BIO203 summary for A - see the slide important Physiology...

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㉿- see the slide! - important ● Physiology – the study of - Functions of living organisms and their parts - How cells interact with their “environment” to obtain the things(vital substances such as water, salts, oxygen, nutrients, heat, etc.) required for life Organization of Complex organism 1. Cellular level – 4 general cell type ( Epithelial, connective tissue, nerve, muscle) 2. Tissue level – Groups of cells with common structure and function 3. Organ level – Groups of different tissues with different structure and function to perform specific functions 4. System level – several organs in group to perform major body function Systems exchange vital substances from external environment to internal environment(and vice versa). EX) Respiratory system (o2/co2), Digestive system (nutrients/H2O) Urinary system (excretion/H2O), Circulatory system (distribution of [nutrients, H2O, O2,CO2, wastes] to all over the body) ㉿ Cells exchange vital substances from Internal Cellular Fluid to External Cellular Fluid (and vice versa) Environment is relative depends on what it is. (To cell, internal environment is external cellular fluid.) Basic Princple All life… ● Body fluids of all animals have the same general composition - H2O and Salts Water(H2O) is the major component( 75% of body weight and 99% of all molecule ) Salts is inorganic substance - 0.75% of al molecule Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca++, Mg++,Zn++, PO4- ● Biochemical substances ( Proteins, nucleic acids, etc.) - 0.25% of molecules Cell is the basic unit of compartment (inside-ICF / outside- <Asymmetric Distribution of ions between different compartments> ECF Sodium high 100-140mM Potassium low 1-100mM Calcium low 1-3 mM External Environment Interstitial Space , External Cellular Fluid , Interstitial Fluid , Internal Environment Ce l l I nt e r na l c e l l ul a r Fl ui d Ci r c ul at o r y s ys t e m Ext e r na l Ce l l ul a r Fl ui d , Pl a s ma I CF( i ns i de Ce l l ) Sodi um l ow 1- 10mM Pot a s s i um hi gh 100- 1400mM Ca l c i um ve r y l ow nm
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Asymmetries between compartments are essential for physiological processes The distribution of these substances must be maintained for organism to survive Asymmetries make potential energy by gradient law(high to low) Compartments do trade offs to move substancese and maintain asymmetries - Deals with same fundamental problems Fundamental problems are the most basic problems all organism share All life requires the input of energy(since life is energetically unfavorable, we have to use energy to survive but energy is not something come to us for free, we have to do something), removal of wastes, reproduction etc… But many animals have solved the problems in their unique way therefore, we can learn how animals solve their fundamental problem by comparing each other.
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