check: Why is ultraviolet light (320 nm) more penetrating than a red light (700 nm)? Use energies to make your case. UV light λ 7.0 × 10-9 m λ 3.2 × 10-9 m Red light E 320 = 6.2 × 10-19 J E 700 = 2.8 × 10-19 J
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7.2 Atomic line spectra are evidence that electrons in atoms have quantized energies 8 Flame Emission Elements exhibit characteristic colors when burned The characteristic spectra are also observed when elements are subject to strong electrical fields as in gas discharge tubes. Note that the light from the discharge tube is actually several different colored lines as seen on the surface of the CD
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7.2 Atomic line spectra are evidence that electrons in atoms have quantized energies 9 Light emitted by excited atoms is comprised of a few narrow beams with frequencies characteristic of the element Atomic spectra are unique for each element Atomic Emission Spectra
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7.2 Atomic line spectra are evidence that electrons in atoms have quantized energies
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