Compilation of Literary Pieces

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Unformatted text preview: ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City The Mysteries of the Mind A Compilation on Literature Presented to MR. Jun Victor Bactan English Language Teacher High School Department Iloilo Central Commercial High School By TIU, RJ LAWRENCE C. III- Star-apple 05-0616 A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 2 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City In partial fulfillment of the requirements in Communications Arts IV (English) August 12, 2009 Table of Contents Foreword Acknowledgement Rationale/Objective World Literature Greek Literature 1. Greek Gods and Goddesses 2. The Creation of the World and Mankind 3. Trojan War 4. Greek Earliest Heroes and Legends a. Jason and the Quest of the Golden Fleece b. Heracles (Hercules) and his 12 Labors c. Theseus of Athens d. Perseus e. Bellerophon f. Achilles g. Odysseus 5. Nine Brief Tales of Love and Adventures a. Cupid and Psyche b. Pyramus and Thisbe c. Orpheus and Eurydice d. Ceyx and Alcyone e. Pygmalion and Galatea f. Baucis and Philemon g. Endymion h. Daphne i. Alpheus and Arethusa 6. Epics of Homer a. Iliad b. Odyssey 7. Lyric Poetry a. Hymn to Venus b. To an Uncultured Lesbian Woman Roman Literature 1. Roman Mythology Art and Culture 2. Aenied 3. Major Writers of Rome a.Virgil b. Horace c. Martial d. Epictetus German Literature A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 4 5 6 7 8-70 9-10 11-12 13-22 23-57 23-25 26-35 36-40 41-43 44-45 46-49 50-57 58-64 58-59 60 61 61-62 62 63 63 64 64 65-68 65-66 67-68 69-70 69-70 70 71-79 71-73 74-75 76-79 76-77 77 77-78 78-79 80-89 3 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City 1. The Nibelungenlied French Literature 1. The Song of Roland Spanish Literature 1. The El Cid 2. The Story of Don Quixote Italian Literature 1. The Divine Comedy Danish Literature 1. The Emperor’s New Clothes Norse Mythology 1. The Norse Gods 2. The Stories of Signy and Sigurd 80-89 90-97 90-97 98-130 98-104 105-130 131-132 131-132 133-135 133-135 136-145 136 137-145 Selected Literatures of the World 1. The Necklace 2. How my Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife 3. The Lottery Ticket 4. Invictus 5. The Clod and the Pebble 6. The Road not Taken 7. Desiderata 8. The World is an Apple 9. Crossing the Bar 10. Song 11. Courage Reflection References 146-164 136-152 152-156 157-159 160 160 161 161-162 162 163 163 164 165 165 A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 4 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Foreword Reading literature is sometimes a problem for students these days. It is hard to understand those old English words that people nowadays rarely use. My purpose for making this book is to make reading literary works easier and fun. By compiling all these famous works, we wouldn’t need to regularly check the internet for these works. This book will include almost all kinds of works, may it be from the Greeks, Romans, Germans, French, Spaniards, Italians, Danish and the Norse. I will also include famous poems like ones from Robert Frost and William Blake. I hope that after I finish with this book, it will make people love literature more than they did before. Reading books have been a popular pastime. This book will use English as its main language. English versions would be preferred for stories for a better understanding of the essence of the stories. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 5 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Acknowledgement First of all I want to thank my mother, Julie Tiu. She has been a great help because she was the one who would always remind me to make my projects. She would wake me up whenever I fall asleep while making this book. She would even scold me if I would say “buwas lang ah.” Thank you mom! I would also like to thank my sister, Juliene Lindy Tiu. She would offer her ideas on the how to make parts of this book, especially the foreword page. Her ideas were very useful because of course she is a Chain member and she is supposed to be good in these kinds of things. My dad helped me too. He would cook food for me whenever I am hungry at night. He would even wake up if I told him I was hungry. And last, I want to thank my cousin, Richelle Lynn Tiu. She would go through all my works just to correct grammatical errors. She would even suggest improvements to make my work a lot nicer. She would always find time to help me even though she has a lot of work to deal with in her nursing college. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 6 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Rationale/Objective I. To compile the written works in a single book for easy reference. II. To have easy access to literary pieces. III. To arrange pieces according to their origins. IV. To be able to compare and differentiate plots and endings without getting to separate books. V. To have most of the famous works of poets and literatures from around the world. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 7 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City World Literature Literature is the art of written works. Literally translated, the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter), and therefore the academic study of literature is known as Letters (as in the phrase "Arts and Letters"). In Western culture the most basic written literary types include fiction and nonfiction. Some of the major forms of literature are novels, poems, dramas, short stories and novellas. Genres include epics, lyrics, dramas, romances, satires, tragedies, comedies and tragicomedies. Literary works have been protected by copyright law from unauthorized reproduction since at least 1710. World literature refers to literature from all over the world, including African literature, Arabic literature, American literature, Asian literature, European literature and Oceanian literature. It includes the epics from all around the world. Stories passed on from generation to generation either through verbal or written works, are all part of world literature. There are infinitely many stories all around the world but we would only be dealing with famous and logical ones like the ones from European countries. Types of Literature: 1. Tragedy- hero faces bad luck and in the end the hero dies 2. Short Stories- shorter than a novel but has all the needed functions 3. Sonnet- consists of 14 lines, each line contains ten syllables 4. Ballad- song about love and for someone leaving 5. Elegy- poem of lamentation and a poem of grief dedicated to a person who passed away 6. Comedy- main character faces bad luck through funny ways 7. Epic- narrative story 8. Autobiography- written biography by the same person 9. Biography- written by other people 10. Fable- involves animals and moral lessons 11. Legends- explain the existence of some things 12. Sci-fi- science fiction about technology 13. Myths- about gods and goddesses A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 8 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Greek Literature Greek literature refers to writings composed in areas of Greek influence, typically though not necessarily in one of the Greek dialects, throughout the whole period in which the Greek-speaking people have existed. Greek Mythology, Art and Culture Greek mythology is the body of myths and legends belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. They were a part of religion in ancient Greece. Modern scholars refer to the myths and study them in an attempt to throw light on the religious and political institutions of Ancient Greece, on the Ancient Greek civilization, and to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself. Greek mythology is embodied explicitly in a large collection of narratives and implicitly in representational arts, such as vase-paintings and votive gifts. Greek myth explains the origins of the world and details the lives and adventures of a wide variety of gods, goddesses, heroes, heroines, and other mythological creatures. These accounts initially were disseminated in an oral-poetic tradition; today the Greek myths are known primarily from Greek literature. Greek mythology has exerted an extensive influence on the culture, the arts, and the literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in these mythological themes. Mythical narration plays an important role in nearly every genre of Greek literature. Nevertheless, the only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus, which attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus lived from c. 180-120 BC and wrote on many of these topics; however the "Library" discusses events that occurred long after his death, hence the name Pseudo-Apollodorus. Perhaps, his writings formed the basis of the collection. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 9 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Among the earliest literary sources are Homer's two epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the "epic cycle", but these later and lesser poems now are lost almost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the Homeric Hymns have no connection with Homer. They are choral hymns from the earlier part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiod, a possible contemporary with Homer, offers in his Theogony (Origin of the Gods) the fullest account of the earliest Greek myths, dealing with the creation of the world; the origin of the gods, Titans, and Giants; as well as elaborate genealogies, folktales, and etiological myths. Hesiod's Works and Days, a didactic poem about farming life, also includes the myths of Prometheus, Pandora, and the Four Ages. The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, rendered yet more dangerous by its gods. The discovery of the Mycenaean civilization by the German amateur archaeologist, Heinrich Schliemann, in the nineteenth century, and the discovery of the Minoan civilization in Crete by British archaeologist, Sir Arthur Evans, in the twentieth century, helped to explain many existing questions about Homer's epics and provided archaeological evidence for many of the mythological details about gods and heroes. Unfortunately, the evidence about myth and ritual at Mycenaean and Minoan sites is entirely monumental, as the Linear B script (an ancient form of Greek found in both Crete and Greece) was used mainly to record inventories, although the names of gods and heroes doubtfully have been revealed. Greeks Gods and Goddesses Olympian deities Greek name English name Description Aφροδίτη Aphrodite (Aphroditē) Goddess of love, lust, beauty, wife of Hephaestus. Ares is her lover. Eros is her son. Known as the most beautiful of the Greek goddesses. Her symbols are the scepter, myrtle, and dove. Aπόλλων (Apollō) God of music, medicine, health, prophecies, poetry, and archery. Also said to be the god of light and truth. Is associated with the sun. Also referred to as the most handsome of the gods. He is Artemis's twin brother, and son of Zeus. His symbols are the bow, lyre, and laurel. Apollo Άρης (Arēs) Ares God of war, murder and bloodshed. Brother to Athena, and is the son of Zeus. Has an affair with Aphrodite. His symbols are vultures, dogs, boars, and a spear. Άρτεμις (Artemis) Artemis Goddess of the hunt, wild things, and the moon. Protector of the dewy young. She became associated with the moon. Apollo is her twin brother. Artemis is a virgin goddess. Her symbols are the bow, dogs, and deer. Αθηνά (Athēna) Athena Goddess of wisdom, warfare, strategy, handicrafts and reason. Sister of Ares, and is the daughter of Zeus. Sprung from Zeus's head in full body armor. She is the wisest of the gods. Her symbols are the aegis, owl, and olive tree. Δήμητρα (Dēmētra) Demeter Goddess of fertility, agriculture, grain and harvest. Demeter is a daughter of Cronus and Rhea and sister of Zeus. Her symbols are the scepter, torch, and corn. Dionysus God of wine, parties/festivals, madness and merriment. He represents not only the intoxicating power of wine, but also its social and beneficial influences. His symbols are the grape vine, ivy, and thyrsus. Διόνυσος (Dionysus) A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 10 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City ᾍδης (Hades) Hades God of the underworld and wealth. Brother of Poseidon, Zeus and Hera, and consort to Persephone. His symbols are the bident, the Helm of Darkness, and the threeheaded dog, Cerberus. Ήφαιστος Hephaestu (Hēphaistos s ) God of fire and the forge (god of fire and smiths) with very weak legs. He was thrown off Mount Olympus as a baby by his mother and in some stories his father. He makes armor for the gods and other heroes like Achilles. Son of Hera and Zeus is his father in some accounts. Married to Aphrodite, but she does not love him because he is deformed and, as a result, is cheating on him with Ares. He had a daughter named Pandora. His symbols are an axe, a hammer and a flame. Ήρα (Hēra) Hera Goddess of marriage, women, and childbirth. Zeus' wife and sister. Appears with peacock feathers often. Her symbols are the scepter, diadem, and peacock. Ερμής (Hērmēs) Hermes God of flight, thieves, mischief, commerce, and travelers. Messenger of the gods. He showed the way for the dead souls to Hades's realm. He shows up in more myths than any other god or goddess. Likes to trick people and is very inventive. Hermes invented the lyre using a turtle shell and sinew. His symbols are the caduceus and winged boots. Ἑστία (Hestia) Hestia Goddess of the hearth and home, the focal point of every household. Daughter of Rhea and Cronus. Gave up her seat as one of the Twelve Olympians to tend to the sacred flame on Mount Olympus for Dionysus. Her symbol is the hearth. Ποσειδῶν (Poseidon) Poseidon God of the sea. He created horses from sea foam. God of earthquakes as well. Also called 'Earth Shaker' and 'Storm Bringer'. His symbols are horses, sea foam, dolphins, and a trident. The king of the gods, the ruler of Mount Olympus and the god of the sky and thunder. His symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle, bull, and oak. Ζεύς (Zeus) Zeus Primordial deities Greek name English name Description Αιθήρ (Aithēr) Aether God of the upper air. Χάος (Khaos) Chaos The nothingness from which all else sprang. Χρόνος (Khronos) Chronos or Chronus The Keeper of Time. Not to be confused with the Titan Cronus, the father of Zeus. Έρεβος (Erebos) Erebus God of darkness and shadow. Γαία (Gaia) Gaia or Gaea Goddess of the Earth (Mother Earth); mother of the Titans. Ημέρα (Émera) Hemera Goddess of daylight and the sun. Ζέφυρος (Zephuros) Zephyrus God of the west wind. Νύξ (Nux) Nyx Goddess of night. She is also the only being from which Zeus turned from when her son Hypnos, who had angered Zeus, hid behind her. Τάρταρος (Tartaros) Tartarus The darkest, deepest part of the underworld. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 11 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Ουρανός (Ouranos) Ouranos God of the heavens (Father Sky); father of the Titans. He banished his children, the Cyclopes and the Hecatonchires, to the underworld because they did not please him. The Principal Gods Family Tree (Heaven) Uranus = Gaea (Earth) | --------------------------------------| | | | | Cronus = Rhea Coeus = Phoebe Oceanus = Tethys | | | ---------------------Leto = Zeus Iapetus | | | | | | | Hestia | Poseidon | Demeter=Zeus | ---------------Hades Zeus = Hera | | | | | | | Persephone | | Prometheus | Athena | --------| | | | | Atlas Epimetheus --------------Apollo Artemis | | | | | | | Ares Hebe Hephaestus Zeus=Maia Zeus=Dione | | Hermes Aphrodite The Creation of the World and Mankind according to Greek Mythology In the beginning there was only chaos. Then out of the void appeared Erebus, the unknowable place where death dwells, and Night. All else was empty, silent, endless, darkness. Then somehow Love was born bringing a start of order. From Love came Light and Day. Once there was Light and Day, Gaea, the earth appeared. Then Erebus slept with Night, who gave birth to Ether, the heavenly light, and to Day the earthly light. Then Night alone produced Doom, Fate, Death, Sleep, Dreams, Nemesis, and others that come to man out of darkness. Meanwhile Gaea alone gave birth to Uranus, the heavens. Uranus became Gaea's mate covering her on all sides. Together they produced the three Cyclopes, the three Hecatoncheires, and twelve Titans. However, Uranus was a bad father and husband. He hated the Hecatoncheires. He imprisoned them by pushing them into the hidden places of the earth, Gaea's womb. This angered Gaea and she plotted against Uranus. She made a flint sickle and tried to get her children to attack Uranus. All were too afraid except, the youngest Titan, Cronus. Gaea and Cronus set up an ambush of Uranus as he lay with Gaea at night. Cronus grabbed his father and castrated him, with the stone sickle, throwing the severed genitals into the ocean. The fate of Uranus A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 12 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City is not clear. He died, withdrew from the earth, or exiled himself to Italy. As he departed he promised that Cronus and the Titans would be punished. From his spilt blood came the Giants, the Ash Tree Nymphs, and the Erinnyes. From the sea foam where his genitals fell came Aphrodite. Cronus became the next ruler. He imprisoned the Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires in Tartarus. He married his sister Rhea; under his rule the Titans had many offspring. He ruled for many ages. However, Gaea and Uranus both had prophesied that he would be overthrown by a son. To avoid this Cronus swallowed each of his children as they were born. Rhea was angry at the treatment of the children and plotted against Cronus. When it came time to give birth to her sixth child, Rhea hid herself, and then she left the child to be raised by nymphs. To conceal her act she wrapped a stone in swaddling cloths and passed it off as the baby to Cronus, who swallowed it. This child was Zeus. He grew into a handsome youth on Crete. He consulted Metis on how to defeat Cronus. She prepared a drink for Cronus design to make him vomit up the other children. Rhea convinced Cronus to accept his son and Zeus was allowed to return to Mount Olympus as Cronus's cupbearer. This gave Zeus the opportunity to slip Cronus the specially prepared drink. This worked as planned and the other five children were vomited up. Being gods they were unharmed. They were thankful to Zeus and made him their leader. Cronus was yet to be defeated. He and the Titans, except Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Oceanus, fought to retain their power. Atlas became their leader in battle and it looked for some time as though they would win and put the young gods down. However, Zeus was cunning. He went down to Tartarus and freed the Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires. Prometheus joined Zeus as well. He returned to battle with his new allies. The Cyclopes provided Zeus with lighting bolts for weapons. The Hecatoncheires he set in ambush armed with boulders. With the time right, Zeus retreated drawing the Titans into the Hecatoncheires's ambush. The Hecatoncheires rained down hundreds of boulders with such a fury the Titans thought the mountains were falling on them. They broke and ran giving Zeus victory. Zeus exiled the Titans who had fought against him into Tartarus. Except for Atlas, who was singled out for the special punishment of holding the world on his shoulders. However, even after this victory Zeus was not safe. Gaea angry that her children had been imprisoned gave birth to a last offspring, Typhoeus. Typhoeus was so fearsome that most of the gods fled. However, Zeus faced the monster and flinging his lighting bolts was able to kill it. Typhoeus was buried under Mount Etna in Sicily. Much later a final challenge to Zeus rule was made by the Giants. They went so far as to attempt to invade Mount Olympus, piling mountain upon mountain in an effort to reach the top. But, the gods had grown strong and with the help of Heracles the Giants were subdued or killed. The Creation of Mankind Prometheus and Epimetheus were spared imprisonment in Tartarus because they had not fought with their fellow Titans during the war with the Olympians. They were given the task of creating man. Prometheus shaped man out of mud, and Athena breathed life into his clay figure. Prometheus had assigned Epimetheus the task of giving the creatures of the earth their various qualities, such as swiftness, cunning, strength, fur, wings. Unfortunately, by the time he got to man Epimetheus had given all the good qualities out and there were none left for man. So Prometheus decided to make man stand upright as the gods did and to give them fire. Prometheus loved man more then the Olympians, who had banished most of his family to Tartarus. So when Zeus decreed that man must present a portion of each animal they scarified to the gods Prometheus decided to trick Zeus. He created two piles, one with the bones wrapped in juicy fat, and the other with the good meat hidden in the hide. He then bade Zeus to pick. Zeus picked the bones. Since he had given his word Zeus had to accept that as his share for future sacrifices. In his anger over the trick he took fire away A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 13 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City from man. However, Prometheus lit a torch from the sun and brought it back again to man. Zeus was enraged that man again had fire. He decided to inflict a terrible punishment on both man and Prometheus. To punish man, Zeus had Hephaestus create a mortal of stunning beauty. The gods gave the mortal many gifts of wealth. He then had Hermes give the mortal a deceptive heart and a lying tongue. This creation was Pandora, the first women. A final gift was a jar which Pandora was forbidden to open. Thus, completed Zeus sent Pandora down to Epimetheus who was staying amongst the men. Prometheus had warned Epimetheus not to accept gifts from Zeus but, Pandora's beauty was too great and he allowed her to stay. Eventually, Pandora's curiosity about the jar she was forbidden to open became too great. She opened the jar and out flew all kinds of evils, sorrows, plagues, and misfortunes. However, the bottom of the jar held one good thing - hope. Zeus was angry at Prometheus for three things: being tricked on sacrifices, stealing fire for man, and for refusing to tell Zeus which of his children would dethrone him. Zeus had his servants, Force and Violence, seizes Prometheus, take him to the Caucasus Mountains, and chain him to a rock with unbreakable adamantine chains. Here he was tormented day and night by a giant eagle tearing at his liver. Zeus gave Prometheus two ways out of this torment. He could tell Zeus who the mother of the child that would dethrone him was. Or meet two conditions: First that an immortal must volunteer to die for Prometheus. Second, that a mortal must kill the eagle and unchain him. Eventually, Chiron the Centaur agreed to die for him and Heracles killed the eagle and unbound him. Trojan War Origins of the war The plan of Zeus According to Greek mythology, Zeus had become king of the gods by overthrowing his father Cronus; Cronus in turn had overthrown his father Uranus. Zeus was not faithful to his wife and sister Hera, and had many relationships from which many children were born. Since Zeus believed that there were too many people populating the earth, he envisioned Momus or Themis, who was to use the Trojan War as a means to depopulate the Earth, especially of his demigod descendants. The Marriage of Peleus and Thetis, the Apple of Discord, and the Judgment of Paris Zeus came to learn from either Themis or Prometheus, after Heracles had released him from Caucasus, that, like his father Cronus, one of his sons would overthrow him. Another prophecy stated that a son of the sea-nymph Thetis, with whom Zeus fell in love with after gazing upon her in the oceans off the Greek coast, would become greater than his father. Possibly for one or both of these reasons, Thetis was betrothed to an elderly human king, Peleus son of Aiakos, either upon Zeus' orders, or because she wished to please Hera, who had raised her. All of the gods were invited to Peleus and Thetis' wedding and brought gifts, except Eris ("Discord"), who was stopped at the door by Hermes, on Zeus' order. Insulted, she threw from the door a gift of A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 14 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City her own: a golden apple (το μήλον της έριδος) on which were inscribed the words Tēi Kallistēi ("To the fairest"). The apple was claimed by Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite. They quarreled bitterly over it, and none of the other gods would venture an opinion favoring one, for fear of earning the enmity of the other two. Eventually, Zeus ordered Hermes to lead the three goddesses to Paris, a prince of Troy, who, unaware of his ancestry, was being raised as a shepherd in Mount Ida, because of a prophecy that he would be the downfall of Troy. The goddesses appeared to him naked, and because he was unable to decide between them, they resorted to bribes. Athena offered Paris wisdom, skill in battle, and the abilities of the greatest warriors; Hera offered him political power and control of all of Asia, and Aphrodite offered him the love of the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Sparta. Paris awarded the apple to Aphrodite, and, after several adventures, returned to Troy, where he was recognized by his royal family. Peleus and Thetis bore a son, whom they named Achilles. It was foretold that he would either die of old age after an uneventful life, or die young in a battlefield and gain immortality through poetry. Furthermore, when Achilles was nine years old, Calchas had prophesied that Troy could not again fall without his help. A number of sources credit Thetis with attempting to make Achilles immortal when he was an infant. Some of these states that she held him over fire every night to burn away his mortal parts and rubbed him with ambrosia during the day, but that Peleus discovered her actions and stopped them. According to some versions of this story, Thetis had already destroyed several sons in this manner, and Peleus' action therefore saved his son's life. Other sources state that Thetis bathed Achilles in the River Styx, the river that runs to the under world, making him invulnerable wherever he had touched the water. Because she had held him by the heel, that part remained a mortal not a god, hence the expressions "Achilles heel" for an isolated weakness. He grew up to be the greatest of all mortal warriors. After Calchas' prophesy, Thetis hid Achilles in Skyros at the court of king Lycomedes, where he was disguised as a girl. Elopement of Paris and Helen The most beautiful woman in the world was Helen, one of the daughters of Tyndareus, king of Sparta. Her mother was Leda, who had been either raped or seduced by Zeus in the form of a swan. Accounts differ over which of Leda's four children, two pairs of twins, were fathered by Zeus and which by Tyndareus. However, Helen is usually credited as Zeus' daughter, and sometimes Nemesis is credited as her mother. Helen had scores of suitors, and her father was unwilling to choose one for fear the others would retaliate violently. Finally, one of the suitors, Odysseus of Ithaca, proposed a plan to solve the dilemma. In exchange for Tyndareus' support of his own suit towards Penelope, he suggested that Tyndareus require all of Helen's suitors to promise that they would defend the marriage of Helen, regardless of whom he chose. The suitors duly swore the required oath on the severed pieces of a horse, although not without a certain amount of grumbling. Tyndareus chose Menelaus. Menelaus was a political choice on her father's part. He had wealth and power. He had humbly not petitioned for her himself, but instead sent his brother Agamemnon on his behalf. He had promised Aphrodite a hecatomb, a sacrifice of 100 oxen, if he won Helen, but forgot about it and earned her wrath. Menelaus inherited Tyndareus' throne of Sparta with Helen as his queen when her brothers, Castor and Pollux, became gods, and when Agamemnon married Helen's sister Clytemnestra and took back the throne of Mycenae. Paris, in the guise as a supposed diplomatic mission, went to Sparta to get Helen and bring her back to Troy. Before Helen could look up, to see him enter the palace, she was shot with an arrow from Eros, otherwise known as Cupid, and fell in love with Paris when she saw him as promised by Aphrodite. Menelaus had left for Crete to bury his uncle, Crateus. Hera, still jealous over his judgment, sent a storm. The storm caused the lovers to land in Egypt, where the gods replaced Helen with a likeness of her made of clouds, Nephele. The myth of Helen being switched is attributed to the 6th century BC Sicilian poet Stesichorus. For Homer the true Helen was in Troy. The ship then landed in Sidon before reaching Troy. Paris, fearful of getting caught, spent some time there and then sailed to Troy. Paris' abduction of Helen had several precedents. Io was taken from Mycenae, Europa was taken from Phoenicia, Jason took Medea from Colchis, and the Trojan princess Hesione had been taken by Heracles, who gave her to Telamon of Salamis. According to Herodotus, Paris was emboldened by these examples to steal himself a wife from Greece, and expected no retribution, since there had been none in the other cases. