Chapter-10-KW - Chapter 10 Properties of Gases Index 10.1...

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Chapter 10 Properties of Gases
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10.1 Familiar properties of gases can be explained at the molecular level 2 Index 10.1 Familiar properties of gases can be explained at the molecular level 10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases 10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations 10.4 Gas volumes are used in solving stoichiometry problems 10.5 The ideal gas law relates P, V, T, and the number of moles of gas, n 10.6 In a mixture each gas exerts its own partial pressure 10.7 Effusion and diffusion in gases leads to Graham's law 10.8 The kinetic molecular theory explains the gas laws 10.9 Real gases don't obey the ideal gas law perfectly
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10.1 Familiar properties of gases can be explained at the molecular level 3 Properties of Gases What is the shape of the air in a balloon? § Gases have an indefinite shape What is the volume of the gas in the balloon? § They have an indefinite volume Why do bubbles rise in liquids? § At room temperature, air has a density of 1.3 g/L while water has a density of 1.0 g/mL Why does a hot air balloon rise? § Hot air is less dense than cold air
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10.1 Familiar properties of gases can be explained at the molecular level 4 How Does a Molecular Model Explain This? Gases completely fill their containers: § Gases are in constant random motion Gases have low density and are easy to compress § Gas molecules are very far apart Gases are easy to expand § Gas molecules don’t attract one another strongly
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10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases 5 What Is Pressure? The force of the collisions of the gas distributed over the surface area of the container walls; P = force/area § Units : 1 atmosphere (atm) = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 1.01325 × 105 Pascal (Pa) = 14.7 psi = 1013 millibar (mb) Measured with a barometer § P = g × d × h Ø d = density of the liquid Ø g = gravitational acceleration Ø h = height of the column supported Why use mercury?
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10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases 6 Learning Check: Pressure Units Start: 675 mm Hg Target: atm Conversion factor? 760 mm Hg = 1 atm Convert 675 mm Hg to atm 675 mm Hg × 1 atm = 0.888 atm 760 mm Hg ÷
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10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases 7 Atmospheric Pressure Is the result of the collisions of the air in the atmosphere with the objects they contact Why is the pressure less in the mountains than at sea level? § Air density is greater at sea level, hence there are more collisions. p r e s s u r e
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10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases 8 Learning Check Under water, the pressure is increased. Why? § Because the weight of the air is added to the weight of the water, increasing the force acting on objects § This is why deep sea exploration requires a submarine: our bodies cannot handle the extreme pressures at great depths
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10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases 9 Open-end Manometer
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10.2 Pressure is a measured property of gases 10 Closed–end Manometer
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10.3 The gas laws summarize experimental observations 11 Proportionality Direct proportionality means that 2 variables are: § Opposite the equality from one another §
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2012 for the course CHEMISTRY 211 taught by Professor Crowley during the Fall '08 term at Wichita State.

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Chapter-10-KW - Chapter 10 Properties of Gases Index 10.1...

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