Chapter-11-KW - Chapter 11 Intermolecular Attractions and...

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1 Chapter 11 Intermolecular Attractions and The Properties of Liquids and Solids
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2 Index 11.1 Gases, liquids, and solids differ because intermolecular forces depend on the distances between molecules 11.2 Intermolecular attractions involve electrical charges 11.3 Intermolecular forces and tightness of packing affect the physical properties of liquids and solids 11.4 Changes of state lead to dynamic equilibria 11.5 Vapor pressures of liquids and solids are controlled by temperature and intermolecular attractions 11.6 Boiling occurs when a liquid's vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure 11.7 Energy changes occur during changes of state 11.8 Changes in a dynamic equilibrium can be analyzed using Le Châtelier's principle 11.9 Crystalline solids have an ordered internal structure 11.10 X-Ray diffraction is used to study crystal structu res 11.11 Physical properties of solids are related to their crystal types 11.12 Phase diagrams graphically represent pressure-temperature relationships
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11.1. Gases, liquids, and solids differ because intermolecular forces depend on the distances between molecules 3 States of Matter Condensed phases have greater interaction between particles Conversion to less condensed phases requires energy
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11.2. Intermolecular attractions involve electrical charges 4 Electronegativity Review Electronegativity - A measure of the attractive force that one atom in a covalent bond has for the electrons of the bond.
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11.2. Intermolecular attractions involve electrical charges 5 Bond Dipoles Two atoms with different electronegativity values will share electrons unequally Electron density is uneven, with a higher charge concentration around the more electronegative atom Bond dipoles are indicated with delta (δ) notation that indicates that a partial charge has arisen
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11.2. Intermolecular attractions involve electrical charges 6 Net Dipoles Symmetrical molecules, even if they have polar bonds, are non-polar because the bond dipoles cancel Asymmetrical molecules are polar because the bond dipoles do not cancel - they have permanent, net dipoles Molecular dipoles cause molecules to interact, and the distance between the molecules increases the amount of interaction
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11.2. Intermolecular attractions involve electrical charges 7 Dipole-Dipole Attractions Interaction between the net dipoles in polar molecules are called dipole-dipole attractions . § About 1% as strong as a covalent bond § Decrease as molecular distance increases
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11.2. Intermolecular attractions involve electrical charges 8 Hydrogen Bonding Especially strong attractions found in polar molecules with hydrogen atoms bonded to F, O, or N These strong dipole-dipole interactions are called hydrogen bonds
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11.2. Intermolecular attractions involve electrical charges 9 Case Study: Snowflakes What accounts for the fact that snowflakes are always 6-sided?
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11.2. Intermolecular attractions involve electrical charges 10 London Forces When atoms are near one another, their valence electrons interact Repulsion causes the electron clouds in each to distort and polarize Instantaneous , induced dipoles result from this distortion
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11.2. Intermolecular attractions involve electrical charges
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2012 for the course CHEMISTRY 211 taught by Professor Crowley during the Fall '08 term at Wichita State.

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Chapter-11-KW - Chapter 11 Intermolecular Attractions and...

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