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 15 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City The Gathering of Achaean forces and the First Expedition According to Homer, Menelaus and his ally, Odysseus, traveled to Troy, where they unsuccessfully sought to recover Helen by diplomatic means. Menelaus then asked Agamemnon to uphold his oath. He agreed and sent emissaries to all the Achaean kings and princes to call them to observe their oaths and retrieve Helen. Odysseus and Achilles Since Menelaus's wedding, Odysseus had married Penelope and fathered a son, Telemachus. In order to avoid the war, he feigned madness and sowed his fields with salt. Palamedes outwitted him by placing his infant son in front of the plough's path, and Odysseus turned aside, unwilling to kill his son, so revealing his sanity and forcing him to join the war. According to Homer, however, Odysseus supported the military adventure from the beginning, and traveled the region with Pylos' king, Nestor, to recruit forces. At Scyros, Achilles had an affair with the king's daughter Deidamia, resulting in a child, Neoptolemus. Odysseus, Telamonian Ajax, and Achilles' tutor Phoenix went to retrieve Achilles. Achilles' mother disguised him as a woman so that he would not have to go to war, but, according to one story, they blew a horn, and Achilles revealed himself by seizing a spear to fight intruders, rather than fleeing. According to another story, they disguised themselves as merchants bearing trinkets and weaponry, and Achilles was marked out from the other women for admiring weaponry instead of clothes and jewelry. Pausanias said that, according to Homer, Achilles did not hide in Scyros, but rather conquered the island, as part of the Trojan War. First Gathering at Aulis The Achean forces first gathered at Aulis. All the suitors sent their forces except King Cinyras of Cyprus. Though he sent breastplates to Agamemnon and promised to send 50 ships, he sent only one real ship, led by the son of Mygdalion, and 49 ships made of mud. Idomeneus was willing to lead the Cretan contingent in Mycenae's war against Troy, but only as a co-commander, which he was granted. The last commander to arrive was Achilles, who was then 15 years old. Following a sacrifice to Apollo, a snake slithered from the altar to a sparrow's nest in a plane tree nearby. It ate the mother and her nine babies, and then was turned to stone. Calchas interpreted this as a sign that Troy would fall in the tenth year of the war. Telephus When the Achaeans left for the war, they did not know the way, and accidentally landed in Mysia, ruled by King Telephus, son of Heracles, who had led a contingent of Arcadians to settle there.[53] In the battle, Achilles wounded Telephus, who had killed Thersander. Because the wound would not heal, Telephus asked an oracle, "What will happen to the wound?” The oracle responded, "He that wounded shall heal". The Achaean fleet then set sail and was scattered by a storm. Achilles landed in Scyros and married Deidamia. A new gathering was set again in Aulis. Telephus went to Aulis, and either pretended to be a beggar, asking Agamemnon to help heal his wound, or kidnapped Orestes and held him for ransom, demanding the wound be healed. Achilles refused, claiming to have no medical knowledge. Odysseus reasoned that the spear that had inflicted the wound must be able to heal it. Pieces of the spear were scraped off onto the wound, and Telephus was healed. Telephus then showed the Achaeans the route to Troy. Some scholars have regarded the expedition against Telephus and its resolution as a derivative reworking of elements from the main story of the Trojan War, but it has also been seen as fitting the storyA Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 16 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City pattern of the "preliminary adventure" that anticipates events and themes from the main narrative, and therefore as likely to be "early and integral". The Second Gathering Eight years after the storm had scattered them, the fleet of more than a thousand ships was gathered again. But when they had all reached Aulis, the winds ceased. The prophet Calchas stated that the goddess Artemis was punishing Agamemnon for killing either a sacred deer or a deer in a sacred grove, and boasting that he was a better hunter than she. The only way to appease Artemis, he said, was to sacrifice Iphigenia, who was either the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, or of Helen and Theseus entrusted to Clytemnestra when Helen married Menelaus. Agamemnon refused, and the other commanders threatened to make Palamedes commander of the expedition. According to some versions, Agamemnon relented, but others claim that he sacrificed a deer in her place, or that at the last moment; Artemis took pity on the girl, and took her to be a maiden in one of her temples, substituting a lamb. Hesiod says that Iphigenia became the goddess Hecate. The Achaean forces are described in detail in the Catalogue of Ships, in the second book of the Iliad. They consisted of 28 contingents from mainland Greece, the Peloponnese, the Dodecanese islands, Crete, and Ithaca, comprising 1178 pentekontoroi, ships with 50 rowers. Thucydides says that according to tradition there were about 1200 ships, and that the Boeotian ships had 120 men, while Philoctetes' ships only had the fifty rowers, these probably being maximum and minimum. These numbers would mean a total force of 70,000 to 130,000 men. Another catalogue of ships is given by Apollodorus that differs somewhat but agrees in numbers. Some scholars have claimed that Homer's catalogue is an original Bronze Age document, possibly the Achaean commander's order of operations. Others believe it was a fabrication of Homer. The second book of the Iliad also lists the Trojan allies, consisting of the Trojans themselves, led by Hector, and various allies listed as Dardanians led by Aeneas, Zeleians, Adrasteians, Percotians, Pelasgians, Thracians, Ciconian spearmen, Paionian archers, Halizones, Mysians, Phrygians, Maeonians, Miletians, Lycians led by Sarpedon and Carians. Nothing is said of the Trojan language; the Carians are specifically said to be barbarian-speaking, and the allied contingents are said to have spoken multiple languages, requiring orders to be translated by their individual commanders. It should be noted, however, that the Trojans and Acheans in the Iliad share the same religion, same culture and the enemy heroes speak to each other in the same language, though this could be dramatic effect. Nine Years of War Philoctetes Philoctetes was Heracles' friend, and because he lit Heracles's funeral pyre when no one else would, he received Heracles' bow and arrows. He sailed with seven ships full of men to the Trojan War, where he was planning on fighting for the Acheans. They stopped either at Chryse for supplies, or in Tenedos, along with the rest of the fleet. Philoctetes was then bitten by a snake. The wound festered and had a foul smell; on Odysseus's advice, the Atreidae ordered Philoctetes to stay on Lemnos. Medon took control of Philoctetes's men. While landing on Tenedos, Achilles killed king Tenes, son of Apollo, despite a warning by his mother that if he did so he would be killed himself by Apollo. From Tenedos Agamemnon sent an embassy to Priam composed of Menelaus, Odysseus, and Palamedes asking for Helen's return. The embassy was refused. Philoctetes stayed on Lemnos for ten years, which was a deserted island according to Sophocles' tragedy Philoctetes, but according to earlier tradition, was populated by Minyans. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 17 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Arrival Calchas had prophesied that the first Achean to walk on land after stepping off a ship would be the first to die. Thus even Achilles hesitated to land. Finally, Protesilaus, leader of the Phylaceans, landed first. Achilles jumped second and killed Cycnus, son of Poseidon. The Trojans then fled to the safety of the walls of their city. Protesilaus had killed many Trojans but was killed by either Hector, Aeneas, Achates, or Ephorbus. The Acheans buried him as a god on the Thracian peninsula, across the Troad. After Protesilaus' death, his brother, Podarces, joined the war in his place. Achilles' campaigns The Achaeans besieged Troy for nine years. This part of the war is the least developed among surviving sources, which prefer to talk about events in the last year of the war. After the initial landing the army was gathered in its entirety again only in the tenth year. Thucydides deduces that this was due to lack of money. They raided the Trojan allies and spent time farming the Thracian peninsula. Troy was never completely besieged, thus it maintained communications with the interior of Asia Minor. Reinforcements continued to come until the very end. The Acheans controlled only the entrance to the Dardanelles, and Troy and her allies controlled the shortest point at Abydos and Sestus and communicated with allies in Europe. Achilles was the most active of the Achaeans. According to Homer, he conquered 11 cities and 12 islands. According to Apollodorus, he raided the land of Aeneas in the Troad region and stole his cattle. He also captured Lyrnassus, Pedasus, and many of the neighbouring cities, and killed Troilus, son of Priam, who was still a youth; it was said that if he reached 20 years of age, Troy would not fall. According to Apollodorus, He also took Lesbos and Phocaea, then Colophon, and Smyrna, and Clazomenae, and Cyme; and afterwards Aegialus and Tenos, the so-called Hundred Cities; then, in order, Adramytium and Side; then Endium, and Linaeum, and Colone. He took also Hypoplacian Thebes and Lyrnessus, and further Antandrus, and many other cities. Kakrides comments that the list is wrong in that it extends too far into the south. Other sources talk of Achilles taking Pedasus, Monenia,[88] Mythemna (in Lesbos), and Peisidice. Among the loot from these cities were Briseis, from Lyrnessus, who was awarded to him, and Chryseis, from Hypoplacian Thebes, who was awarded to Agamemnon.[35] Achilles captured Lycaon, son of Priam, while he was cutting branches in his father's orchards. Patroclus sold him as a slave in Lemnos, where he was bought by Eetion of Imbros and brought back to Troy. Only 12 days later Achilles slew him, after the death of Patroclus. Ajax and a Game of Petteia Telamonian Ajax laid waste the Thracian peninsula of which Polymestor, a son-in-law of Priam, was king. Polymestor surrendered Polydorus, one of Priam's children, of whom he had custody. He then attacked the town of the Phrygian king Teleutas, killed him in single combat and carried off his daughter Tecmessa. Ajax also hunted the Trojan flocks, both on Mount Ida and in the countryside. Numerous paintings on pottery have suggested a tale not mentioned in the literary traditions. At some point in the war Achilles and Ajax were playing a board game (petteia). They were absorbed in the game and oblivious to the surrounding battle. The Trojans attacked and reached the heroes, who were only saved by an intervention of Athena. The Death of Palamedes Odysseus was sent to Thrace to return with grain, but came back empty-handed. When scorned by Palamedes, Odysseus challenged him to do better. Palamedes set out and returned with a shipload of grain. Odysseus had never forgiven Palamedes for threatening the life of his son. In revenge, Odysseus conceived a plot where an incriminating letter was forged, from Priam to Palamedes, and gold was planted in A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 18 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Palamedes' quarters. The letter and gold were "discovered", and Agamemnon had Palamedes stoned to death for treason. However, Pausanias, quoting the Cypria, says that Odysseus and Diomedes drowned Palamedes, while he was fishing, and Dictys says that Odysseus and Diomedes lured Palamedes into a well, which they said contained gold, and then stoned him to death. Palamedes' father Nauplius sailed to the Troad and asked for justice, but was refused. In revenge, Nauplius traveled among the Achaean kingdoms and told the wives of the kings that they were bringing Trojan concubines to dethrone them. Many of the Greek wives were persuaded to betray their husbands, most significantly Agamemnon's wife, Clytemnestra, who was seduced by Aegisthus, son of Thyestes. Mutiny Near the end of the ninth year since the landing, the Achean army, tired from the fighting and from the lack of supplies, mutinied against their leaders and demanded to return to their homes. According to the Cypria, Achilles forced the army to stay. According to Apollodorus, Agamemnon brought the Wine Growers, daughters of Anius, son of Apollo, who had the gift of producing by touch wine, wheat, and oil from the earth, in order to relieve the supply problem of the army. The Iliad Chryses, a priest of Apollo and father of Chryseis, came to Agamemnon to ask for the return of his daughter. Agamemnon refused, and insulted Chryses, who prayed to Apollo to avenge his ill-treatment. Enraged, Apollo afflicted the Achaean army with plague. Agamemnon was forced to return Chryseis to end the plague, and took Achilles' concubine Briseis as his own. Enraged at the dishonor Agamemnon had inflicted upon him, Achilles decided he would no longer fight. He asked his mother, Thetis, to intercede with Zeus, who agreed to give the Trojans success in the absence of Achilles, the best warrior of the Achaeans. After the withdrawal of Achilles, the Achaeans were initially successful. Both armies gathered in full for the first time since the landing. Menelaus and Paris fought a duel, which ended when Aphrodite snatched the beaten Paris from the field. With the truce broken, the armies began fighting again. Diomedes won great renown amongst the Achaeans, killing the Trojan hero Pandaros and nearly killing Aeneas, who was only saved by his mother, Aphrodite. With the assistance of Athena, Diomedes then wounded the gods Aphrodite and Ares. During the next days, however, the Trojans drove the Achaeans back to their camp and were stopped at the Achaean wall by Poseidon. The next day, though, with Zeus' help, the Trojans broke into the Achaean camp and were on the verge of setting fire to the Achaean ships. An earlier appeal to Achilles to return was rejected, but after Hector burned Protesilaus' ship, he allowed his close friend and relative Patroclus to go into battle wearing Achilles' armor and lead his army. Patroclus drove the Trojans all the way back to the walls of Troy, and was only prevented from storming the city by the intervention of Apollo. Patroclus was then killed by Hector, who took Achilles' armor from the body of Patroclus. Achilles, maddened with grief, swore to kill Hector in revenge. He was reconciled with Agamemnon and received Briseis back, untouched by Agamemnon. He received a new set of arms, forged by the god Hephaestus, and returned to the battlefield. He slaughtered many Trojans, and nearly killed Aeneas, who was saved by Poseidon. Achilles fought with the river god Scamander, and a battle of the gods followed. The Trojan army returned to the city, except for Hector, who remained outside the walls because he was tricked by Athena. Achilles killed Hector, and afterwards he dragged Hector's body from his chariot and refused to return the body to the Trojans for burial. The Achaeans then conducted funeral games for Patroclus. Afterwards, Priam came to Achilles' tent, guided by Hermes, and asked Achilles to return Hector's body. The armies made a temporary truce to allow the burial of the dead. The Iliad ends with the funeral of Hector. After the Iliad Penthesilea and the Death of Achilles Shortly after the burial of Hector, Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons, arrived with her warriors. Penthesilea, daughter of Otrere and Ares, had accidentally killed her sister Hippolyte. She was purified from A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 19 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City this action by Priam, and in exchange she fought for him and killed many, including Machaon (according to Pausanias, Machaon was killed by Eurypylus), and according to another version, Achilles himself, who was resurrected at the request of Thetis. Penthesilia was then killed by Achilles who fell in love with her beauty after her death. Thersites, a simple soldier and the ugliest Achaean, taunted Achilles over his love and gouged out Penthesilea's eyes. Achilles slew Thersites, and after a dispute sailed to Lesbos, where he was purified for his murder by Odysseus after sacrificing to Apollo, Artemis, and Leto. While they were away, Memnon of Ethiopia, son of Tithonus and Eos, came with his host to help his stepbrother Priam. He did not come directly from Ethiopia, but either from Susa in Persia, conquering all the peoples in between, or from the Caucasus, leading an army of Ethiopians and Indians. Like Achilles, he wore armor made by Hephaestus. In the ensuing battle, Memnon killed Antilochus, who took one of Memnon's blows to save his father Nestor. Achilles and Memnon then fought. Zeus weighed the fate of the two heroes; the weight containing that of Memnon sank, and he was slain by Achilles. Achilles chased the Trojans to their city, which he entered. The gods, seeing that he had killed too many of their children, decided that it was his time to die. He was killed after Paris shot a poisoned arrow that was guided by Apollo. In another version he was killed by a knife to the back (or heel) by Paris, while marrying Polyxena, daughter of Priam, in the temple of Thymbraean Apollo, the site where he had earlier killed Troilus. Both versions conspicuously deny the killer any sort of valour, saying Achilles remained undefeated on the battlefield. His bones were mingled with those of Patroclus, and funeral games were held. Like Ajax, he is represented as living after his death in the island of Leuke, at the mouth of the Danube River, where he is married to Helen. The Judgment of the Arms: Achilles' Armor and the Death of Ajax A great battle raged around the dead Achilles. Odysseus held back the Trojans, while Ajax carried the body away. When Achilles' armour was offered to the smartest warrior, the two that had saved his body came forward as competitors. Agamemnon, unwilling to undertake the invidious duty of deciding between the two competitors, referred the dispute to the decision of the Trojan prisoners, inquiring of them which of the two heroes had done most harm to the Trojans. Alternatively, the Trojans and Pallas Athena were the judges in that, following Nestor's advice; spies were sent to the walls to overhear what was said. A girl said that Ajax was braver: For Aias took up and carried out of the strife the hero, Peleus' son: this great Odysseus cared not to do. To this another replied by Athena's contrivance: Why, what is this you say? A thing against reason and untrue! Even a woman could carry a load once a man had put it on her shoulder; but she could not fight. For she would fail with fear if she should fight. (Scholiast on Aristophanes, Knights 1056 and Aristophanes ib) According to Pindar, the decision was made by secret ballot among the Acheans. In all story versions, the arms were awarded to Odysseus. Driven mad with grief, Ajax desired to kill his comrades, but Athena caused him to mistake the cattle and their herdsmen for the Achean warriors. In his frenzy he scourged two rams, believing them to be Agamemnon and Menelaus. In the morning, he came to his senses and killed himself by jumping on the sword that had been given to him by Hector, so that it pierced his armpit, his only vulnerable part. According to an older tradition, he was killed by the Trojans who, seeing he was invulnerable, attacked him with clay until he was covered by it and could no longer move, thus dying of starvation. The Prophecies After the tenth year, it was prophesized that Troy could not fall without Heracles' bow, which was with Philoctetes in Lemnos. Odysseus and Diomedes retrieved Philoctetes, whose wound had healed. Philoctetes then shot and killed Paris. According to Apollodorus, Paris' brothers Helenus and Deiphobus vied over the hand of Helen. Deiphobus prevailed, and Helenus abandoned Troy for Mt. Ida. Chalcas said that Helenus knew the prophecies concerning the fall of Troy, so Odysseus waylaid Helenus. Under coercion, Helenus told the Acheans that they would win if they retrieved Pelops' bones, persuaded Achilles' son Neoptolemus to fight for them, and stole the Trojan Palladium. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 20 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City The Greeks retrieved Pelop's bones, and sent Odysseus to retrieve Neoptolemus, who was hiding from the war in King Lycomedes's court in Scyros. Odysseus gave him his father's arms. Eurypylus, son of Telephus, leading, according to Homer, a large force of Kêteioi, or Hittites or Mysians according to Apollodorus, arrived to aid the Trojans. He killed Machaon and Peneleus, but was slain by Neoptolemus. Disguised as a beggar, Odysseus went to spy inside Troy, but was recognized by Helen. Homesick, Helen plotted with Odysseus. Later, with Helen's help, Odysseus and Diomedes stole the Palladium. Trojan Horse The end of the war came with one final plan. Odysseus devised a new ruse—a giant hollow wooden horse, an animal that was sacred to the Trojans. It was built by Epeius and guided by Athena, from the wood of a cornel tree grove sacred to Apollo, with the inscription: The Greeks dedicate this thank-offering to Athena for their return home. The hollow horse was filled with soldiers led by Odysseus. The rest of the army burned the camp and sailed for Tenedos. When the Trojans discovered that the Greeks were gone, believing the war was over, they "joyfully dragged the horse inside the city", while they debated what to do with it. Some thought they ought to hurl it down from the rocks, others thought they should burn it, while others said they ought to dedicate it to Athena. Both Cassandra and Laocoön warned against keeping the horse. While Cassandra had been given the gift of prophecy by Apollo, she was also cursed by Apollo to never be believed. Serpents then came out of the sea and devoured either Laocoön and one of his two sons, Laocoön and both his sons, or only his sons, a portent which so alarmed the followers of Aeneas that they withdrew to Ida. The Trojans decided to keep the horse and turned to a night of mad revelry and celebration. Sinon, an Achaean spy, signaled the fleet stationed at Tenedos when "it was midnight and the clear moon was rising" and the soldiers from inside the horse emerged and killed the guards. The Sack of Troy The Acheans entered the city and killed the sleeping population. A great massacre followed which continued into the day. Blood ran in torrents, drenched was all the earth, As Trojans and their alien helpers died. Here were men lying quelled by bitter death All up and down the city in their blood. The Trojans, fuelled with desperation, fought back fiercely, despite being disorganized and leaderless. With the fighting at its height, some donned fallen enemies' attire and launched surprise counterattacks in the chaotic street fighting. Other defenders hurled down roof tiles and anything else heavy down on the rampaging attackers. The outlook was grim though, and eventually the remaining defenders were destroyed along with the whole city. Neoptolemus killed Priam, who had taken refuge at the altar of Zeus of the Courtyard. Menelaus killed Deiphobus, Helen's husband after Paris' death, and also intended to kill Helen, but, overcome by her beauty, threw down his sword and took her to the ships. Ajax the Lesser raped Cassandra on Athena's altar while she was clinging to her statue. Because of Ajax's impiety, the Acheaens, urged by Odysseus, wanted to stone him to death, but he fled to Athena's altar, and was spared. