Chapter-9-KW - Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding and Molecular...

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Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
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Index 9.1 Molecules are three-dimensional with shapes that are built from five basic arrangements 9.2 Molecular shapes are predicted using the VSEPR model 9.3 Molecular symmetry affects the polarity of molecules 9.4.Valence bond theory explains bonding as an overlap of orbitals 9.5 Hybrid orbitals are used to explain experimental molecular geometries 9.6 Hybrid orbitals can be used to explain multiple bonds 9.7 Molecular orbital theory explains bonding as constructive interference of atomic orbitals 9.8 Molecular orbital theory uses delocalized orbitals to describe molecules with resonance structure
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9.1 Molecules are three-dimensional with shapes that are built from five basic arrangements 3 Electron Domains Shape Electron Pair Geometry 2 Linear = 180˚ bond angles 3 trigonal planar= 120˚ bond angles 4 tetrahedral= 109.5˚ bond angles The Five Basic Electron Arrangements
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9.1 Molecules are three-dimensional with shapes that are built from five basic arrangements 4 The Five Basic Electron Arrangements (Cont.) Electron Domains Shape Electron Pair Geometry 5 trigonal bipyramidal has equatorial and axial positions. Eq-Eq= 120˚ Ax-Eq 90˚ 6 Octahedral has equatorial and axial positions, with 90˚ bond angles
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9.2 Molecular shapes are predicted using the VSEPR model 5 Bonding Domains and Non-Bonding Domains Bonding domains are shared between nuclei Non-bonding domains are not shared between nuclei-they exert a greater electrical field Repulsion leads non-bonding domains to occupy larger space The basic shapes are distorted by non-bonding domains to create the molecular geometry
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9.2 Molecular shapes are predicted using the VSEPR model 6 Trigonal Planar Molecular Geometries Bonding Domains Non-bonding Domains Molecular Geometry 3 0 trigonal planar 2 1 bent
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9.2 Molecular shapes are predicted using the VSEPR model 7 Tetrahedral Molecular Geometries
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9.2 Molecular shapes are predicted using the VSEPR model 8 Trigonal Bipyramidal Equatorial (eq) positions are substituted first This is because the eq,eq bond angles are 120°, while axial, equitorial bond angles are only 90°
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9.2 Molecular shapes are predicted using the VSEPR model 9 Octahedral Geometries All bond angles are 90° Axial positions are substituted first
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9.1 Molecules are three-dimensional with shapes that are built from five basic arrangements 10 Learning Check Identify the electron pair geometry for each center. tetrahedral tetrahedral trigonal bipyramidal H N H H H O H I I I
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9.3 Molecular symmetry affects the polarity of molecules 11 Polar Molecules are Asymmetric To determine the polarity, draw the structure using the proper molecular geometry Draw the bond dipoles If they cancel, the molecule is non-polar If the molecule has uneven dipole distribution, it is polar
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9.4 Valence bond theory explains bonding as an overlap of atomic orbitals 12 Valence Bond Theory H2 bonds form because atomic valence orbitals overlap HF involves overlaps between the s orbital on H and the 2 p orbital of F 1s 1s 1s 2s 2p
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9.4 Valence bond theory explains bonding as an overlap of atomic orbitals
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Chapter-9-KW - Chapter 9 Chemical Bonding and Molecular...

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