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 21 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Antenor, who had given hospitality to Menelaus and Odysseus when they asked for the return of Helen, and who had advocated so, was spared, along with his family. Aeneas took his father on his back and fled, and, according to Apollodorus, was allowed to go because of his piety. The Greeks then burned the city and divided the spoils. Cassandra was awarded to Agamemnon. Neoptolemus got Andromache, wife of Hector, and Odysseus was given Hecuba, Priam's wife. The Achaeans threw Hector's infant son Astyanax down from the walls of Troy, either out of cruelty and hate or to end the royal line, and the possibility of a son's revenge. They (by usual tradition Neoptolemus) also sacrificed the Trojan princess Polyxena on the grave of Achilles as demanded by his ghost, either as part of his spoil or because she had betrayed him. Aethra, Theseus' mother, and one of Helen's handmaids, was rescued by her grandsons, Demophon and Acamas. The Returns The gods were very angry over the destruction of their temples and other sacrilegious acts by the Acheans, and decided that most would not return home. A storm fell on the returning fleet off Tenos island. Additionally, Nauplius, in revenge for the murder of his son Palamedes, set up false lights in Cape Caphereus (also known today as Cavo D'Oro, in Euboea) and many were shipwrecked. Nestor, who had the best conduct in Troy and did not take part in the looting, was the only hero who had a fast and safe return. Those of his army that survived the war also reached home with him safely, but later left and colonised Metapontium in Southern Italy. Ajax the Lesser, who had endured more than the others the wrath of the Gods, never returned. His ship was wrecked by a storm sent by Athena, who borrowed one of Zeus' thunderbolts and tore it to pieces. The crew managed to land in a rock, but Poseidon struck it, and Ajax fell in the sea and drowned. He was buried by Thetis in Myconos or Delos. Teucer, son of Telamon and half-brother of Ajax, stood trial by his father for his half-brother's death. He was not allowed to land and was at sea near Phreattys in Peiraeus. He was acquitted of responsibility but found guilty of negligence because he did not return his dead body or his arms. He left with his army (who took their wives) and founded Salamis in Cyprus. The Athenians later created a political myth that his son left his kingdom to Theseus' sons (and not to Megara). Neoptolemus, following the advice of Helenus, who accompanied him when he traveled over land, was always accompanied by Andromache. He met Odysseus and they buried Phoenix, Achilles' teacher, on the land of the Ciconians. They then conquered the land of the Molossians (Epirus) and Neoptolemus had a child by Andromache, Molossus, to whom he later gave the throne. Thus the kings of Epirus claimed their lineage from Achilles, and so did Alexander the Great, whose mother was of that royal house. Alexander the Great and the kings of Macedon also claimed to be descended from Heracles. Helenus founded a city in Molossia and inhabited it, and Neoptolemus gave him his mother Deidamia as wife. After Peleus died he succeeded Phtia's throne. He had a feud with Orestes, son of Agamemnon, over Menelaus' daughter Hermione, and was killed in Delphi, where he was buried. In Roman myths, the kingdom of Phtia was taken over by Helenus, who married Andromache. They offered hospitality to other Trojan refugees, including Aeneas, who paid a visit there during his wanderings. Diomedes was first thrown by a storm on the coast of Lycia, where he was to be sacrificed to Ares by king Lycus, but Callirrhoe, the king's daughter, took pity upon him, and assisted him in escaping. He then accidentally landed in Attica, in Phaleron. The Athenians, unaware that they were allies, attacked them. Many were killed, and Demophon took the Palladium. He finally landed in Argos, where he found his wife Aegialeia committing adultery. In disgust, he left for Aetolia. According to later traditions, he had some adventures and founded Canusium and Argyrippa in Southern Italy. Philoctetes, due to sedition, was driven from his city and immigrated to Italy, where he founded the cities of Petilia, Old Crimissa, and Chone, between Croton and Thurii. After making war on the Leucanians he founded there a sanctuary of Apollo the Wanderer, to whom also he dedicated his bow. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 22 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City According to Homer, Idomeneus reached his house safe and sound. Another tradition later formed. After the war, Idomeneus's ship hit a horrible storm. Idomeneus promised Poseidon that he would sacrifice the first living thing he saw when he returned home if Poseidon would save his ship and crew. The first living thing he saw was his son, whom Idomeneus duly sacrificed. The gods were angry at his murder of his own son and they sent a plague to Crete. His people sent him into exile to Calabria in Italy, and then to Colophon, in Asia Minor, where he died. Among the lesser Acheans very few reached their homes. House of Atreus According to the Odyssey, Menelaus's fleet was blown by storms to Crete and Egypt, where they were unable to sail away due to calm winds. Only five of his ships survived. Menelaus had to catch Proteus, a shape-shifting sea god, to find out what sacrifices to which gods he would have to make to guarantee safe passage. According to some stories the Helen who was taken by Paris was a fake, and the real Helen was in Egypt, where she was reunited with Menelaus. Proteus also told Menelaus that he was destined for Elysium (Heaven) after his death. Menelaus returned to Sparta with Helen eight years after he had left Troy. Agamemnon returned home with Cassandra to Argos. His wife Clytemnestra (Helen's sister) was having an affair with Aegisthus, son of Thyestes, Agamemnon's cousin who had conquered Argos before Agamemnon himself retook it. Possibly out of vengeance for the death of Iphigenia, Clytemnestra plotted with her lover to kill Agamemnon. Cassandra foresaw this murder, and warned Agamemnon, but he disregarded her. He was killed, either at a feast or in his bath, according to different versions. Cassandra was also killed. Agamemnon's son Orestes, who had been away, returned and conspired with his sister Electra to avenge their father. He killed Clytemnestra and Aegisthus and succeeded to his father's throne. The Odyssey Odysseus' ten year journey home to Ithaca was told in Homer's Odyssey. Odysseus and his men were blown far off course to lands unknown to the Achaeans; there Odysseus had many adventures, including the famous encounter with the Cyclops Polyphemus, and an audience with the seer Teiresias in Hades. On the island of Thrinacia, Odysseus' men ate the cattle sacred to the sun-god Helios. For this sacrilege Odysseus' ships were destroyed, and all his men perished. Odysseus had not eaten the cattle, and was allowed to live; he washed ashore on the island of Ogygia, and lived there with the nymph Calypso. After seven years, the gods decided to send Odysseus home; on a small raft, he sailed to Scheria, the home of the Phaeacians, who gave him passage to Ithaca. Once in his home land, Odysseus traveled disguised as an old beggar. He was recognized by his dog, Argos, who died in his lap. He then discovered that his wife, Penelope, had been faithful to him during the 20 years he was absent, despite the countless suitors that were eating his food and spending his property. With the help of his son Telemachus, Athena, and Eumaeus, the swineherd, he killed all of them except Medon, who had been polite to Penelope, and Phemius, a local singer who had only been forced to help the suitors against Penelope. Penelope tested him and made sure it was him, and he forgave her. The next day the suitors' relatives tried to take revenge on him but they were stopped by Athena. The Telegony The Telegony picks up where the Odyssey leaves off, beginning with the burial of the dead suitors, and continues until the death of Odysseus. Some years after Odysseus' return, Telegonus, the son of Odysseus and Circe, came to Ithaca and plundered the island. Odysseus, attempting to fight off the attack, was killed by his unrecognized son. After Telegonus realized he had killed his father, he brought the body to his mother Circe, along with Telemachus and Penelope. Circe made them immortal; then Telegonus married Penelope and Telemachus married Circe. The Aeneid Aeneas led a group of survivors away from the city, including his son Ascanius, his trumpeter Misenus, father Anchises, the healer Iapyx, all the Lares, and Penates and Mimas as a guide. His wife Creusa was killed during the sack of the city. They fled Troy with a number of ships, seeking to establish a new homeland elsewhere. They landed in several nearby countries that proved inhospitable, and were finally told by A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 23 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City a sibyl that they had to return to the land of their forebears. They first tried to establish themselves in Crete, where Dardanus had once settled, but found it ravaged by the same plague that had driven Idomeneus away. They found the colony led by Helenus and Andromache, but declined to remain. After seven years they arrived in Carthage, where Aeneas had an affair with Dido. Eventually the gods ordered him to continue onward (Dido committed suicide), and he and his people arrived at the mouth of the Tiber River in Italy. There, a sibyl took him to the underworld and foretold the majesty of Rome, which would be founded by his people. He negotiated a settlement with the local king, Lavinius, and was wed to his daughter, Lavinia. This triggered a war with other local tribes, which culminated in the founding of the settlement of Alba Longa, ruled by Aeneas and Lavinia's son Silvius. Three hundred years later, according to Roman myth, his descendants Romulus and Remus founded Rome. The details of the journey of Aeneas, his affair with Dido, and his settling in Italy are the subject of the Roman epic poem The Aeneid by Virgil. According to tradition, though, Carthage was founded in 814 BC, so the true Aeneas, if he had ventured to the West he would have found little more than villages. Greek Earliest Heroes and Legends I. Jason and the Quest of the Golden Fleece Jason (Greek: Ἰάσων, Etruscan: Easun, Laz: Yason) was a late ancient Greek mythological figure, famous as the leader of the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece. He was the son of Aeson, the rightful king of Iolcus. He was married to the sorceress Medea. Jason is considered to be one of the heroes of Greek mythology, along with such others as Herakles and Odysseus. Jason appeared in various literatures in the classical world of Greece and Rome, including the epic poem Argonautica and tragedian play, Medea. In the modern world, Jason has emerged as a character in various adaptations of his myths, such as the film Jason and the Argonauts. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 24 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Jason has connections outside of the classical world, as he is seen as being the mythical founder of the city of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. The Quest for the Golden Fleece Jason assembled a great group of heroes, known as the Argonauts after their ship, the Argo. The group of heroes included the Boreads (sons of Boreas, the North Wind) who could fly, Heracles, Philoctetes, Peleus, Telamon, Orpheus, Castor and Pollux, Atalanta, and Euphemus. The Isle of Lemnos The isle of Lemnos is situated off the Western coast of Asia Minor (modern day Turkey). The island was inhabited by a race of women who had killed their husbands. The women had neglected their worship of Aphrodite, and as a punishment the goddess made the women so foul in stench that their husbands couldn't bear to be near them. The men then took concubines from the Thracian mainland opposite, and the spurned women, angry at Aphrodite, killed every male inhabitant while they slept. The king, Thoas, was saved by Hypsipyle, his daughter, who put him out to sea sealed in a chest from which he was later rescued. The women of Lemnos lived for a while without men, with Hypsipyle as their queen. During the visit of the Argonauts the women mingled with the men creating a new "race" called Minyae. Jason fathered twins with the queen. Heracles pressured them to leave as he was disgusted by the antics of the Argonauts. He hadn't taken part, which is truly unusual considering the numerous affairs he had with other women. Kyzicos After Lemnos the Argonauts landed among the Doliones, whose king Kyzicos treated them graciously. The Argonauts departed, losing their bearings and landing again at the same spot that night. In the darkness, the Doliones took them for enemies and they started fighting each other. The Argonauts killed many of the Doliones, among them the king Kyzicos. Kyzicos' wife killed herself. The Argonauts realized their horrible mistake when dawn came. Mysia When the Argonauts reached Mysia, they sent some men to find food and water. Among these men was Heracles' servant, Hylas. The nymphs of the stream where Hylas was collecting were attracted to his good looks, and pulled him into the stream. Heracles returned to his Labors, but Hylas was lost forever. Others say that Heracles went to Colchis with the Argonauts and he got the Golden Girdle of the Amazons and slew the Stymphalian Birds at that time. Phineus and the Harpies Soon Jason reached the court of Phineus of Salmydessus in Thrace. Phineus had been given the gift of prophecy by Apollo, but was later given the choice of being blind and having a long life, or having sight and having a short life, for revealing to humans the deliberations of the gods. He chose to be blind. Helios the sun god sent the Harpies, creatures with the body of a bird and the head of a woman; to prevent Phineus from eating any more than what was necessary to live, because he was enraged that Phineus had chosen to live in a continual state of darkness than live in the sun he provided. Jason took pity on the emaciated king and killed the Harpies when they returned (In other versions Calais and Zetes chase the Harpies away). In return for this favor, Phineus revealed to Jason the location of Colchis and how to cross the Symplegades, or The Clashing Rocks, and then they parted. The Symplegades The only way to reach Colchis was to sail through the Symplegades (Clashing Rocks), huge rock cliffs that came together and crushed anything that traveled between them. Phineus told Jason to release a dove when they approached these islands, and if the dove made it through, to row with all their might. If the dove A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 25 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City was crushed, he was doomed to fail. Jason released the dove as advised, which made it through, losing only a few tail feathers. Seeing this, they rowed strongly and made it through with minor damage at the extreme stern of the ship. From that time on, the clashing rocks were forever joined leaving free passage for others to pass. The Arrival in Colchis Jason arrived in Colchis (modern Black Sea coast of Georgia) to claim the fleece as his own. King Aeetes of Colchis promised to give it to him only if he could perform three certain tasks. Presented with the tasks, Jason became discouraged and fell into depression. However, Hera had persuaded Aphrodite to convince her son Eros to make Aeetes's daughter, Medea, fall in love with Jason. As a result, Medea aided Jason in his tasks. First, Jason had to plow a field with fire-breathing oxen, the Khalkotauroi that he had to yoke himself. Medea provided an ointment that protected him from the oxen's flames. Then, Jason sowed the teeth of a dragon into a field. The teeth sprouted into an army of warriors. Medea had previously warned Jason of this and told him how to defeat this foe. Before they attacked him, he threw a rock into the crowd. Unable to discover where the rock had come from, the soldiers attacked and defeated one another. His last task was to overcome the Sleepless Dragon which guarded the Golden Fleece. Jason sprayed the dragon with a potion, given by Medea, diluted from herbs. The dragon fell asleep, and Jason was able to seize the Golden Fleece. He then sailed away with Medea. Medea had to distract her father, who chased them, as they fled by killing her brother Apsyrtus and throwing pieces of his body into the sea, which Aeetes had to stop for and gather. In another version, Medea lured Apsyrtus into a trap. Jason kills him, chops off his fingers and toes, and buries the corpse. In any case, Jason and Medea escaped. Return journey On the way back to Iolcus, Medea prophesised to Euphemus, the Argo's helmsman, that one day he would rule Libya. This came true through Battus, a descendant of Euphemus. Zeus, as punishment for the slaughter of Medea's own brother, sent a series of storms at the Argo and blew it off course. The Argo then spoke and said that they should seek purification with Circe, a nymph living on the island called Aeaea. After being cleansed, they continued their journey home. Sirens Chiron had told Jason that without the aid of Orpheus, the Argonauts would never be able to pass the Sirens — the same Sirens encountered by Odysseus in Homer's epic poem the Odyssey. The Sirens lived on three small, rocky islands called Sirenum scopuli and sang beautiful songs that enticed sailors to come to them, which resulted in the crashing of their ship into the islands. When Orpheus heard their voices, he drew his lyre and played music that was more beautiful and louder, drowning out the Sirens' bewitching songs. Talos The Argo then came to the island of Crete, guarded by the bronze man, Talos. As the ship approached, Talos hurled huge stones at the ship, keeping it at bay. Talos had one blood vessel which went from his neck to his ankle, bound shut by only one bronze nail (as in metal casting by the lost wax method). Medea cast a spell on Talos to calm him; she removed the bronze nail and Talos bled to death. The Argo was then able to sail on. Jason returns Medea, using her sorcery, claimed to Pelias' daughters that she could make their father younger by chopping him up into pieces and boiling the pieces in a cauldron of water and magical herbs. She demonstrated this remarkable feat with a sheep, which leapt out of the cauldron as a lamb. The girls, rather naively, sliced and diced their father and put him in the cauldron. Medea did not add the magical herbs, and Pelias was dead. It should be noted that Thomas Bulfinch has an antecedent to the interaction of Medea and the daughters of Pelias. Jason, celebrating his return with the Golden Fleece, noted that his father was too aged and infirm to participate in the celebrations. He had seen and been served by Medea's magical powers. He asked A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 26 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Medea to take some years from his life and add them to the life of his father. She did so, but at no such cost to Jason's life. {See Thomas Bulfinch, page 134; compare to Shakespeare's witches in Macbeth.} Pelias' daughters saw this and wanted the same service for their father.] Pelias' son, Acastus, drove Jason and Medea into exile for the murder, and the couple settled in Corinth. Treachery of Jason In Corinth, Jason became engaged to marry Creusa (sometimes referred to as Glauce), a daughter of the King of Corinth, to strengthen his political ties. When Medea confronted Jason about the engagement and cited all the help she had given him, he retorted that it was not she that he should thank, but Aphrodite who made Medea fall in love with him. Infuriated with Jason for breaking his vow that he would be hers forever, Medea took her revenge by presenting to Creusa a cursed dress, as a wedding gift, that stuck to her body and burned her to death as soon as she put it on. Creusa's father, Creon, burned to death with his daughter as he tried to save her. Then Medea killed the two boys that she bore to Jason, fearing that they would be murdered or enslaved as a result of their mother's actions. When Jason came to know of this, Medea was already gone; she fled to Athens in a chariot sent by her grandfather, the sun-god Helios. Later Jason and Peleus, father of the hero Achilles, would attack and defeat Acastus, reclaiming the throne of Iolcus for himself once more. Jason's son, Thessalus, then became king. Because he broke his vow to love Medea forever, Jason lost his favor with Hera and died lonely and unhappy. He was asleep under the stern of the rotting Argo when it fell on him, killing him instantly. The manner of his death was due to the deities cursing him for breaking his promise to Medea. II. Heracles (Hercules) and his 12 labors In Greek mythology, Heracles or Herakles (pronounced /ˈhɛrəkliːz/ HER-ə-kleez) meaning "glory of Hera", or "Glorious through Hera" Alcides or Alcaeus (original name) ("Ἥρα + κλέος, Ἡρακλῆς)" was a divine hero, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of Amphitryon and great-grandson (and halfbrother) of Perseus. He was the greatest of the Greek heroes, a paragon of masculinity, the ancestor of royal clans who claimed to be Heracleidae and a champion of the Olympian order against chthonic monsters. In Rome and the modern West, he is known as Hercules, with whom the later Roman Emperors, in particular Commodus and Maximian, often identified themselves. The Romans adopted the Greek version of his life and works essentially unchanged, but added anecdotal detail of their own, some of it linking the hero with the geography of the Central Mediterranean. Details of his cult were adapted to Rome as well. Extraordinary strength, courage, ingenuity, and sexual prowess with both males and females were among his characteristic attributes. Although he was not as clever as the likes of Odysseus or Nestor, Heracles used his wits on several occasions when his strength did not suffice, such as when laboring for the A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 27 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City king Augeas of Elis, wrestling the giant Antaeus, or tricking Atlas into taking the sky back onto his shoulders. Together with Hermes he was the patron and protector of gymnasia and palaestrae. His iconographic attributes are the lion skin and the club. These qualities did not prevent him from being regarded as a playful figure that used games to relax from his labors and played a great deal with children. By conquering dangerous archaic forces he is said to have "made the world safe for mankind" and to be its benefactor. Heracles was an extremely passionate and emotional individual, capable of doing both great deeds for his friends (such as wrestling with Thanatos on behalf of Prince Admetus, who had regaled Heracles with his hospitality, or restoring his friend Tyndareus to the throne of Sparta after he was overthrown) and being a terrible enemy who would wreak horrible vengeance on those who crossed him, as Augeas, Neleus and Laomedon all found out to their cost. Birth and childhood A major factor in the well-known tragedies surrounding Heracles is the hatred that the goddess Hera, wife of Zeus, had for him. A full account of Heracles must render it clear why Heracles was so tormented by Hera, when there are many illegitimate offspring sired by Zeus. Heracles was the son of the affair Zeus had with the mortal woman Alcmene. Zeus made love to her after disguising himself as her husband, Amphitryon, home early from war (Amphitryon did return later the same night, and Alcmene became pregnant with his son at the same time, a case of heteropaternal superfecundation, where a woman carries twins sired by different fathers). Thus, Heracles' very existence proved at least one of Zeus' many illicit affairs, and Hera often conspired against Zeus' mortal offspring, as revenge for her husband's infidelities. His twin mortal brother, son of Amphitryon was Iphicles, father of Heracles' charioteer Iolaus. On the night the twins Heracles and Iphicles were to be born, Hera, knowing of her husband Zeus' adultery, persuaded Zeus to swear an oath that the child born that night to a member of the House of Perseus would be High King. Hera did this knowing that while Heracles was to be born a descendant of Perseus, so too was Eurystheus. Once the oath was sworn, Hera hurried to Alcmene's dwelling and slowed the birth of Heracles by forcing Ilithyia, goddess of childbirth, to sit crosslegged with her clothing tied in knots, thereby causing Heracles to be trapped in the womb. Meanwhile, Hera caused Eurystheus to be born prematurely, making him High King in place of Heracles. She would have permanently delayed Heracles' birth had she not been fooled by Galanthis, Alcmene's servant, who lied to Ilithyia, saying that Alcmene had already delivered the baby. Upon hearing this, she jumped in surprise, untying the knots and inadvertently allowing Alcmene to give birth to her twins, Heracles and Iphicles. The child was originally given the name Alcides by his parents; it was only later that he became known as Heracles. He was renamed Heracles in an unsuccessful attempt to mollify Hera. A few months after he was born, Hera sent two serpents to kill him as he lay in his cot. Heracles throttled a snake in each hand and was found by his nurse playing with their limp bodies as if they were child's toys. Youth After killing his music tutor Linus with a lyre, he was sent to tend cattle on a mountain by his foster father Amphitryon. Here, according to an allegorical parable, "The Choice of Heracles", invented by the sophist Prodicus (ca. 400 BC), he was visited by two nymphs—Pleasure and Virtue—who offered him a choice between a pleasant and easy life or a severe but glorious life: he chose the latter. Later in Thebes, Heracles married King Creon's daughter, Megara. In a fit of madness, induced by Hera, Heracles killed his children by Megara. After his madness had been cured with hellebore by Antikyreus, the founder of Antikyra, he realized what he had done and fled to the Oracle of Delphi. Unbeknownst to him, the Oracle was guided by Hera. He was directed to serve King Eurystheus for ten years and perform any task, which he required. Eurystheus decided to give Heracles ten labours but after completing them, he said he cheated and added two more, resulting in the Twelve Labors of Heracles. Labours of Heracles 1. To kill the Nemean lion. 2. To destroy the Lernaean Hydra. 3. To capture the Ceryneian Hind. 4. To capture the Erymanthian Boar. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 28 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City 5. To clean the Augean Stables. 6. To kill the Stymphalian Birds. 7. To capture the Cretan Bull. 8. To round up the Mares of Diomedes. 9. To steal the Girdle of Hippolyte. 10. To herd the Cattle of Geryon. 11. To fetch the Apples of Hesperides. 12. To capture Cerberus. The First Labor of Heracles The first of Heracles' twelve labors, set by King Eurystheus (his cousin) was to slay the Nemean lion and bring back its skin. Heracles wandered the areas until he came upon the town of Cleonae. If Heracles slew the Nemean lion (who lived in a cave) and returned alive within 30 days of leaving, they would sacrifice a lion to Zeus, the king of all the ancient Greek gods. If he did not return within 30 days or he died, however, the boy would sacrifice himself to Zeus. While he was looking for the lion, he made arrows to use against it, not knowing that it was impervious. When he found the lion, he started shooting arrows at the lion, but the lion would not die. After some time Heracles made the lion return to his cave. The cave had two entrances, one of which Heracles blocked; he then entered the other. Because of the fact that the lion's skin was impenetrable, Heracles was forced to stun the beast with his club and strangled it. He then used the lion's own claws to cut off its pelt. There is another version that says that Hercules tried to shoot it with arrows, and he eventually shot it in the throat and killed it. When he returned to the King, King Eurystheus was shocked. He gave Heracles the lion's invincible pelt to wear as a cloak, but warned Heracles that the tasks set for him would become increasingly difficult. Heracles completed this task over the course of three months when he was eighteen years old. The Second Labor of Hercules Upon reaching the swamp near Lake Lerna, where the Hydra dwelt, Hercules covered his mouth and nose with a cloth to protect himself from the poisonous fumes. He fired flaming arrows into its lair, the spring of Amymone, a deep cave that it only came out of to terrorize neighboring villages. He then confronted it, wielding a harvesting sickle (according to some early vase-paintings) or a sword. Ruck and Staples (p. 170) have pointed out that the chthonic creature's reaction was botanical: upon cutting off each of its heads he found that two grew back, an expression of the hopelessness of such a struggle for any but the hero, Hercules. The weakness of the Hydra was that only one of its heads was immortal. The details of the struggle are explicit in Apollodorus (2.5.2): realizing that he could not defeat the Hydra in this way, Hercules called on his nephew Iolaus for help. His nephew then came upon the idea (possibly inspired by Athena) of using a burning firebrand to scorch the neck stumps after each decapitation. Hercules cut off each head and Iolaus cauterized the open stumps. Its one immortal head Hercules placed under a great rock on the sacred way between Lerna and Elaius (Kerenyi 1959:144), and dipped his arrows in the Hydra's poisonous blood, and so his second task was complete. The alternative to this is that after cutting off one head he dipped his sword in it and used its venom to burn each head so it couldn't grow back. Hercules later used an arrow dipped in the Hydra's poisonous blood to kill the centaur Nessus; and Nessus's tainted blood was applied to the Tunic of Nessus, by which the centaur had his posthumous revenge. Both Strabo and Pausanias report that the stench of the river Anigrus in Elis, making all the fish of the river inedible, was reputed to be due to the Hydra's poison, washed from the arrows Hercules used on the centaur. When Eurystheus, the agent of ancient Hera who was assigning The Twelve Labours to Hercules, found out that it was Hercules' nephew Iolaus who had handed him the firebrand, he declared that the A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 29 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City labor had not been completed alone and as a result did not count towards the ten labors set for him. The mythic element is an equivocating attempt to resolve the submerged conflict between an ancient ten Labors and a more recent twelve. The Third Labor of Heracles Eurystheus was greatly angered to find that Heracles had managed to escape death on the previous two labors, and so decided to spend more time thinking up a third task that would spell doom for the hero. The third task did not involve killing a beast, as it had already been established that Heracles could overcome even the most fearsome opponents, so Eurystheus decided to make him capture the remaining Ceryneian Hind as the hind was so fast it could outrun an arrow. After beginning the search, Heracles awoke from sleeping and he could see the hind from the glint on its antlers. Heracles then chased the hind on foot for a full year through Greece, Thrace, Istria and the land of the Hyperboreans. In some versions, he captured the hind while it slept, rendering it lame with a trap net. In other versions, he encountered Artemis in her temple and she told him to leave the hind and tell Eurystheus all that had happened and his third labor would be considered to be completed. Eurystheus had given Heracles this task hoping to incite Artemis' anger at Heracles for his desecration of her sacred animal. As he was returning with the hind, Heracles encountered Artemis and her twin, Apollo. He begged the goddess for forgiveness, explaining that he had to catch it as part of his penance, but he promised to return it. Artemis forgave him, foiling Eurystheus' plan to have her punish him. Upon bringing the hind to Eurystheus, he was told that it was to become part of the King's menagerie. Heracles knew that he had to return the hind as he had promised, so he agreed to hand it over on the condition that Eurystheus himself come out and take it from him. The King came out, but the moment Heracles let the hind go, it sprinted back to its mistress, and Heracles left saying that Eurystheus had not been quick enough. The Fourth Labor of Heracles Heracles' fourth labor—by some counts, for there is no single definitive telling—was to capture the Boar. On the way there, Heracles visited Pholus ("caveman"), a kind and hospitable centaur and old friend. Heracles ate with him in his cavern—though the centaur devoured his meat raw—and asked for wine. Pholus had only one jar of wine, a gift from Dionysus to all the centaurs on Mt Erymanthus. Heracles convinced him to open it, and the smell attracted the other centaurs. They did not understand that wine needs to be tempered with water, became drunk, and attacked. Heracles shot at them with his poisonous arrows, and the centaurs retreated all the way to Chiron's cave. Pholus was curious why the arrows caused so much death, and picked one up but dropped it, and the arrow stabbed his foot, poisoning him. A stray arrow hit Chiron as well, but Chiron was immortal, although he still felt the pain. Chiron's pain was so great, he volunteered to give up his immortality, and take the place of Prometheus, who had been chained in Tartarus (part of the underworld), although he was an immortal Titan. Prometheus' torturer, the eagle, continued its torture on Chiron, so Heracles shot it dead with an arrow. It is generally accepted that the tale was meant to show Heracles as being the recipient of Chiron's surrendered immortality. The tale of the Centaurs sometimes appears in other parts of the twelve labors, as does the freeing of Prometheus. Heracles had visited Chiron to gain advice on how to catch the boar, and Chiron had told him to drive it into thick snow, which sets this Labor in mid-winter. Having successfully caught the Boar, Heracles bound it and carried it back to Eurystheus, who was frightened of it and ducked down in his half-buried storage pithos, begging Heracles to get rid of the beast, a favorite subject for the vase-painters. Heracles obliged. The Fifth Labor of Heracles The fifth of the Twelve Labors set to Hercules was to clean the Augean stables in a single day. This assignment was intended to be both humiliating (rather than impressive, as had the previous labors) and A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 30 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City impossible, since the livestock were divinely healthy, i.e., immortal, and therefore produced an enormous quantity of dung. However, Heracles succeeded by rerouting the rivers Alpheus and Peneus to wash out the filth. Augeas was irate because he had promised Heracles one-tenth of his cattle if the job was finished in one day. He refused to honor the agreement, and Heracles killed him after completing the tasks and gave his kingdom to Augeas' son, Phyleus, who had been exiled for supporting Heracles against his father. According to the Odes of the poet Pindar, Heracles then founded the Olympic Games: the games which by the ancient tomb of Pelops the mighty Heracles founded, after that he slew Kleatos, Poseidon's godly son, and slew also Eurytos, that he might wrest from tyrannous Augeas against his will reward for service done. The success of this labor was ultimately discounted because the rushing waters had done the work of cleaning the stables and because Hercules was paid. The Sixth Labor of Heracles The fifth of the labors of Hercules was to rid Lake Stymphalus in Arcadia of its vast flocks of man-eating birds. These Stymphalian birds had claws, beaks and wings of bronze and they were fed on both humans and beasts. With the assistance of Athena, who lent him a pair of bronze castanets forged by Hephaestus, Hercules drove the birds far away from Arcadia: The noise of the clattering castanets frightened the birds, which flew as one into the air. Hercules shot with his arrows a great many of them, while the others quickly fled the scene. They were said to find shelter in a faraway island which belonged to Ares, the god of war. There, they were later to be encountered by Jason and the Argonauts. The Seventh Labor of Heracles Heracles was compelled to capture the bull as his seventh task. He sailed to Crete, whereupon the King of Crete, Minos, gave Heracles permission to take the bull away, as it had been wreaking havoc on Crete. Heracles used his hands to strangle the bull, and then shipped it back to Athens. Eurystheus wanted to sacrifice the bull to Hera, who hated Heracles. She refused the sacrifice because it reflected glory on Heracles. The bull was released and wandered into Marathon, becoming known as the Marathonian Bull. Some stories say that Heracles, along with Theseus, killed King Minos' Minotaur as the seventh labour. The Eighth Labor of Heracles One of the Twelve Labors of Heracles was to steal the Mares. In one version of the story, Heracles brought a number of youths to help him. They took the mares and were chased by Diomedes and his men. Heracles was not aware that the horses, called Podagros (the fast), Lampon (the shining), Xanthos (the blond) and Deinos (the terrible), were kept tethered to a bronze manger because they were wild; their madness being attributed to an unnatural diet of human flesh. Some versions say that they expelled fire when they breathed, they were man-eating and uncontrollable, and Heracles left his favoured companion, Abderus, in charge of them while he fought Diomedes, but that the boy was eaten. In revenge, Heracles fed Diomedes to his own horses, and then founded Abdera next to the boy's tomb. In another version, Heracles stayed awake so that he didn't have his throat cut by Diomedes in the night, and cut the chains binding the horses. Having scared the horses onto the high ground of a peninsula, Heracles quickly dug a trench through the peninsula, filling it with water, thus making it an island. When A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 31 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Diomedes arrived, Heracles killed him with an axe (the one used to dig the trench), and fed the body to the horses to calm them. Both versions have eating make the horses calmer and Heracles took the opportunity to bind their mouths shut, and easily took them back to King Eurystheus, who dedicated the horses to Hera. In some versions, they were allowed to roam freely around Argos, having become permanently calm, but in others, Eurystheus ordered the horses taken to Olympus to be sacrificed to Zeus, but Zeus refused them, and sent wolves, lions, and bears to kill them. The Ninth Labor of Heracles Heracles' ninth labor for the oracle of Apollo was to obtain Hippolyta's girdle. Hippolyta was so intrigued by Heracles' muscles and lion skin that she gave him the girdle without a fight. In one version of the story, Hera, disguised as an Amazon, spread rumors among the Amazons that Hercules was trying to kidnap their queen. The Amazons attacked him, so Hercules killed Hippolyta in a rage, assuming that she had betrayed him. In another version, she survived and was abducted by Theseus, who made her his wife. Another variant state that Queen Hippolyta was killed by her own subjects, but it was only because Hera told them Heracles had come to kidnap the queen. The Tenth Labor of Heracles In the fullest account in the Bibliotheke of Pseudo-Apollodoros, Heracles was required to travel to Erytheia, in order to obtain the Cattle of Geryon as his tenth labour. On the way there, he crossed the Libyan desert and became so frustrated at the heat that he shot an arrow at Helios, the Sun god. Helios "in admiration of his courage" gave Heracles the golden cup he used to sail across the sea from west to east each night. Heracles used it to reach Erytheia, a favorite motif of the vase-painters. Such a magical conveyance undercuts any literal geography for Erytheia, the "red island" of the sunset. When Heracles reached Erytheia, no sooner had he landed than he was confronted by the twoheaded dog, Orthrus. With one huge blow from his olive-wood club, Heracles killed the watchdog. Eurytion the herdsman came to assist Orthrus, but Heracles dealt with him the same way. On hearing the commotion, Geryon sprang into action, carrying three shields, three spears, and wearing three helmets. He pursued Heracles at the River Anthemus but fell a victim to an arrow that had been dipped in the venomous blood of the Lernaean Hydra, shot so forcefully by Heracles that it pierced Geryon's forehead, "and Geryon bent his neck over to one side, like a poppy that spoils its delicate shapes, shedding its petals all at once". Heracles then had to herd the cattle back to Eurystheus. In Roman versions of the narrative, on the Aventine hill in Italy, Cacus stole some of the cattle as Heracles slept, making the cattle walk backwards so that they left no trail, a repetition of the trick of the young Hermes. According to some versions, Heracles drove his remaining cattle past a cave, where Cacus had hidden the stolen animals, and they began calling out to each other. In others, Caca, Cacus' sister, told Heracles where he was. Heracles then killed Cacus, and according to the Romans, founded an altar where the Forum Boarium, the cattle market, was later held. To annoy Heracles, Hera sent a gadfly to bite the cattle, irritate them and scatter them. The hero was within a year able to retrieve them. Hera then sent a flood which raised the level of a river so much, Heracles could not cross with the cattle. He piled stones into the river to make the water shallower. When he finally reached the court of Eurystheus, the cattle were sacrificed to Hera. The Eleventh Labor of Heracles After Heracles completed his first ten Labors, Eurystheus gave him two more claiming that neither the Hydra counted (because Iolaus helped Heracles) nor the Augean stables (either because he received payment for the job or because the rivers did the work). The first of these two additional Labors was to steal the apples from the garden of the Hesperides. Heracles first caught Nereus, the shape-shifting sea god, to learn where the Garden of the Hesperides was located. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 32 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City In some variations, Heracles, either at the start or at the end of his task, meets Antaeus, who was invincible as long as he touched his mother, Gaia, the earth. Heracles killed Antaeus by holding him aloft and crushing him in a bear hug. Herodotus claims that Heracles stopped in Egypt, where King Busiris decided to make him the yearly sacrifice, but Hercules burst out of his chains. Finally making his way to the Garden of the Hesperides, Heracles tricked Atlas into retrieving some of the golden apples for him, by offering to hold up the heavens for a little while (Atlas was able to take them as, in this version, he was the father or otherwise related to the Hesperides). Upon his return, Atlas decided that he did not want to take the heavens back, and instead offered to deliver the apples himself, but Heracles tricked him again by agreeing to take his place on condition that Atlas relieve him temporarily so that Heracles could make his cloak more comfortable. Atlas agreed, but Heracles reneged and walked away, carrying the apples. According to an alternative version, Heracles slew Ladon instead. There is another variation to the story where Heracles was the only person to steal the apples, other than Perseus, although Athena later returned the apples to their rightful place in the garden. They are considered by some to be the same "apples of joy" that tempted Atalanta, as opposed to the "apple of discord" used by Eris to start a beauty contest on Olympus. On Attic pottery, especially from the late fifth century, Heracles is depicted sitting in bliss in the Gardens of the Hesperides, attended by the maidens. The Twelfth Labor of Hercules The task of capturing Cerberus alive, without using weapons, was the final labor assigned to Hercules by King Eurystheus, in recompense for the killing of his own wife and children after he was driven insane by Hera, and therefore was the most dangerous and difficult. In the traditional version, Hercules would not have been required to capture Cerberus, however Eurystheus discounted the completion of two of the tasks as Hercules had received assistance. After having been given the task, Hercules went to Eleusis to be initiated in the Eleusinian Mysteries so that he could learn how to enter and exit the underworld alive, and in passing absolve himself for killing centaurs. He found the entrance to the underworld at Tanaerum, and Athena and Hermes helped him to traverse the entrance in each direction. He passed Charon with Hestia's assistance and his own heavy and fierce frowning. Whilst in the underworld, Hercules freed Theseus, but the earth shook when he attempted to liberate Pirithous, so he had to leave him behind. They had been imprisoned by Hades, who magically bound them to a bench, because they had attempted to kidnap Persephone. The magic was so strong that when Hercules pulled Theseus free, part of Theseus' thighs remained on the bench, explaining why his descendants had notably lean thighs. In the underworld, Hercules met Hades and asked his permission to bring Cerberus to the surface, which Hades agreed to if Hercules could overpower the beast without using weapons. Hercules was able to overpower Cerberus and proceeded to sling the beast over his back, dragging it out of Hades through a cavern entrance in the Peloponnese and bringing it to Eurystheus. The king was so frightened of the beast that he jumped into a pithos, and asked Hercules to return it to the underworld in return for releasing him from his labors. Further adventures After completing these tasks, Heracles joined the Argonauts in a search for the Golden Fleece. They rescued heroines, conquered Troy, and helped the gods fight against the Gigantes. He also fell in love with Princess Iole of Oechalia. King Eurytus of Oechalia promised his daughter, Iole, to whoever could beat his sons in an archery contest. Heracles won but Eurytus abandoned his promise. Heracles' advances were spurned by the king and his sons, except for one: Iole's brother Iphitus. Heracles killed the king and his sons–excluding A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 33 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Iphitus–and abducted Iole. Iphitus became Heracles' best friend. However, once again, Hera drove Heracles mad and he threw Iphitus over the city wall to his death. Once again, Heracles purified himself through three years of servitude - this time to Queen Omphale of Lydia. Omphale Omphale was a queen or princess of Lydia. As penalty for a murder, Heracles was her slave. He was forced to do women's work and wear women's clothes, while she wore the skin of the Nemean Lion and carried his olive-wood club. After some time, Omphale freed Heracles and married him. Some sources mention a son born to them who is variously named. It was at that time that the cercopes, mischievous wood spirits, stole Heracles' weapons. He punished them by tying them to a stick with their faces pointing downward. Hylas While walking through the wilderness, Heracles was set upon by the Dryopians. He killed their king, Theiodamas, and the others gave up and offered him Prince Hylas. He took the youth on as his weapons bearer and beloved. Years later, Heracles and Hylas joined the crew of the Argo. As Argonauts, they only participated in part of the journey. In Mysia, Hylas was kidnapped by a nymph. Heracles, heartbroken, searched for a long time but Hylas had fallen in love with the nymphs and never showed up again. In other versions, he simply drowned. Either way, the Argo set sail without them. Rescue of Prometheus Hesiod's Theogony and Aeschylus' Prometheus Unbound both tell that Heracles shot and killed the eagle that tortured Prometheus (which was his punishment by Zeus for stealing fire from the gods and giving it to mortals). Heracles freed the Titan from his chains and his torments. Prometheus then made predictions regarding further deeds of Heracles. Laomedon of Troy Before the Trojan War, Poseidon sent a sea monster to attack Troy. The story is related in several digressions in the Iliad (7.451-453, 20.145-148, and 21.442-457) and is found in Apollodorus' Bibliotheke (2.5.9). Laomedon planned on sacrificing his daughter Hesione to Poseidon in the hope of appeasing him. Heracles happened to arrive (along with Telamon and Oicles) and agreed to kill the monster if Laomedon would give him the horses received from Zeus as compensation for Zeus' kidnapping Ganymede. Laomedon agreed. Heracles killed the monster, but Laomedon went back on his word. Accordingly, in a later expedition, Heracles and his followers attacked Troy and sacked it. Then they slew all Laomedon's sons present there save Podarces, who was renamed Priam, who saved his own life by giving Heracles a golden veil Hesione had made. Telamon took Hesione as a war prize; they were married and had a son, Teucer. Other adventures Heracles defeated the Bebryces (ruled by King Mygdon) and gave their land to Prince Lycus of Mysia, son of Dascylus. • • • • • • • • • He killed the robber Termerus. Heracles visited Evander with Antor, who then stayed in Italy. Heracles killed King Amyntor of the Dolopes for not allowing him into his kingdom. He also killed King Emathion of Arabia. Heracles killed Lityerses after beating him in a contest of harvesting. Heracles killed Poriclymenus at Pylos. Heracles founded the city Tarentum (modern: Taranto) in Italy. Heracles learned music from Linus (and Eumolpus), but killed him after Linus corrected his mistakes. He learned how to wrestle from Autolycus. He killed the famous boxer Eryx of Sicily in a match. Heracles was an Argonaut. He killed Alastor and his brothers. When Hippocoon overthrew his brother, Tyndareus, as King of Sparta, Heracles reinstated the rightful ruler and killed Hippocoon and his sons. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 34 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City • Heracles slew the giants Cycnus, Porphyrion • • • • • • and Mimas. The expedition against Cycnus, in which Iolaus accompanied Heracles, is the ostensible theme of a short epic attributed to Hesiod, The Shield of Heracles. Heracles killed Antaeus the giant who was immortal while touching the earth, by picking him up and holding him in the air while strangling him. Heracles went to war with Augeias after he denied him a promised reward for clearing his stables. Augeias remained undefeated due to the skill of his two generals, the Molionides, and after Heracles fell ill, his army was badly beaten. Later, however, he was able to ambush and kill the Molionides, and thus march into Elis, sack it, and kill Augeias and his sons. Heracles visited the house of Admetus on the day Admetus' wife, Alcestis, had agreed to die in his place. By hiding beside the grave of Alcestis, Heracles was able to surprise Death when he came to collect her, and by squeezing him tight until he relented, was able to persuade Death to return Alcestis to her husband. Heracles challenged wine god Dionysus to a drinking contest and lost, resulting in his joining the Thiasus for a period. Heracles also appears in Aristophanes' The Frogs, in which Dionysus seeks out the hero to find a way to the underworld. Heracles is greatly amused by Dionysus' appearance and jokingly offers several ways to commit suicide before finally offering his knowledge of how to get to there. Heracles appears as the founder of Scythia in Herodotus' text. While Heracles is sleeping out in the wilderness, a half-woman, half-snake creature steals his horses. Heracles eventually finds the creature, but she refuses to return the horses until he has sex with her. After doing so, he takes back his horses, but before leaving, he hands over his belt and bow, and gives instructions as to which of their children should found a new nation in Scythia. Women During the course of his life, Heracles married four times. His first marriage was to Megara, whose children he murdered in a fit of madness. Apollodoros (Bibliotheke) recounts that Megara was unharmed and given in marriage to Iolaus, while in Euripides' version Heracles killed Megara, too. His second wife was Omphale, the Lydian queen or princess to whom he was delivered as a slave. His third marriage was to Deianira, for whom he had to fight the river god Achelous. (Upon Achelous' death, Heracles removed one of his horns and gave it to some nymphs who turned it into the cornucopia.) Soon after they wed, Heracles and Deianira had to cross a river, and a centaur named Nessus offered to help Deianira across but then attempted to rape her. Enraged, Heracles shot the centaur from the opposite shore with a poisoned arrow (tipped with the Lernaean Hydra's blood) and killed him. As he lay dying, Nessus plotted revenge, told Deianira to gather up his blood and spilled semen and, if she ever wanted to prevent Heracles from having affairs with other women, she should apply them to his vestments. Nessus knew that his blood had become tainted by the poisonous blood of the Hydra, and would burn through the skin of anyone it touched. Later, when Deianira suspected that Heracles was fond of Iole, she soaked a shirt of his in the mixture, creating the poisoned shirt of Nessus. Heracles' servant, Lichas, brought him the shirt and he put it on. Instantly he was in agony, the cloth burning into him. As he tried to remove it, the flesh ripped from his bones. Heracles chose a voluntary death, asking that a pyre be built for him to end his suffering. After death, the gods transformed him into an immortal, or alternatively, the fire burned away the mortal part of the demigod, so that only the god remained. Because his mortal parts had been incinerated, he could now become a full god and join his father and the other Olympians on Mount Olympus. He then married Hebe. Another episode of his female affairs that stands out was his stay at the palace of Thespius king of Thespiae, who wished him to kill the Lion of Cithaeron. As a reward, the king offered him the chance to make love to his daughters, all fifty of them, in one night. Heracles complied and they all became pregnant and all bore sons. This is sometimes referred to as his Thirteenth Labour. Many of the kings of ancient Greece traced their lines to one or another of these, notably the kings of Sparta and Macedon. Eromenoi A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 35 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City As symbol of masculinity and warriorship, Heracles also had a number of pederastic male beloveds. Plutarch, in his Eroticos, maintains that Heracles' eromenoi (male lovers) were beyond counting. Of these, the one most closely linked to Heracles is the Theban Iolaus. Their story, an initiatory myth thought to be of ancient origin, contains many of the elements of the Greek pederastic apprenticeship in which the older warrior is the educator and the younger his helper in battle. Thus, Iolaus serves as Heracles' charioteer and squire. In a testament to the closeness between the two heroes, Iolaus is also known as Heracles' symbomos, (altar-sharer). Unlike all other heroes and gods, each of whom had his or her own altar; sacrifices to either hero could be offered at one and the same altar. Also in keeping with the initiatory pattern of the relationship, Heracles in the end gave his pupil a wife, symbolizing his entry into adulthood. Iolaus's ritual functions paralleled his relationship with Heracles. He was a patron of male love—Plutarch reports that down to his own time, male couples would go to Iolaus's tomb in Thebes to swear an oath of loyalty to the hero and to each other—and he presided over initiations in the historical era, such as the one at Agyrion in central Sicily. The tomb of Iolaus is also mentioned by Pindar. One of Heracles' best-known love affairs, and one frequently represented in ancient as well as modern art, is the one with Hylas. Though it is of more recent vintage (dated to the third century) than that with Iolaus, it too exemplifies in detail the normal cycle of a youth's initiatory process, consisting of education through service to a warrior, and concluding with promotion to adult status and marriage. Sparta, as a warrior city where pederastic pedagogy—ostensibly of a chaste nature—was enshrined in the laws ascribed to Lycurgus, the legendary legislator, also provided Heracles with an eromenos —Elacatas, who was honored there with a sanctuary and yearly games. The myth of their love is an ancient one. Abdera's eponymous hero, Abderus, was another of Heracles' beloveds. In what is considered to be initiatory myth, he was said to have been entrusted with—and slain by—the carnivorous mares of Thracian Diomedes. Heracles founded the city of Abdera in Thrace in his memory, where he was honored with athletic games. The topos of death in such stories is thought to symbolize the passage from one stage of life to another. Among the lesser-known myths is that of Iphitus. Heracles' subsequent murder of Iphitus is held to be evocative of an initiatory ritual. Another such story is the one of his love for Nireus, who was "the most beautiful man who came beneath Ilion" (Iliad, 673). Ptolemy adds that certain authors made Nireus out to be a son of Heracles, a fact thought to authenticate this tradition. The last in this category—despite the fact that Greek literature preserves no mention of this role—is the story of Philoctetes. He is also heir to the hero—and thus presumably his disciple—and is the one who lights his pyre. Later he is the initiator of Neoptolemus, son of Achilles. There is also a series of lovers who are either later inventions or purely literary conceits. Among these are Admetus, who assisted in the hunt for the Calydonian Boar; Adonis; Corythus; and Nestor, who was said to have been loved for his wisdom. His role as eromenos was perhaps meant to explain why he was the only son of Neleus to be spared by the hero. Children Telephus is the son of Heracles and Auge. Hyllus is the son of Heracles and Deianeira or Melite. The sons of Heracles and Hebe are Alexiares and Anicetus. There is also, in some versions, reference to an episode where Heracles met and impregnated a half-serpentine woman, known as Echidna; her children, known as the Dracontidae, were the ancestors of the House of Cadmus. Death This is described in Ovid's Metamorphoses Book IX. Having wrestled and defeated Achelous, god of the Acheloos River, Heracles takes Deianeira as his wife. Travelling to Tiryns, a centaur, Nessus, offers to help Deianeira across a fast flowing river while Heracles swims it. However, Nessus is true to the archetype of the mischievous centaur and tries to steal Deianara away while Heracles is still in the water. Angry, Heracles shoots him with his arrows dipped in the poisonous blood of the Lernaean Hydra. Thinking of revenge, Nessus gives Deianara his blood-soaked tunic before he dies, telling her it will "excite the love of her husband". A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 36 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Several years later, rumor tells Deianeira that she has a rival for the love of Heracles. Deianeira, remembering Nessus' words, gives Heracles the bloodstained shirt. Lichas, the herald, delivers the shirt to Heracles. However, it is still covered in the Hydra's blood from Heracles' arrows, and this poisons him, tearing his skin and exposing his bones. Before he dies, Heracles throws Lichas into the sea, thinking he was the one who poisoned him (according to several versions, Lichas turns to stone, becoming a rock standing in the sea, named for him). Heracles then uproots several trees and builds a funeral pyre, which Poeas, father of Philoctetes, lights. As his body burns, only his immortal side is left. Through Zeus' apotheosis, Heracles rises to Olympus as he dies. No one but Heracles' friend Philoctetes (Poeas in some versions) would light his funeral pyre (in an alternate version, it is Iolaus who lights the pyre). For this action, Philoctetes (or Poeas) received Heracles' bow and arrows, which were later needed by the Greeks to defeat Troy in the Trojan War. Philoctetes confronted Paris and shot a poisoned arrow at him. The Hydra poison would subsequently lead to the death of Paris. The Trojan War, however, would continue until the Trojan Horse was used to defeat Troy. III. Theseus of Athens Theseus (Greek: Θησεύς) was the legendary founder-king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with both of whom Aethra lay in one night. Theseus was a founder-hero, like Perseus, Cadmus or Heracles, all of whom battled and overcame foes that were identified with an archaic religious and social order. As Heracles was the Dorian hero, Theseus was the Ionian founding hero, considered by Athenians as their own great reformer. His name comes from the same root as θεσμός ("thesmos"), Greek for institution. He was responsible for the synoikismos ("dwelling together")—the political unification of Attica under Athens, represented emblematically in his journey of labours, subduing highly localized ogres and monstrous beasts. Because he was the unifying king, Theseus built and occupied a palace on the fortress of the Acropolis that may have been similar to the palace that was excavated in Mycenae. Pausanias reports that after the synoikismos, Theseus established a cult of Aphrodite Pandemos ("Aphrodite of all the People") and Peitho on the southern slope of the Acropolis. In The Frogs, Aristophanes credited him with inventing many everyday Athenian traditions. If the theory of a Minoan hegemony is correct, he may have been based on Athens' liberation from this political order rather than on an historical individual. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 37 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Plutarch's vita of Theseus, makes use of varying accounts of the death of the Minotaur, Theseus' escape and the love of Ariadne for Theseus, in order to construct a literalistic biography, a vita. Plutarch's sources, not all of whose texts have survived independently, included Pherecydes (mid-sixth century), Demon (ca 300), Philochorus and Cleidemus (both fourth century). Early years Aegeus, one of the primordial kings of Athens, found a bride, Aethra who was the daughter of king Pittheus at Troezen, a small city southwest of Athens. On their wedding night, Aethra waded through the sea to the island Sphairia that rests close to the coast and lay there with Poseidon (god of the sea, and earthquakes). By the understanding of sex in antiquity, the mix of semen gave Theseus a combination of divine as well as mortal characteristics in his nature; such double fatherhood, one father immortal, one mortal, was a familiar feature of Greek heroes. When Aethra became pregnant, Aegeus decided to return to Athens. But before leaving, he buried his sandals and sword under a huge rock and told her that when their son grew up, he should move the rock, if he were hero enough, and take the tokens for himself as evidence of his royal parentage. At Athens, Aegeus was joined by Medea, who had fled Corinth after slaughtering the children she had borne Jason, and had taken up a new consort in Aegeus. Priestess and consort together represented the old order at Athens. Thus Theseus was raised in the land of his mother. When Theseus grew up and became a brave young man, he moved the rock and recovered his father's arms. His mother then told him the truth about his father's identity and that he must take the weapons back to the king and claim his birthright. To get to Athens, Theseus could choose to go by sea (which was the safe way) or by land, following a dangerous path around the Saronic Gulf, where he would encounter a string of six entrances to the Underworld, each guarded by a chthonic enemy in the shapes of thieves and bandits. Young, brave and ambitious, Theseus decided to go alone by the land route, and defeated a great many bandits along the way. At the first site, which was Epidaurus, sacred to Apollo and the healer Aesculapius, Theseus turned the tables on the chthonic bandit, the "clubber" Periphetes, who beat his opponents into the Earth, and took from him the stout staff that often identifies Theseus in vase-paintings. At the Isthmian entrance to the Netherworld was a robber named Siris. He would capture travellers, tie them between two pine trees which were bent down to the ground, and then let the trees go, tearing his victims apart. Theseus killed him by his own method. He then raped Siris's daughter, Perigune, fathering the child Melanippus. In another deed north of the Isthmus, at a place called Crommyon, he killed an enormous pig, the Crommyonian sow, bred by an old crone named Phaea. Some versions name the sow herself as Phaea. Apollodorus described Crommyonian sow as an offspring of Typhon and Echidna. Near Megara an elderly robber named Sciron forced travellers along the narrow cliff-face pathway to wash his feet. While they knelt, he kicked them off the cliff behind them, where they were eaten by a sea monster (or, in some versions, a giant turtle). Theseus pushed him off the cliff. Another of these enemies was Cercyon, king at the holy site of Eleusis, who challenged passersby to a wrestling match and, when he had beaten them, killed them. Theseus beat Cercyon at wrestling and then killed him instead. In interpretations of the story that follow the formulas of Frazer's The Golden Bough, Cercyon was a "year-King", who was required to do annual battle for his life, for the good of his kingdom, and was succeeded by the victor. Theseus overturned this archaic religious rite by refusing to be sacrificed. The last bandit was Procrustes, who had a bed which he offered to passers-by in the plain of Eleusis. He then made them fit into it, either by stretching them or by cutting off their feet. Theseus turned the tables on Procrustes, although it is not said whether he cut Procrustes to size or stretched him to fit. Each of these sites was a very sacred place already of great antiquity when the deeds of Theseus were first attested in painted ceramics, which predate the literary texts. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 38 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Medea and the Marathonian Bull/ Androegeus and the Pallantids When Theseus arrived at Athens, he did not reveal his true identity immediately. Aegeus gave him hospitality but was suspicious of the young, powerful stranger's intentions. Aegeus's wife Medea recognized Theseus immediately as Aegeus' son and worried that Theseus would be chosen as heir to Aegeus' kingdom instead of her son Medus. She tried to arrange to have Theseus killed by asking him to capture the Marathonian Bull, an emblem of Cretan power. On the way to Marathon, Theseus took shelter from a storm in the hut of an ancient woman named Hecale. She swore to make a sacrifice to Zeus if Theseus were successful in capturing the bull. Theseus did capture the bull, but when he returned to Hecale's hut, she was dead. In her honor Theseus gave her name to one of the demes of Attica, making its inhabitants in a sense her adopted children. When Theseus returned victorious to Athens, where he sacrificed the Bull, Medea tried to poison him. At the last second, Aegeus recognized the sandals, shield, and sword, and knocked the poisoned wine cup from Theseus's hand. Thus father and son were reunited, and Medea, it was said, was exiled. In another version, Pasiphae, wife of King Minos of Crete, had several children before the Minotaur. The eldest of these, Androgeus, set sail for Athens to take part in the Pan-Athenian games which were held there every five years. Being strong and skillful, he did very well, winning some events outright. He soon became a crowd favourite, much to the resentment of the Pallantids, sons of Pallas and nephews of King Aegeus, who were then living at the royal court in the sanctuary of Delphic Apollo, and they assassinated him, incurring the wrath of Minos. When King Minos had heard of what befell his son, he ordered the Cretan fleet to set sail for Athens. Minos asked Aegeus for his son's assassins, and if they were to be handed to him, the town would be spared. However, not knowing who they were, King Aegeus surrendered the whole town to Minos' mercy. His retribution was that, at the end of every Great Year (seven years), the seven most courageous youths and the seven most beautiful maidens were to board a boat and sent as tribute to Crete, never to be seen again. When Theseus appeared in the town, his reputation preceded him, having travelled along the notorious coastal road from Troezen and slain some of the most feared bandits there. It was not long before the Pallantides' hopes of succeeding the apparently childless Aegeus would be lost if they did not get rid of Theseus. So they set a trap for him. One band of them would march on the town from one side while another lay in wait near a place called Gargettus in ambush. The plan was that once Theseus, Aegeus and the palace guards had been forced out the front, the other half would surprise them from behind. However, Theseus was not fooled. Informed of the plan by a herald named Leos, he crept out of the city at midnight and surprised the Pallantides. "Theseus then fell suddenly upon the party lying in ambush, and slew them all. Thereupon the party with Pallas dispersed," Plutarch reported. Minotaur King Minos of Crete had waged war with the Athenians and was successful. He then demanded that, at seven-year intervals, seven Athenian boys and seven Athenian girls were to be sent to Crete to be devoured by the Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull monster that lived in the Labyrinth created by Daedalus. On the third occasion, Theseus volunteered to slay the monster. He took the place of one of the youths and set off with a black sail, promising to his father, Aegeus, that if successful he would return with a white sail. Like the others, Theseus was stripped of his weapons when they sailed. On his arrival in Crete, King Minos' daughter Ariadne, out of love for Theseus, gave him a ball of string so he could find his way out. That night, Ariadne escorted Theseus to the Labyrinth, and Theseus promised that if he returned from the Labyrinth he would take Ariadne with him. As soon as Theseus entered the Labyrinth, he tied one end of the ball of string to the door post and brandished his sword which he had kept hidden from the guards inside his tunic. Theseus followed Daedalus' instructions given to Ariadne; go forwards, always down and never left or right. Theseus came to the heart of the Labyrinth and also upon the sleeping Minotaur. A tremendous fight then occurred. Theseus overpowered the Minotaur with his strength and then slit the beast's throat with his sword. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 39 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Theseus used the string to escape the Labyrinth and managed to escape with all of the young Athenians and Ariadne. On the return journey Theseus abandoned Ariadne on the island of Naxos. The next day Ariadne cursed him to forget to change the black sail to white. In other versions of the story, the god Dionysus appeared to Theseus and told him that he had already chosen Ariadne for his bride, and to abandon her on Naxos, a favorite island. In another version, Ariadne died from illness on the journey home. In Theseus' grief, he forgot to change the sails, and seeing the black sail, Aegeus committed suicide by throwing himself into the sea (hence named Aegean). Theseus and the other Athenian youths returned safely. Ship of Theseus According to Plutarch's Life of Theseus, the ship Theseus used on his return to Athens was kept in the Athenian harbor as a memorial for several centuries. The ship wherein Theseus and the youth of Athens returned had thirty oars, and was preserved by the Athenians down even to the time of Demetrius Phalereus, for they took away the old planks as they decayed, putting in new and stronger timber in their place... The ship had to be maintained in a seaworthy state, for it annually carried the Athenian envoys to the festival of Apollo at Delos. As the wood of the ship wore out or rotted and was replaced, it was unclear to philosophers how much of the original ship actually remained, giving rise to the philosophical question whether it should be considered "the same" ship or not. Such philosophical questions about the nature of identity are sometimes referred to as the Ship of Theseus Paradox. For Athenians, the preserved ship kept fresh their understanding that Theseus had been an actual, historic figure, which none then doubted. Pirithous Theseus's best friend was Pirithous, prince of the Lapiths. Pirithous had heard stories of Theseus's courage and strength in battle but wanted proof, so he rustled Theseus's herd of cattle and drove it from Marathon, and Theseus set out in pursuit. Pirithous took up his arms and the pair met to do battle, but were so impressed with each other they took an oath of friendship and joined the hunt for the Calydonian Boar. In Iliad I, Nestor numbers Pirithous and Theseus "of heroic fame" among an earlier generation of heroes of his youth, "the strongest men that Earth has bred, the strongest men against the strongest enemies, a savage mountain-dwelling tribe whom they utterly destroyed." No trace of such an oral tradition, which Homer's listeners would have recognized in Nestor's allusion, survived in literary epic. Later, Pirithous was preparing to marry Hippodamia. The centaurs were guests at the wedding feast, but got drunk and tried to abduct the women, including Hippodamia. The Lapiths won the ensuing battle. In Ovid's Metamorphoses Theseus fights against and kills Eurytus, the "fiercest of all the fierce centaurs" at the wedding of Pirithous and Hippodamia. Theseus and Pirithous: the abduction of Helen and encounter with Hades Theseus, a great abductor of women, and his bosom companion, Pirithous, since they were sons of Zeus and Poseidon, pledged themselves to marry daughters of Zeus. Theseus, in an old tradition, chose Helen, and together they kidnapped her, intending to keep her until she was old enough to marry. Pirithous chose Persephone. They left Helen with Theseus's mother, Aethra at Aphidna, whence she was rescued by the Dioscuri. On Pirithous' behalf they travelled to the underworld, domain of Persephone and her husband, Hades. Hades pretended to offer them hospitality and laid out a feast, but as soon as the two visitors sat down, they could not move. They were fastened to the chairs. They did not know where they were or why they were there. In fact, they forgot everything, because they sat on the Chairs of Forgetfulness. When Heracles came into Hades for his twelfth task, he freed Theseus but the earth shook when he attempted to liberate Pirithous, and Pirithous had to remain in Hades for eternity. When Heracles had pulled A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 40 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Theseus from the chair where he was trapped, some of his thigh stuck to it; this explains the supposedly lean thighs of Athenians. When Theseus returned to Athens, he found that the Dioscuri had taken Helen and Aethra back to Sparta. Hippolyta Theseus, believed either to be in the company of Heracles, or of his own accord, had been on a quest in the land of the Amazons, a race of all-female warriors who reproduced with men for children (but killed off the males). Sensing no trouble or malice, the Amazons decided to openly welcome Theseus by having the queen, Hippolyta, go aboard his ship bearing gifts. After boarding the ship, Theseus left to Athens, claiming Hippolyta as his own bride. This sparked a war between the Amazons and the Athenians. Hippolyta eventually bore a son for Theseus, whom they named Hippolytus(Ἱππόλυτος). Theseus lost his love for Hippolyta, however, once he had cast his eye on Phaedra. Phaedra and Hippolytus Phaedra, Theseus's second wife, bore Theseus two sons, Demophon and Acamas. While these two were still in their infancy, Phaedra fell in love with Hippolytus, Theseus's son by Hippolyta. According to some versions of the story, Hippolytus had scorned Aphrodite to become a devotee of Artemis, so Aphrodite made Phaedra fall in love with him as punishment. He rejected her out of chastity. Alternatively, in Euripides' version, Hippolytus, Phaedra's nurse told Hippolytus of her mistress's love and he swore he would not reveal the nurse as his source of information. To ensure that she would die with dignity, Phaedra wrote to Theseus on a tablet claiming that Hippolytus had raped her before hanging herself. Theseus believed her and used one of the three wishes he had received from Poseidon against his son. The curse caused Hippolytus' horses to be frightened by a sea monster, usually a bull, and drag their rider to his death. Artemis would later tell Theseus the truth, promising to avenge her loyal follower on another follower of Aphrodite. In a third version, after Phaedra told Theseus that Hippolytus had raped her, Theseus killed his son himself, and Phaedra committed suicide out of guilt, for she had not intended for Hippolytus to die. In yet another version, Phaedra simply told Theseus Hippolytus had raped her and did not kill herself, and Dionysus sent a wild bull which terrified Hippolytus's horses. A cult grew up around Hippolytus, associated with the cult of Aphrodite. Girls who were about to be married offered locks of their hair to him. The cult believed that Asclepius had resurrected Hippolytus and that he lived in a sacred forest near Aricia in Latium. Other stories and his death According to some sources, Theseus also was one of the Argonauts, although Apollonius of Rhodes states in the Argonautica that Theseus was still in the underworld at this time. With Phaedra, Theseus fathered Acamas, who was one of those who hid in the Trojan Horse during the Trojan War. Theseus welcomed the wandering Oedipus and helped Adrastus to bury the Seven Against Thebes. Lycomedes of the island of Skyros threw Theseus off a cliff after he had lost popularity in Athens. In 475 BC, in response to an oracle, Cimon of Athens, having conquered Skyros for the Athenians, identified as the remains of Theseus "a coffin of a great corpse with a bronze spear-head by its side and a sword." (Plutarch, Life of Cimon, quoted Burkert 1985, p. 206) A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 41 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City IV. Perseus Perseus (Περσεύς), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths in the cult of the Twelve Olympians. Perseus was the hero who killed Medusa and claimed Andromeda, having rescued her from a sea monster. Origin at Argos Perseus was the son of Danaë who, by her very name, was the archetype and eponymous ancestor of all the Danaans. She was the only daughter of Acrisius, King of Argos. Disappointed by his lack of luck in not having a son, Acrisius consulted the oracle at Delphi, who warned him that he would one day be killed by his daughter's son. Danaë was childless and to keep her so, he shut her up in a subterranean bronze chamber in the courtyard of his palace: This mytheme is also connected to Ares, Oenopion, Eurystheus, etc. Zeus came to her in the form of a shower of gold, and impregnated her. Soon after was born their child Perseus — "Perseus Eurymedon, for his mother gave him this name as well" (Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica IV). A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 42 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Fearful for his future but unwilling to provoke the wrath of the gods by killing Zeus's offspring and his own daughter, Acrisius cast the two into the sea in a wooden chest. Danaë's fearful prayer made while afloat in the darkness has been expressed by the poet Simonides of Ceos. Mother and child washed ashore on the island of Seriphos, where they were taken in by the fisherman Dictys, who raised the boy to manhood. The brother of Dictys was Polydectes, the king of the island. Overcoming the Gorgon After some time, Polydectes fell in love with Danaë and desired to remove Perseus from the island. He therefore hatched a plot to send him away in disgrace. Polydectes announced a large and prosperous banquet wherein each guest would be expected to bring him a horse, that he might woo Hippodamia, "tamer of horses". The fisherman's protegé had no horse but promised instead to bring him some other gift. Polydectes held Perseus to his rash promise. He immediately demanded the head of Medusa, one of the Gorgons, whose very expression turns people to stone. The Medusa was horse-like in archaic representations, the terrible filly of a mare—Demeter, the Mother herself—who was in her mare nature when Poseidon assumed stallion form and covered her. According to Hesiod Medusa was the only mortal among the Gorgons, as her encounter with Perseus would prove. Ovid's anecdotal embroidery of her mortality tells that Medusa was in fact a mortal woman, vain of her beautiful hair: "Fame declares the Sovereign of the Sea attained her love in chaste Minerva's temple. One day Minerva {Athena) caught the two of them in her temple and unable to punish Poseidon, punished Medusa, turning the woman into a hideous monster. For such a heroic quest, a divine helper would be necessary, and for a long time Perseus wandered aimlessly, without hope of ever finding the Gorgons or of being able to accomplish his mission. According to the iconography of the vase-painters, the gods Hermes, Athena and Hades came to his rescue. Hermes gave him an adamantine curved sword, while Athena gave him a highly-polished bronze shield, and Hades gave a helmet of invisibility. For his further journey, the version of Aeschylus, in his lost tragedy, The Daughters of Phorcys must have "simplified the journey of Perseus through the realms of thrice-three goddesses and probably left out the first three, the spring-nymphs.... On an ancient vase-painting we see the nymphs receiving the hero, one bringing him the winged sandals (talaria), another the helmet of invisibility, the third the wallet, kibisis, for the Gorgon's head" (Kerenyi 1959:49-50). They told him to go to the island of the golden apples to the west. He went there like a swift walker on the air (Nonnus, Dionysiaca xxv.32) and asked the Hesperidae where the Graeae were. They told him and made him promise to come back and dance with them. He went to the Graeae, sisters of the gorgons, three perpetually old women with one eye and tooth among them. Perseus snatched the eye at the moment they were blindly passing it from one to another so they could not see him and he would not return it until they had given him directions. With all this, "Like a wild boar he entered the cave" (This is the one line of Aeschylus' lost play, The Phorkides ["The Daughters of Phorcys"] that survives). After he was done with the Graeae sisters he threw the tooth and the eye into a lake. In the cave he came upon the sleeping Gorgons. By viewing Medusa's reflection in his polished shield, he could safely approach and cut off her head; from her neck sprang Pegasus and Chrysaor. The other two Gorgons pursued him, but under his helmet of invisibility he escaped. Marriage with Andromeda On the way back to Seriphos, Perseus stopped in the Phoenician kingdom Ethiopia, ruled by King Cepheus and Queen Cassiopeia. Cassiopeia, having boasted herself equal in beauty to the Nereids, drew down the vengeance of Poseidon, who sent an inundation on the land and a sea-monster, Ceto, which destroyed man and beast. The oracle of Ammon announced that no relief would be found until the king exposed his daughter Andromeda to the monster, and so she was fastened to a rock on the shore. Perseus slew the monster and, setting her free, claimed her in marriage. In the classical myth, he flew using the flying sandals. Renaissance Europe and modern imagery has generated the idea that Perseus flew mounted on Pegasus (though not in the great paintings by Piero di Cosimo and Titian). A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 43 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Perseus married Andromeda in spite of Phineus, to whom she had before been promised. At the wedding a quarrel took place between the rivals, and Phineus was turned to stone by the sight of the Gorgon's head. Andromeda ("queen of men") followed her husband to Tiryns in Argos, and became the ancestress of the family of the Perseidae through her son with Perseus, Perses. After her death she was placed by Athena amongst the constellations in the northern sky, near Perseus and Cassiopeia. Sophocles and Euripides (and in more modern times Pierre Corneille) made the episode of Perseus and Andromeda the subject of tragedies, and its incidents were represented in many ancient works of art. As Perseus was flying in his return above the sands of Libya, according to Apollonius of Rhodes, the falling drops of Medusa's blood created a race of toxic serpents, one of whom was to kill the Argonaut Mopsus. On returning to Seriphos and discovering that his mother had had to take refuge from the violent advances of Polydectes, Perseus killed him with Medusa's head, and made his brother Dictys, consort of Danaë, king. The oracle fulfilled Perseus then returned his magical loans and gave Medusa's head as a votive gift to Athena, who set it on Zeus' shield (which she carried), as the Gorgoneion (see also: Aegis). The fulfillment of the oracle was told several ways, each incorporating the mythic theme of exile. In Pausanias he did not return to Argos, but went instead to Larissa, where athletic games were being held. He had just invented the quoit and was making a public display of them when Acrisius, who happened to be visiting, stepped into the trajectory of the quoit and was killed: thus the oracle was fulfilled. This is an unusual variant on the story of such a prophecy, as Acrisius's actions did not, in this variant, cause his death. In Apollodorus' version, the inevitable occurred by another route: Perseus did return to Argos, but when he learned of the oracle, went into voluntary exile in Pelasgiotis (Thessaly). There Teutamides, king of Larissa, was holding funeral games for his father. Competing in the discus throw Perseus' throw veered and struck Acrisius, killing him instantly. In a third tradition, Acrisius had been driven into exile by his brother, Proetus. Perseus turned the brother into stone with the Gorgon's head and restored Acrisius to the throne. Having killed Acrisius, Perseus, who was next in line for the throne, gave the kingdom to Megapenthes son of Proetus and took over Megapenthes' kingdom of Tiryns. The story is related in Pausanias, which gives as motivation for the swap that Perseus was ashamed to become king of Argos by inflicting death. In any case, early Greek literature reiterates that manslaughter, even involuntary, requires the exile of the slaughterer, expiation and ritual purification. The exchange might well have been a creative solution to a difficult problem; however, Megapenthes would have been required to avenge his father, which, in legend, he did, but only at the end of Perseus' long and successful reign. King of Mycenae The two main sources regarding the legendary life of Perseus—for he was an authentic historical figure to the Greeks— are Pausanias and Apollodorus, but from them we obtain mainly folk-etymology concerning the founding of Mycenae. Pausanias asserts that the Greeks believed Perseus founded Mycenae. He mentions the shrine to Perseus that stood on the left-hand side of the road from Mycenae to Argos, and also a sacred fountain at Mycenae called Persea. Located outside the walls, this was perhaps the spring that filled the citadel's underground cistern. He states also that Atreus stored his treasures in an underground chamber there, which is why Heinrich Schliemann named the largest tholos tomb the Treasury of Atreus. Apart from these more historical references, we have only folk-etymology: Perseus dropped his cap or found a mushroom (both named myces) at Mycenae, or perhaps the place was named from the lady Mycene, daughter of Inachus, mentioned in a now-missing poem, the great Eoeae. For whatever reasons, A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 44 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City perhaps as outposts, Perseus fortified Mycenae according to Apollodorus along with Midea, an action that implies that they both previously existed. It is unlikely, however, that Apollodorus knew who walled in Mycenae; he was only conjecturing. In any case, Perseus took up official residence in Mycenae with Andromeda. Descendants of Perseus Perseus and Andromeda had seven sons: Perses, Alcaeus, Heleus, Mestor, Sthenelus, Electryon, and Cynurus, and two daughters, Gorgophone ("Gorgon Killer") and Autochthoe ("Born in the Land"). Perses was left in Aethiopia and became an ancestor of the emperors of Persia. The other descendants ruled Mycenae from Electryon down to Eurystheus, after whom Atreus got the kingdom. However, the Perseids included the great hero, Heracles, stepson of Amphitryon, son of Alcaeus. The Heraclides, or descendants of Heracles, successfully contested the rule of the Atreids. A statement by the Athenian orator, Isocrates helps to date Perseus roughly. He said that Heracles was four generations later than Perseus, which corresponds to the legendary succession: Perseus, Electryon, Alcmena, and Heracles, who was a contemporary of Eurystheus. Atreus was one generation later, a total of five generations. V. Bellerophon Bellerophon (βελλεροφῶν) or Bellerophontes (βελλεροφόντης) was a hero of Greek mythology. He was "the greatest hero and slayer of monsters, alongside of Kadmos and Perseus, before the days of Heracles", whose greatest feat was killing the Chimera, a monster that Homer depicted with a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail: "her breath came out in terrible blasts of burning flame". Bellerophon's myth Iliad vi.155–203 contains an embedded narrative told by Bellerophon's grandson Glaucus, named for his great-grandfather, which recounts Bellerophon's myth. Bellerophon was son of the king Glaucus ("seagreen") of Corinth and the grandson of death-cheating Sisyphus. Bellerophon's grandsons Sarpedon and the younger Glaucus fought in the Trojan War. In the Epitome of pseudo-Apollodorus, a genealogy is given for Chrysaor ("of the golden sword") that would make him a double of Bellerophon; he too is called the son of Glaucus the son of Sisyphus. Chrysaor has no myth save that of his birth: from the severed neck of Medusa, who was with child by Poseidon, he and Pegasus both sprang at the moment of her death. "From this moment A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 45 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City we hear no more of Chrysaor, the rest of the tale concerning the stallion only... [who visits the spring of Pirene] perhaps also for his brother's sake, by whom in the end he let himself be caught, the immortal horse by his mortal brother." Bellerophon's brave journey began in the familiar way, with an exile: he had murdered either his brother, whose name is usually given as Deliades, or killed a shadowy "enemy", a "Belleros" (though the details are never directly told), and in expiation of his crime arrived as a suppliant to Proetus, king in Tiryns, one of the Mycenaean strongholds of the Argolid. Proetus, by virtue of his kingship, cleansed Bellerophon of his crime. The wife of the king, whether named Anteia or Stheneboea, took a fancy to him, but when he rejected her, she accused Bellerophon of attempting to ravish her. Proetus dared not satisfy his anger by killing a guest, so he sent Bellerophon to king Iobates his father-in-law, in the plain of the River Xanthus in Lycia, bearing a sealed message in a folded tablet: "Pray remove the bearer from this world: he attempted to violate my wife, your daughter." Before opening the tablets, Iobates feasted with Bellerophon for nine days. On reading the tablet's message Iobates too feared the wrath of the Erinyes if he murdered a guest; so he sent Bellerophon on a mission that he deemed impossible: to kill the fire-breathing monster the Chimera, living in neighboring Caria. The chimera was a fire-breathing monster whose make-up comprised the body of a goat, the head of a lion and the tail being a serpent. This monster had terrorized the nearby countryside. Capturing Pegasus The Lycian seer Polyeidos told Bellerophon that he would have need of Pegasus. To obtain the services of the untamed winged horse, Polyeidos told Bellerophon to sleep in the temple of Athena. While Bellerophon slept, he dreamed that Athena set a golden bridle beside him, saying "Sleepest thou, prince of the house of Aiolos? Come, take this charm for the steed and show it to the Tamer thy father as thou makest sacrifice to him of a white bull." It was there when he awoke. Bellerophon had to approach Pegasus while it drank from a well; Polyeidos told him which well — the never-failing Pirene on the citadel of Corinth, the city of Bellerophon's birth. Other accounts say that Athena brought Pegasus already tamed and bridled, or that Poseidon the horse-tamer, secretly the father of Bellerophon, brought Pegasus, as Pausanias understood. Bellerophon mounted his steed and flew off to where the Chimera was said to dwell. The slaying of the Chimera When he arrived in Lycia, the Chimera was truly ferocious, and he could not harm the monster even while riding on Pegasus. He felt the heat of the breath the Chimera expelled, and was struck with an idea. He got a large block of lead and mounted it on his spear. Then he flew head-on towards the Chimera, holding out the spear as far as he could. Before he broke off his attack, he managed to lodge the block of lead inside the Chimera's throat. The beast's fire-breath melted the lead, and blocked its air passage. The Chimera suffocated, and Bellerophon returned victorious to King Iobates. Iobates, on Bellerophon's return, was unwilling to credit his story. A series of daunting further quests ensued: he was sent against the warlike Solymi and then against the Amazons who fight like men, whom Bellerophon vanquished by dropping boulders from his winged horse; when he was sent against a Carian pirate, Cheirmarrhus, an ambush failed, when Bellerophon kills all sent to assassinate him; the palace guards were sent against him, but Bellerophon called upon Poseidon, who flooded the plain of Xanthus behind Bellerophon as he approached. In defense the palace women sent him and the flood in retreat by rushing from the gates with their robes lifted high, offering themselves, to which the modest hero replied by withdrawing Iobates relented, produced the letter, and allowed Bellerophon to marry his daughter Philonoe, the younger sister of Anteia, and shared with him half his kingdom, with fine vineyards and grain fields. The lady Philonoe bore him Isander, Hippolochus and Laodamia, who lay with Zeus the Counselor and bore Sarpedon but was slain by Artemis However, as Bellerophon's fame grew, so did his hubris. Bellerophon felt that because of his victory over the Chimera he deserved to fly to Mount Olympus, the realm of the gods. However, this presumption angered Zeus and he sent a fly to sting the horse causing Bellerophon to fall all the way back to Earth. Pegasus completed the flight to Olympus where Zeus used him as a pack horse for his thunderbolts. On the Plain of Aleion ("Wandering"), Bellepheron, who had fallen into a thorn bush, lived out his life in misery as a blinded cripple, grieving and shunning the haunts of men. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 46 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City VI. Achilles In Greek mythology, Achilles (Ancient Greek: Ἀχιλλεύς) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War, the central character and the greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad. Achilles also has the attributes of being the most handsome of the heroes assembled against Troy. Later legends (beginning with a poem by Statius in the first century AD) state that Achilles was invulnerable in all of his body except for his heel. Legend states that Achilles was semi-immortal, however his heel was vulnerable. Since he died due to a poisoned arrow shot into his heel, the "Achilles' heel" has come to mean a person's principal weakness. Birth A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 47 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Achilles was the son of the nymph Thetis and Peleus, the king of the Myrmidons. Zeus and Poseidon had been rivals for the hand of Thetis until Prometheus, the fire-bringer, warned Zeus of a prophecy that Thetis would bear a son greater than his father. For this reason, the two gods withdrew their pursuit, and had her wed Peleus. As with most mythology there is a tale which offers an alternative version of these events: in Argonautica (iv.760) Hera alludes to Thetis's chaste resistance to the advances of Zeus, that Thetis was so loyal to Hera's marriage bond that she coolly rejected him. According to a fragment of an Achilleis— the Achilleid, written by Statius in the first century AD, and to no other sources, when Achilles was born Thetis tried to make him immortal by dipping him in the river Styx. However, he was left vulnerable at the part of the body she held him by, his heel. (See Achilles heel, Achilles' tendon.) It is not clear if this version of events was known earlier. In another version of this story, Thetis anointed the boy in ambrosia and put him on top of a fire to burn away the mortal parts of his body. She was interrupted by Peleus and abandoned both father and son in a rage. However none of the sources before Statius makes any reference to this general invulnerability. To the contrary, in the Iliad Homer mentions Achilles being wounded: in Book 21 the Paeonian hero Asteropaeus, son of Pelagon, challenged Achilles by the river Scamander. He cast two spears at once, one grazed Achilles' elbow, "drawing a spurt of blood." Also in the fragmentary poems of the Epic Cycle in which we can find description of the hero's death, Kúpria (unknown author), Aithiopis by Arctinus of Miletus, Ilias Mikrá by Lesche of Mytilene, Iliou pérsis by Arctinus of Miletus, there is no trace of any reference to his general invulnerability or his famous weakness (heel); in the later vase-paintings presenting Achilles' death, the arrow (or in many cases, arrows) hit his body. Peleus entrusted Achilles to Chiron the Centaur, on Mt. Pelion, to be raised. Achilles in the Trojan War The first two lines of the Iliad read: μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος οὐλομένην, ἣ μυρί' Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε' ἔθηκεν, Sing, Goddess, of the rage, of Peleus' son Achilles the accursed rage, which brought pain to thousands of the Achaeans. Achilles is the only mortal to experience consuming rage. His anger is at some times wavering, but at other times he cannot be cooled. The humanization of Achilles by the events of the war is an important theme of the narrative. Telephus When the Greeks left for the Trojan War, they accidentally stopped in Mysia, ruled by King Telephus. In the resulting battle, Achilles gave Telephus a wound that would not heal; Telephus consulted an oracle, who stated that "he that wounded shall heal". Guided by the oracle, he arrived at Argos, where Achilles heals him in order that he becomes their guide for the voyage to Troy. According to other reports in Euripides' lost play about Telephus, he went to Aulis pretending to be a beggar and asked Achilles to heal his wound. Achilles refused, claiming to have no medical knowledge. Alternatively, Telephus held Orestes for ransom, the ransom being Achilles' aid in healing the wound. Odysseus reasoned that the spear had inflicted the wound; therefore, the spear must be able to heal it. Pieces of the spear were scraped off onto the wound and Telephus was healed. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 48 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Troilus According to the Cypria (the part of the Epic Cycle that tells the events of the Trojan War before Achilles' Wrath), when the Achaeans desired to return home, they were restrained by Achilles, who afterwards attacked the cattle of Aeneas, sacked neighboring cities and killed Troilus. According to Dares Phrygius' Account of the Destruction of Troy, the Latin summary through which the story of Achilles was transmitted to medieval Europe, Troilus was a young Trojan prince, the youngest of King Priam's (or sometimes Apollo) and Hecuba's five legitimate sons. Despite his youth, he was one of the main Trojan War leaders. Prophecies linked Troilus' fate to that of Troy and so he was ambushed in an attempt to capture him. Yet Achilles, struck by the beauty of both Troilas and his sister Polyxena, and overcome with lust directed his sexual attentions on the youth - who refusing to yield found instead himself decapitated upon an altar-omphalos of Apollo. Later versions of the story suggested Troilas was accidentally killed by Achilles in an over-ardent lovers' embrace. In this version of the myth, Achilles' death therefore came in retribution for this sacrilege. Ancient writers treated Troilus as the epitome of a dead child mourned by his parents. Had Troilus lived to adulthood, the First Vatican Mythographer claimed Troy would have been invincible. In the Iliad Homer's Iliad is the most famous narrative of Achilles' deeds in the Trojan War. The Homeric epic only covers a few weeks of the war, and does not narrate Achilles' death. It begins with Achilles' withdrawal from battle after he is dishonored by Agamemnon, the commander of the Achaean forces. Agamemnon had taken a woman named Chryseis as his slave. Her father Chryses, a priest of Apollo, begged Agamemnon to return her to him. Agamemnon refused and Apollo sent a plague amongst the Greeks. The prophet Calchas correctly determined the source of the troubles but would not speak unless Achilles vowed to protect him. Achilles did so and Calchas declared Chryseis must be returned to her father. Agamemnon consented, but then commanded that Achilles' battle prize Briseis be brought to replace Chryseis. Angry at the dishonor (and as he says later, because he loved Briseis) and at the urging of Thetis, Achilles refused to fight or lead his troops alongside the other Greek forces. As the battle turned against the Greeks, Nestor declared that the Trojans were winning because Agamemnon had angered Achilles, and urged the king to appease the warrior. Agamemnon agreed and sent Odysseus and two other chieftains to Achilles with the offer of the return of Briseis and other gifts. Achilles took back Briseis and refused the other gifts and urged the Greeks to sail home as he was planning to do. Eventually, however, hoping to retain glory despite his absence from the battle, Achilles prayed to his mother Thetis, asking her to plead with Zeus to allow the Trojans to push back the Greek forces. The Trojans, led by Hector, subsequently pushed the Greek army back toward the beaches and assaulted the Greek ships. With the Greek forces on the verge of absolute destruction, Patroclus led the Myrmidons into battle, though Achilles remained at his camp. Patroclus succeeded in pushing the Trojans back from the beaches, but was killed by Hector before he could lead a proper assault on the city of Troy. After receiving the news of the death of Patroclus from Antilochus, the son of Nestor, Achilles grieved over his close friend's death and held many funeral games in his honor. His mother Thetis came to comfort the distraught Achilles. She persuaded Hephaestus to make new armor for him, in place of the armor that Patroclus had been wearing which was taken by Hector. The new armor included the Shield of Achilles, described in great detail by the poet. Enraged over the death of Patroclus, Achilles ended his refusal to fight and took the field killing many men in his rage but always seeking out Hector. Achilles even engaged in battle with the river god Scamander who became angry that Achilles was choking his waters with all the men he killed. The god tried to drown Achilles but was stopped by Hera and Hephaestus. Zeus himself took note of Achilles' rage and sent the gods to restrain him so that he would not go on to sack Troy itself, seeming to show that the unhindered rage of Achilles could defy fate itself as Troy was not meant to be destroyed yet. Finally Achilles found his prey. Achilles chased Hector around the wall of Troy three times before Athena, in the form of Hector's favorite and dearest brother, Deiphobus, persuaded Hector to stop running and fight Achilles face to face. After Hector A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 49 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City realized the trick, he knew the battle was inevitable. Wanting to go down fighting, he charged at Achilles with his only weapon, his sword, but missed. Accepting his fate, Hector begged Achilles – not to spare his life, but to treat his body with respect after killing him. Achilles told Hector it was hopeless to expect that of him, declaring that "my rage, my fury would drive me now to hack your flesh away and eat you raw — such agonies you have caused me". Achilles then got his vengeance, killing Hector with a single blow to the neck and tying the Trojan's body to his chariot, dragging it around the battlefield for nine days. With the assistance of the god Hermes, Hector's father, Priam, went to Achilles' tent to plead with Achilles to permit him to perform for Hector his funeral rites. The final passage in the Iliad is Hector's funeral, after which the doom of Troy was just a matter of time. Penthesilea Achilles, after his temporary truce with Priam, fought and killed the Amazonian warrior queen Penthesilea, but later grieved over her death. At first, he was so distracted by her beauty; he did not fight as intensely as usual. Once he realized that his distraction was endangering his life, due to Penthesilia's superior fighting skills, he refocused, and killed her. As he grieved over the death of such a rare beauty, a notorious Greek jeerer by the name of Thersites laughed and mocked the great Achilles. Annoyed by his insensitivity and disrespect, Achilles punched him in the face and killed him instantly. Memnon, and the fall of Achilles Following the death of Patroclus, Achilles' closest companion was Nestor's son Antilochus. When Memnon, king of Ethiopia killed Antilochus, Achilles was once again drawn onto the battlefield to seek revenge. The fight between Achilles and Memnon over Antilochus echoes that of Achilles and Hector over Patroclus, except that Memnon (unlike Hector) was also the son of a goddess. Many Homeric scholars argued that episode inspired many details in the Iliad's description of the death of Patroclus and Achilles' reaction to it. The episode then formed the basis of the cyclic epic Aethiopis, which was composed after the Iliad, possibly in the 7th century B.C. The Aethiopis is now lost, except for scattered fragments quoted by later authors. As predicted by Hector with his dying breath, Achilles was thereafter killed by Paris with an arrow (to the heel according to Statius). In some versions, the god Apollo guided Paris's arrow. Some retellings also state that Achilles was scaling the gates of Troy and was hit with a poisoned arrow. Both versions conspicuously deny the killer any sort of valor owing to the common conception that Paris was a coward and not the man his brother Hector was, and Achilles remained undefeated on the battlefield. His bones were mingled with those of Patroclus, and funeral games were held. He was represented in the lost Trojan War epic of Arctinus of Miletus as living after his death in the island of Leuke at the mouth of the river Danube (see below). Another version of Achilles' death is that he fell deeply in love with one of the Trojan princesses, Polyxena, Achilles asks Priam for Polyxena's hand in marriage. Priam is willing because it would mean the end of the war and an alliance with the world's greatest warrior. But while Priam is overseeing the private marriage of Polyxena and Achilles, Paris who would have to give up Helen if Achilles married his sister hides in the bushes and shoots Achilles with a divine arrow killing him. Paris was later killed by Philoctetes using the enormous bow of Heracles. Fate of Achilles' armor Achilles' armor was the object of a feud between Odysseus and Telamonian Ajax (Ajax the greater). They competed for it by giving speeches on why they were the bravest after Achilles to their Trojan prisoners, who after considering both men came to a consensus. Odysseus won. Furious, Ajax cursed Odysseus, which earned the ire of Athena. Athena temporarily made Ajax mad with grief and anguish as he began killing sheep, thinking they were his comrades. After a while, Athena had lifted the madness and Ajax had seen that he had actually been killing sheep. In his embarrassment, he then committed suicide. Odysseus eventually gave the armor to Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 50 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City A relic claimed to be Achilles' bronze-headed spear was for centuries preserved in the temple of Athena on the acropolis of Phaselis, Lycia, a port on the Pamphylian Gulf. The city was visited in 333 by Alexander the Great, who envisioned himself as the new Achilles and carried the Iliad with him, but his court biographers do not mention the spear, which he would indeed have touched with excitement. But it was being shown in the time of Pausanias in the second century AD. Achilles and Patroclus Achilles' relationship with Patroclus is a key aspect of his myth. Its exact nature has been a subject of dispute in both the classical period and modern times. In the Iliad, they appeared to be generally portrayed as a model of deep and loyal friendship. However, commentators from the classical period to today have tended to interpret the relationship through the lens of their own cultures. Thus, in 5th century BC Athens the relationship was commonly interpreted as pederastic. Contemporary readers are more likely to interpret the two heroes either as non-sexual "war buddies", or as an egalitarian homosexual couple. VII. Oddyseus Odysseus or Ulysses (Greek Ὀδυσσεύς, Odusseus; Latin: Ulixes, Ulysses), in Greek mythology pronounced /oʊˈdɪsiəs/, was a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem, the Odyssey. Odysseus also plays a key role in Homer's Iliad and other works in the Epic Cycle. King of Ithaca, husband of Penelope, father of Telemachus, and son of Laërtes and Anticlea, Odysseus is renowned for his guile and resourcefulness, and is hence known by the epithet Odysseus the Cunning. (See mētis, or "cunning intelligence"). He is most famous for the ten eventful years he took to return home after the ten-year Trojan War and his famous Trojan horse trick. Parentage A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 51 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Relatively little is known of Odysseus's background other than that his paternal grandfather (or step-grandfather) is Arcesius, son of Cephalus and grandson of Aeolus, whilst his maternal grandfather is the thief Autolycus, son of Hermes and Chione. According to the Odyssey, his father is Laertes and his mother Anticleia, although there was a non-Homeric tradition that Sisyphus was his true father. Ithaca, an island along the Ionian northwestern coastline of Greece, is one of several islands that would have comprised the realm of Odysseus's family, but the true extent of the Cephallenian realm and the actual identities of the islands named in Homer's works are unknown. "Cruel Odysseus" Homer's Iliad and Odyssey portrayed Odysseus as a culture hero, but the Romans, who believed themselves the scions of Prince Aeneas of Troy, considered him a villainous falsifier. In Virgil's Aeneid, he is constantly referred to as "cruel Odysseus" (Latin "dirus Ulixes") or "deceitful Odysseus" ("pellacis", "fandi fictor"). Turnus, in Aeneid ix, reproaches the Trojan Ascanius with images of rugged, forthright Latin virtues, declaring (in John Dryden's translation), "You shall not find the sons of Atreus here, nor need the frauds of sly Ulysses fear." While the Greeks admired his cunning and deceit, these qualities did not recommend themselves to the Romans who possessed a rigid sense of honour. In Euripides's tragedy Iphigenia at Aulis, having convinced Agamemnon to consent to the sacrifice of his daughter, Iphigenia, to appease the goddess Artemis, Odysseus facilitates the immolation by telling her mother, Clytemnestra, that the girl is to be wed to Achilles. His attempts to avoid his sacred oath to defend Menelaus and Helen offended Roman notions of duty; the many stratagems and tricks that he employed to get his way offended Roman notions of honour. Before the Trojan War When Helen was abducted, Menelaus called upon the other suitors to honour their oaths and help him to retrieve her, thus forging the Trojan War. Odysseus tried to avoid it by feigning lunacy, as an oracle had prophesied a long-delayed return home for him if he went. He hooked a donkey and an ox to his plough (as they have different stride lengths, hindering the efficiency of the plough) and sowing his fields with salt. Palamedes, at the behest of Menelaus's brother Agamemnon, sought to disprove Odysseus's madness, and placed Telemachus, Odysseus's infant son, in front of the plough. Odysseus veered the plough away from his son, thus destroying his ruse. Odysseus held a grudge against Palamedes during the war for dragging him away from his home. Odysseus and other envoys of Agamemnon traveled to Scyros to recruit Achilles because of a prophecy that Troy could not be taken without him. By most accounts, Thetis, Achilles's mother, disguised the youth as a woman to hide him from the recruiters because an oracle had predicted that Achilles would either live a long, uneventful life or achieve everlasting glory while dying young. Odysseus cleverly discovered which of the women before him was Achilles when the youth stepped forward to examine an array of weapons. Some accounts say that Odysseus arranged for the sounding of a battle horn, which prompted Achilles to clutch a weapon. Just before the war began, Odysseus accompanied Menelaus and Palamedes in an attempt to negotiate Helen's peaceful return. Menelaus made unpersuasive emotional arguments, but Odysseus's arguments very nearly persuaded the Trojan court to hand Helen over. During the Trojan War Odysseus was one of the main Achaean leaders in the Trojan War. The others were "godlike" Achilles, Agamemnon "lord of men", Menelaus, Idomeneus, Nestor, Telamonian Ajax and Ajax the Lesser, Diomedes and Teucer the master archer. The Iliad Odysseus was one of the most influential Greek champions during the Trojan War. Along with Nestor and Idomeneus he was one of the most trusted counsellors and advisers. He always championed the Achaean cause, especially when the king was in question, as in one instance when Thersites spoke against him. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 52 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City When Agamemnon, to test the morale of the Achaeans, announced his intentions to depart Troy, Odysseus restored order to the Greek camp. Later on, after many of the heroes had left the battlefield due to injuries (including Odysseus and Agamemnon), Odysseus once again persuaded Agamemnon not to withdraw. Along with two other envoys, he was chosen in the failed embassy to try to persuade Achilles to return to combat. When Hector proposed a single combat duel, Odysseus was one of the Danaans who volunteered to battle him. Telamonian Ajax, however, was the volunteer who eventually did fight Hector. Odysseus aided Diomedes during the successful night operations in order to kill Rhesus, because it had been foretold that if his horses drank from the Scamander river Troy could not be taken. After Patroclus had been slain, it was Odysseus who counselled Achilles to let the Achaean men eat and rest rather than follow his rage-driven desire to go back on the offensive—and kill Trojans— immediately. Eventually (and reluctantly), he consented. During the funeral games for Patroclus, Odysseus became involved in a wrestling match with Telamonian Ajax, as well as a foot race. With the help of the goddess Athena, who favoured him, and despite Apollo helping another of the competitors, he won the race and managed to draw the wrestling match, to the surprise of all. Odysseus has traditionally been viewed in the Iliad as Achilles's antithesis: while Achilles's anger is all-consuming and of a self-destructive nature, Odysseus is frequently viewed as a man of the mean, world-renowned for his self-restraint and diplomatic skills. Professor Adele Haft, in her essay Odysseus' Wrath and Grief in the "Iliad", observes that there might be more to Odysseus's nature than initially appears on the surface. Haft makes several observations that raise questions about the traditional approach to his character. Haft notes that Odysseus is the only other character besides Achilles to receive a verbal reprimand from Agamemnon. There are repeated suggestions that Agamemnon and Odysseus's relationship is strained: it is not Agamemnon but Nestor who selects Odysseus for his every mission in the Iliad. Haft explains Odysseus's displays of wrath, as well as his strained relationship with Agamemnon, as indicators that Odysseus will ultimately be responsible for the sacking of Troy. Haft points to the death of Democoon in Book IV as a prime example of the consequences of Odysseus's anger, for it results in a massive reduction of Trojan morale as well as a retreat. Haft goes on to suggest that Democoon's death, in conjunction with the death of Simoeisius, previses the destruction of Troy. Other stories When the Achaean ships reached the beach of Troy, no one would jump ashore, since there was an oracle that the first Achaean to jump on Trojan soil would die. Odysseus tossed his shield on the shore and jumped on his shield. He was followed by Protesilaus, who jumped on Trojan soil and later became the first to die. Odysseus never forgave Palamedes for unmasking his madness ruse, leading him to frame him as a traitor. At one point, Odysseus convinced a Trojan captive to write a letter pretending to be from Palamedes. A sum of gold was mentioned to have been sent as a reward for Palamedes's treachery. Odysseus then killed the prisoner and hid the gold in Palamedes's tent. He ensured that the letter was found and acquired by Agamemnon, and also gave hints directing the Argives to the gold. This was evidence enough for the Greeks and they had Palamedes stoned to death. Other sources say that Odysseus and Diomedes goaded Palamedes into descending a wall with the prospect of treasure being at the bottom. When Palamedes reached the bottom, the two proceeded to bury him with stones, killing him. When Achilles was slain in battle, it was Odysseus and Telamonian Ajax who successfully retrieved the fallen warrior's body and armour in the thick of heavy fighting. During the funeral games for Achilles, Odysseus competed once again with Telamonian Ajax. Thetis said that the arms of Achilles would go to the bravest of the Greeks, but only these two warriors dared lay claim to that title. The two Argives became embroiled in a heavy dispute about one another's merits to receive the reward. The Greeks dithered out of fear in deciding a winner, because they did not want to insult one and have him abandon the war effort. Nestor suggested that they allow the captive Trojans decide the winner. Some accounts disagree, suggesting that the Greeks held a secret vote. In any case, Odysseus was the winner. Enraged and humiliated, Ajax was driven mad A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 53 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City by Athena. When he returned to his senses, in shame at how he had slaughtered livestock in his madness, Ajax killed himself by the sword that Hector had given him Together with Diomedes, Odysseus went to fetch Achilles's son, Pyrrhus, to come to the aid of the Achaeans, because an oracle had stated that Troy could not be taken without him. A great warrior, Pyrrhus was named Neoptolemus (Greek: "new hero"). Upon the success of the mission, Odysseus gave him the armaments of his father. It was later learned that the war could not be won without the poison arrows of Heracles, which were owned by the abandoned Philoctetes. Odysseus and Diomedes (or, according to some accounts, Odysseus and Neoptolemus) went out to retrieve them. Upon their arrival, Philoctetes (still suffering from the wound) was seen still to be enraged at the Danaans, especially Odysseus, for abandoning him. Although his first instinct was to shoot Odysseus, his anger was eventually diffused by Odysseus's persuasive powers and the influence of the gods. Odysseus returned to the Argive camp with Philoctetes and his arrows. Odysseus captured Priam's son, Helenus the prophet, who told the Greeks that Troy could not be taken without the capture of the Palladium, which was located in the city itself. (Some accounts hold that Helenus was the one that told the Greeks to recruit Neoptolemus and Philoctetes.) Once again, Odysseus and Diomedes went on a mission together to fulfill a prophecy. Some say that Diomedes crawled up on Odysseus's shoulders into the city but would not help Odysseus up to do the same. When Diomedes returned from stealing the Palladium and met up again with the infuriated Odysseus, the latter thought to kill him and take credit for himself. He stepped behind him so as to stab him with his sword, but Diomedes caught the glint in the moonlight and spun around and disarmed the Ithacan king. He then proceeded to drive Odysseus back to the Argive camp with the flat of his sword. Another account of the stealing of the Palladium states that Odysseus and Diomedes entered the city together. Some myths state that Odysseus, in the disguise of a beggar, covered in rags and blood, entered the Trojan city furtively and alone. He was recognized by no one except Helen and Hecuba. They questioned him but allowed him to return to the Greek camp unharmed. The famous Trojan Horse was devised by Odysseus. It was built by Epeius and filled with Greek warriors, led by Odysseus. Beforehand, he made Menelaus swear to give him whatever he wanted after they had taken Troy and was met with concord. When the Horse was taken into Troy, Odysseus and Menelaus descended from it and went directly to Prince Deiphobos's house, where they engaged in a ferocious battle, although some accounts say that Odysseus fought him and that Menelaus came to find the dead body. Ultimately, however, Deiphobos, who was then the leading son of Priam and Helen's third husband, was killed. Menelaus was about to kill Helen for leaving him when Odysseus took advantage of the earlier promise and made him swear not to. In Euripedes's "The Trojan Women", it is Odysseus who convinces the other Argives to kill Hector's young son so that he has no chance to avenge his city. Journey home to Ithaca The Cicones After Odysseus left Troy he came first to Ismarus, the land of the Cicones. They sacked the town, and divided up the booty fairly. Odysseus then (according to his account given to Alcinous) gave orders to leave, but his men were anxious to stay and feast. The Cicones rallied back up with troops who had chariots from inland and launched a surprise attack. In a large battle by the ships Odysseus and his men fought valiantly, but as the battle dragged on the Cicones broke their defensive line. Odysseus lost six men from each of his ships before they fled. The Lotus-Eaters A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 54 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Ismarus is the last definite historical location Odysseus visited. As if to emphasise his passing into the land of myth and legend, he was driven for ten days When Odysseus and his men landed on the island of the Lotus-Eaters, Odysseus sent out a scouting party of three men who ate the lotus with the natives. This caused them to stop caring about going home, and desire only to eat the lotus. Odysseus went after the scouting party, and dragged them back to the ship against their will. He set sail, with the drugged sailors tied to the rowing benches to prevent them from swimming back to the island. Polyphemus Odysseus landed on an island full of goats. Nearby, within earshot, was the territory of the Cyclopes. Drawn by the sounds of civilisation, Odysseus sailed over to it with a single ship. He took a dozen men with him as a scouting party (including Achaemenides and Antiphus) and entered a large cave. They did not realise that it was the dwelling of Polyphemus the Cyclops. When he returned, he refused hospitality to his uninvited guests, and trapped them in the cave by blocking the entrance with a boulder that could not be moved by mortal men. He then proceeded to eat a pair of them at each meal, finally eating Antiphus as one of the third pair, but Odysseus devised a cunning plan. He and his men turned the olive tree branch which Polyphemus used to shepherd his flocks with into a giant spear, while Polyphemus was out of the cave shepherding his flocks. To lower Polyphemus's guard, Odysseus gave him the strong, unwatered wine given them by Maron, the Ismaran priest of Apollo. When the thoroughly inebriated Polyphemus asked for his name, Odysseus told him that it was "Noman". (Οὔτις, "Noman", is also a short form of his own name - a word game which is lost in translated versions.) In thanks for the wine, Polyphemus offered to eat him last. Once the giant fell asleep, Odysseus and his men drove their specially fashioned spear through his single eye, and blinded him. Hearing Polyphemus's cries, other Cyclopes called up to his cave to ask what was wrong. Polyphemus replied, "Οὖτίς με κτείνει δόλῳ οὐδὲ βίηφιν." ("Noman is killing me either by treachery or brute violence!") The other Cyclopes let him be, thinking that his outbursts must be either madness or the will of the gods. In the morning, Polyphemus rolled back the boulder to let the sheep out to graze. Now blind, he could not see the men, but he felt the tops of his sheep to make sure that the men were not riding them, and spread his arm at the entrance of the cave. Odysseus and his six remaining men escaped, however, by tying themselves to the undersides of three sheep each. Once out, they loaded the sheep aboard their ship and set sail. According to Virgil, they accidentally left Achaemenides behind in their rush. As Odysseus and his men were sailing away, he revealed his true identity to Polyphemus. Enraged, Polyphemus tried to sink the ship with boulders, but, because he was blind, he missed, although the rocks landed close enough to rock the ship. When the ship appeared to be getting away at last, Polyphemus raised his arms to his father, Poseidon, and asked him to not allow Odysseus to get back home to Ithaca. If this could not be granted, however, he must arrive alone, his crew dead, in a stranger's ship. This event is the setting for the only surviving complete satyr play, Cyclops by Euripides. This version contains a more humorous version of the story by including the cowardly satyrs. According to Virgil's Aeneid, Achaemenides was one of Odysseus's crew who stayed on Sicily with Polyphemus until Aeneas arrived and took him with him. Virgil was probably trying to interweave his tale as much as possible with Homer's already ancient, great work, especially as Achaemenides had nothing to do with the story at all and was in fact never mentioned again. Aeolus Continuing his journey, Odysseus stopped at Aeolia, the home of Aeolus, the mortal favoured by the gods enough to be given the power of controlling the winds. Aeolus gave Odysseus and his crew hospitality for a month, in return for Odysseus's interesting stories. Aeolus also provided a bag filled with all winds but the one to lead him home. Because Odysseus guarded the bag for the entire voyage home, without so much as a wink of sleep, his crew suspected that some treasure might be in it. They decided to open it as soon as he fell asleep — just before their home was reached. They were immediately blown back to Aeolia by a violent storm. Aeolus refused to offer any more help because he realized that Odysseus must be cursed by the gods. Odysseus A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 55 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City had to begin his journey from Aeolia to Ithaca over again. Although heartbroken, he hid his feelings from his crew. The Laestrygonians They came next to Telepylos, the stronghold of Lamos, king of the Laestrygonians. Odysseus's ships entered a harbour surrounded by steep cliffs, with a single entrance between two headlands. The captains took their ships inside and made them fast close to one another, where it was dead calm. Odysseus kept his own ship outside the harbour, moored to a rock. He could see nothing but some smoke rising from over the horizon. He sent two of his company with an attendant to investigate the inhabitants. The men followed a road and eventually met a young woman, who said she was a daughter of Antiphates (another name for Lamos), the king, and directed them to his house. When they arrived there, however, they found a gigantic woman, the wife of Antiphates who promptly called her husband. He immediately left the assembly of the people and, on arrival, snatched up one of the men and started to eat him. The other two ran away, but Antiphates raised a hue-and-cry. Soon they were pursued by many Laestrygonians - men with the strength of giants - who threw vast rocks from the cliffs, smashing the ships, and speared the men like fish. Odysseus escaped with his single ship due only to the fact that it was not trapped in the harbour. The rest of his company was lost. Circe The next stop was Aeaea, the island of the enchantress Circe, where Odysseus sent ahead a scouting party. Circe invited the scouting party in for a meal, and turned all the men into swine after they ate food laced with one of her magical sleep-inducing potions. Only the leader of the scouting party, Eurylochus, suspecting treachery from the outset, escaped to warn Odysseus and the others, who had stayed behind with the ships. Odysseus, against Eurylochus's advice, set forth to rescue his transfigured men but was intercepted by Hermes and told to procure the herb moly, which would protect him from a similar fate. When it neutralized her magic, he threatened to kill her. She begged for mercy, and offered to sleep with him. He forced her to swear not to plot against him any longer, then obliged by Hermes's counsel. He then refused to eat and drink until his crew was turned back into humans. When she had done this, she asked Odysseus to stay. This he did, for an entire year. He eventually left Aeaea at the insistence of his crew. Circe agreed that it was time for him to go, and gave him advice about the remainder of his journey. During the preparation for departure, however, Odysseus's youngest crewman, Elpenor, fell from a roof and died. Circe subsequently bore Odysseus a son, Telegonus, who would eventually cause his father's death. Journey to the Underworld After speaking to Circe, Odysseus decided to talk with Tiresias, so he and his men journeyed to the River Acheron in Hades, where they performed sacrifices which allowed them to speak to the dead. Odysseus sacrificed a ram, attracting the dead spirits to the blood. He held them at bay and demanded to speak with Tiresias, who told him how to pass by Helios's cattle and the whirlpool-causing monster Charybdis. Tiresias also told him that, after his return to Ithaca, he must take a well-made oar and walk inland with it to parts where no-one mixed sea salt with food, until someone asked him why he carries a winnowing fan. At that place, he must fix the oar in the ground and make a sacrifice to appease Poseidon. Tiresias also told Odysseus that, after that was done, he would die an old man, "full of years and peace of mind"; his death would come from the sea and his life ebb away gently. (Some read this as saying that his death would come away from the sea, as opposed to out of the sea.) A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 56 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City While in Hades, Odysseus also met Achilles (who told him that he would rather be a slave on earth than the king of the dead), Agamemnon, and his mother, Anticlea. The soul of Ajax, still sulking about Achilles's armour, refused to speak to Odysseus, despite the latter's pleas of regret. Odysseus also met his comrade, Elpenor, who told him of the manner of his death and begged him to give him an honorable burial. The Sirens At Elpenor's funeral, Circe warned Odysseus of the dangers of the singing creatures who lured men to their death on the rocks around their island. She advised him to avoid them but said that, if he really felt that he must listen, he should have his men plug their ears with beeswax and tie him to the mast to keep him from escaping. Odysseus told his men to do so. As they passed the island, the three Sirens began to sing beautifully, promising him wisdom and knowledge of past and future. Enchanted by their song, he struggled and tried to break free, but Eurylochus and Perimedes bound him even more tightly until they passed beyond the island. Scylla and Charybdis Odysseus had been told by Circe that he would have a choice between two paths home. One was the Wandering Rocks, where either all made it through or all died, and which had only previously been passed by Jason, with Zeus's help. Odysseus, however, chose the second path: on one side of the strait was a monster called Charybdis, whose whirlpool would sink the ship; on the other was a monster called Scylla, daughter of Crataeis, who had six heads and could seize and eat six men. The advice was to sail close to Scylla and lose six men but not to fight, lest they should lose more men. Odysseus did not dare tell his crew of the sacrifice, or they would have cowered below and not rowed, in which case all would have ended up in Charybdis. Six men duly died. Odysseus said that the desperate cries of the wretched, betrayed men were the worst thing he had ever known. Clearly this affected morale and left the survivors feeling mutinous. The Cattle of Helios Finally, Odysseus and his surviving crew approached an island, Thrinacia, which was sacred to Helios, who kept hallowed cattle there. Odysseus, having been warned by Tiresias and Circe not to touch these cattle, told his men that they would not land there. Eurylochus first argued that the men were mourning, then refused to travel by night and finally threatened mutiny. Outnumbered, Odysseus gave in. The men were soon trapped on the island by adverse winds and, after their food stores had run out, began to get hungry. Odysseus went inland to pray for help and fell asleep. In his absence, Eurylochus reasoned that they might as well eat the cattle and be killed by the gods as die of starvation, and claimed that they would offer sacrifices and treasure to appease the gods if they returned alive to Ithaca. When they slaughtered the cattle, the guardians of the island, Helios's daughters Lampetia and Phaethusa, told their father, who told to Zeus that he would take the sun down to Hades if justice was not done. When the ship put to sea, a storm conjured by Zeus killed all the rest but Odysseus. The crewless ship was sucked into Charybdis, but Odysseus survived by clinging to an olive tree below Scylla's cave. When Charybdis spat out the remains of his ship, he let go and landed on the keel, which drifted across the sea for nine days. Then on the tenth day, he was washed up on an island. Calypso and the Phaeacians The island, Ogygia, was home to the nymph Calypso (daughter of Atlas), who held Odysseus captive as her lover for seven years, promising him immortality if he agreed to stay. On behalf of Athena, Zeus intervened and sent Hermes to tell Calypso to let him go. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 57 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Odysseus duly departed on a small raft, furnished by Calypso with provisions of water, wine and food, only to be hit by a storm from his old enemy Poseidon. He was washed up on the island of Scheria and found by Nausicaa, the daughter of King Alcinous and Queen Arete of the Phaeacians, who entertained him well. The bard Demodocus sung a song about the Trojan War. As Odysseus, as yet unidentified by the Phaeacians, had been at Troy and longed to return home, he wept at it, at which point Alcinous pressed him for his true identity. It is here that the story of Odysseus's trip from Troy to Scheria, which occupies books nine to twelve of The Odyssey, is told. After his recital, the Phaeacians offer him passage home, with all the hoardings he obtained along the way and the gifts the Phaecians themselves bestowed upon him (showing xenia, the idea of hospitality). King Alcinous provided one fast Phæacian ship that soon carried Odysseus home to Ithaca. Poseidon, on seeing Odysseus's return, was furious and decided to cast a ring of mountains around Scheria so that they could never sail again. This would have been very damaging to the Phaeacians, for they were seafarers, but Zeus persuaded Poseidon not to go ahead with the idea. Instead, he turned the ship on which Odysseus journeyed home to stone. Odysseus reaches Ithaca Back in Ithaca, Penelope was having difficulties, her husband having been gone for twenty years. She did not know whether he was alive or dead, and was beset with numerous men who thought that a fairly young widow and queen of a small but tidy kingdom was a great prize: they pestered her to declare Odysseus dead and choose a new husband. They loitered about the palace, eating her food, drinking her wine and consorting with her maidservants. Penelope was despondent about her husband's absence, especially the mystery of his fate. He could come home at any time—or never. Temporising, she fended the suitors off for years, using stalling tactics that eventually began to wear thin. Meanwhile, Odysseus's mother, Anticlea, died of grief, and his father, Laërtes, was not far off the same end. Odysseus arrived on Ithaca alone. Upon landing, he was disguised by Athena as an old man or beggar, and welcomed by his old swineherd, Eumaeus, who did not recognize him but nevertheless treated him well. His son, Telemachus, after returning from a year of searching for information about his father, was the first to know his father returned after Athena revealed Odysseus for who he was in front of him. Odysseus's faithful dog, Argos, was the second to recognize him. Aged and decrepit, the animal did its best to wag its tail, but Odysseus did not want to be found out and had to maintain his cover, so the weary dog died in peace. The second human to recognize him was his old wet nurse, Euryclea, who knew him well enough to see through his rags, recognizing an old scar on his leg, received while hunting boar with Autolycus's sons. Odysseus learned that Penelope had remained faithful to him, pretending to weave a burial shroud for his father, and claiming that she would only choose a suitor when she was finished. Every day she wove a length of shroud, and every night undid her work, until one day a maid betrayed her. The suitors demanded that she finally choose a new husband. When Odysseus arrived at his house, disguised as a beggar, he sat in the hall, where he observed the suitors and was repeatedly humiliated by them. Presently, he went to Penelope and told her that he had met Odysseus, spinning a haughty tale about his bravery in battle. Penelope, still ignorant of the beggar's identity, began to cry. She went to the suitors and told them that whoever could string Odysseus's bow and shoot an arrow through 12 axe-handles would marry her. This was to Odysseus's advantage, as only he could string his bow. It is believed that his bow was a composite, requiring great skill and leverage to string, rather than brute strength. Penelope then announced what he, as the beggar, had told her. The suitors each tried to string the bow, but their attempts were in vain. Odysseus then took it, strung it, lined up twelve axe-handles and shot an arrow through all twelve. Athena then took off his disguise, and, with the help of his son, Philoteus and Eumaeus, he slaughtered all the suitors. Antinous was the first to be slain, taking an arrow fired by Odysseus in the throat while drinking in the great hall. Odysseus used arrows first, but, when he eventually ran short, he killed the remaining suitors with spears. Caught by surprise and deprived of arms by Telemachus, the suitors at a distinct disadvantage, and were only able to arm themeselves after it was too late. When all the suitors were dead, justice was meted out to the goatherd Melanthius and the female servants, who had been helping the suitors. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 58 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Penelope, still not certain that the beggar was indeed her husband, tested him. She ordered her maid to make up Odysseus's bed and move it from their bedchamber into the hall outside his room. Odysseus was furious when he heard this because one of the bed posts was made from a living olive tree. He himself had designed it this way; it could not be moved unless by a god. He told her this, and, since only he and she knew of it, she accepted that he was indeed her husband. She came running to him, hoping that he would forgive her. He did, firstly because he could understand why she had tested him and secondly because he had passed the test. To avenge the death of his son Antinous, Eupeithes tried to kill Odysseus. Laërtes killed him, and Athena thereafter required the suitors' families and Odysseus to make peace. Thus ends the story of the Odyssey. Odysseus had been told (by the shade of Tiresias) that he had one more journey to make after he had re-established his rule in Ithaca. Based on several astronomical events described in the Odyssey, some scientists have recently calculated that Odysseus returned home exactly on April 16, 1178 BC. Nine Brief Tales of Love and Adventures I. Cupid and Psyche There was once a king who had three daughters, all lovely maidens, but the youngest Psyche, excelled her sisters so great that beside them she seemed like a goddess consorting with mere mortals. The fame of her surpassing beauty spread far and wide and soon many people came to worship her as though she were a goddess. Venus' temples lay in filth and her favorite city lay in ruins, for now, all that cared for Venus cared for Psyche. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 59 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Venus grew jealous of Psyche and as always turned to her son Cupid for help. She told Cupid to go to earth and shoot Psyche with an arrow as to make her fall in love with the most despicable creature on the earth. He would have done so if he was not first shown Psyche. It was as though Cupid pierced his own heart with one of his arrows. Venus left Cupid confident that he would carry out her orders. What happened next Venus did not count on. Psyche did not fall in love with a horrible creature and still more strange she did not fall in love at all. All the men were content in worshiping and admiring her but no one ever truly loved her. Both her sisters inexpressibly inferior to her had gotten married to kings and yet she sat sad and solitary, only to be admired, not loved. Her father in discourse turned to an oracle of Apollo for advice. The oracle said that Cupid himself told him to say that Psyche be dressed in deepest mourning and placed on the summit of a mountain to be taken away by a winged serpent, stronger than the gods themselves, to make his wife. Misery came as her father told the family the lamentable news. They dressed Psyche up as though she was to attend her on funeral and walked with her to the top of the hill. Though her parents wept grievously, she kept her courage and said she was glad the time had come. They went in despairing grief leaving her helpless on the top of the mountain and returned to the palace and mourned all their days for her. As she sat atop the mountain she wept and trembled not knowing what was to come. Suddenly a warm breath of wind caressed her neck and she felt herself being lifted up and away until she came down upon a soft meadow with flowers so fragrant. She had forgotten all her fears here and fell asleep. As she woke beside a bright river; and on its bank was a stately mansion that was fit for the gods themselves. So awe-struck as she hesitated at the threshold, she heard voices telling her the house was for her and that she should bath and refresh and a banquet table will be set for her and than it told her they were her servants. The food was so delicious and the bath so refreshing. While she dined, she heard sweet melodious music, but could not see who was playing. As the day passed she began to feel reassured that she would soon meet her husband. As night came she heard the sweet whispers of her husband’s voice in her ears and realized that her husband was no monster or shape of terror, but the husband she had so desperately longed for. Psyche had not spoken with her sisters in some time and requested from her husband that she bade them welcome to the palace. He said that this would bring bad fortune upon her but she wept and wept and soon he gave in and granted her request. Her sisters greeted her with tears and embraces. Both sisters became overcome with jealousy as they realized their wealth was nothing in comparison with hers, they began plotting a way to ruin her. That very night Psyche's husband warned her once more. Already Psyche's sisters realized Psyche's contradictory remarks on the appearance of her husband and realized she had not seen him before. They began to invoke feelings of suspicion and fear that her husband was really the serpent that the oracle had said would come and that one night he would devour her. Psyche's heart began to fill with terror and not love. She plotted that night that she would sleep with a sharp knife and lamp near her bed, and that once her husband fell fast asleep that she go to his bed and plunge the dagger into his body for it was forsaken that she would see a hideously misshapen body of a monster. She was confused she thought it was her loving husband, not a serpent monster, but it also was her loving husband. She must have certainty; she finally decided one thing for sure she would see him tonight. That night she mustered up the courage and lit the lamp and tiptoed to her husband's bedside. As the light came upon him, she realized it was not a monster but the most beautiful man she had ever seen, overcome with shame at her mistrust she would have plunged the dagger into her breast if it had not fallen from her hands. But the same hands that saved her betrayed her, as she trembled, a drop of hot oil from the lamp fell on her husband's shoulder and he began to wake. At the sight of this infidelity, he fled without a word. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 60 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Psyche fled into the night in search of her husband she traveled far and wide in search for him. Meanwhile her husband had gone to Venus' chamber to have his wound cared for, but as soon as she heard the story she left her him in his pain as she became even more overcome with jealousy. She vowed to show Psyche what it felt like to bring down the wrath of a goddess. Psyche's search was to no avail, she had not found her husband so she went to Venus herself. Venus would grant her her wish if she completed the task of separating a great quantity of the smallest seeds by night fall. As she sat there alone she realized that this was an impossible task to complete. No one had heard Psyche's prayers for they did not want to become an enemy of Venus. But the the tiniest of creatures felt sympathy for her. The ants began to sort the seeds for Psyche. All the seeds lay in ordered neat piles. This is what Venus saw when she came. "Your work is by no means done" said Venus. She gave Psyche a piece of crust and bade her sleep on the ground as she left to her soft fragrant couch. The next morning, she devised another task for Psyche, this time a dangerous one. There were sheep down near the riverbank with Golden Fleece. She was to fetch some fleece and bring it back to Venus. As she reached the river, she had the urge to hurl herself into it ending all her pains, but a voice bade her not to. The voice instructed her to wait till the sheep came out of the bushes toward the evening for the sheep were indeed very fierce. She did as she was told and once the sheep left she gathered the fleece from the sharp briars and she carried it back to her cruel mistress. Venus received it with an evil smile. Venus knew that Psyche could not have accomplished this alone said that she must prove herself by obtaining a flask filled with water from the river Styx. As she approached the waterfall, she realized that only a winged creature could reach it. This time her savior was an eagle, who poised with great wings beside her, seized the flask from her with his beak and brought it back to her full of the black water. But Venus kept on. She sent Psyche with a box which she was to carry to the underworld and ask Persephone to fill with some of her beauty. Psyche found her guide in a tower on her path. It gave her careful directions on how to get to Persephone's palace. All had happened as the guide had told her and Persephone was willing to do Venus a favor, and Psyche, greatly encouraged, bore back the box. The last trial was brought upon herself out of curiosity. She wished to see the beauty-charm in the box and perhaps use some herself for she must look beautiful if she was to see the God of Love again. She opened the box but nothing was to be found inside suddenly a deadly languor took possession of her as she fell into a heavy sleep. At this point, Cupid stepped forward; Cupid was healed from his wound and had fled the palace by flying through the windows for Venus lock him in his chamber. Cupid picked Psyche up and wiped the sleep from her eyes and placed it into the box. Cupid told her to take the box to his mother and all would be fine. To make sure Cupid flew up to Mount Olympus and spoke with Jupiter himself. Although Cupid had done Jupiter harm previously by making him turn into a bull and a swan, he agreed to help him. Jupiter summoned all the gods, including Venus, and announced the marriage of Cupid and Psyche. Mercury brought Psyche to the palace of the gods, and Jupiter himself gave her the ambrosia to make her immortal. Venus was in turn satisfied for with Psyche up in Heaven, she would not command attention from the men on earth. So all came to a most happy end. Love and Soul (for that is what Psyche means) had sought and, after sore trials, found each other; that union could never be broken. II. Pyramus and Thisbe Pyramus was the handsomest youth, and Thisbe the fairest maiden, in all Babylonia, where Semiramis reigned. Their parents occupied adjoining houses; and neighborhood brought the young people together, and acquaintance ripened into love. They would gladly have married, but their parents forbade. One thing, however, they could not forbid- that love should glow with equal ardor in the bosoms of both. They conversed by signs and glances, and the fire burned more intensely for being covered up. In the wall that parted the two houses there was a crack, caused by some fault in the structure. No one had remarked it before, but the lovers discovered it. What will not love discover! It afforded a passage to the voice; and tender messages used A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 61 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City to pass backward and forward through the gap. As they stood, Pyramus on this side, Thisbe on that, their breaths would mingle. "Cruel wall," they said, "Why do you keep two lovers apart? But we will not be ungrateful. We owe you, we confess, the privilege of transmitting loving words to willing, ears." Such words they uttered on different sides of the wall; and when night came and they must say farewell, they pressed their lips upon the wall, she on her side, he on his, as they could come no nearer. Next morning, when Aurora had put out the stars, and the sun had melted the frost from the grass, they met at the accustomed spot. Then, after lamenting their hard fate, they agreed that next night, when all was still, they would slip away from the watchful eyes, leave their dwellings and walk out into the fields; and to insure a meeting, repair to a well-known edifice standing without the city's bounds, called the Tomb of Ninus, and that the one who came first should await the other at the foot of a certain tree. It was a white mulberry tree, and stood near a cool spring. All was agreed on, and they waited impatiently for the sun to go down beneath the waters and night to rise up from them. Then cautiously Thisbe stole forth, unobserved by the family, her head covered with a veil, made her way to the monument and sat down under the tree. As she sat alone in the dim light of the evening she descried a lioness, her jaws reeking with recent slaughter, approaching the fountain to slake her thirst. Thisbe fled at the sight, and sought refuge in the hollow of a rock. As she fled she dropped her veil. The lioness after drinking at the spring turned to retreat to the woods, and seeing the veil on the ground, tossed and rent it with her bloody mouth. Pyramus, having been delayed, now approached the place of meeting. He saw in the sand the footsteps of the lion, and the color fled from his cheeks at the sight. Presently he found the veil all rent and bloody. "O hapless girl," said he, "I have been the cause of thy death! Thou, more worthy of life than I, hast fallen the first victim. I will follow. I am the guilty cause, in tempting thee forth to a place of such peril, and not being myself on the spot to guard thee. Come forth, ye lions, from the rocks, and tear this guilty body with your teeth." He took up the veil, carried it with him to the appointed tree, and covered it with kisses and with tears. "My blood also shall stain your texture," said he, and drawing his sword plunged it into his heart. The blood spurted from the wound, and tinged the white mulberries of the tree all red; and sinking into the earth reached the roots, so that the red color mounted through the trunk to the fruit. By this time Thisbe, still trembling with fear, yet wishing not to disappoint her lover, stepped cautiously forth, looking anxiously for the youth, eager to tell him the danger she had escaped. When she came to the spot and saw the changed colour of the mulberries she doubted whether it was the same place. While she hesitated she saw the form of one struggling in the agonies of death. She started back; a shudder ran through her frame as a ripple on the face of the still water when a sudden breeze sweeps over it. But as soon as she recognized her lover, she screamed and beat her breast, embracing the lifeless body, pouring tears into its wounds, and imprinting kisses on the cold lips. "O Pyramus," she cried, "What has done this? Answer me, Pyramus; it is your own Thisbe that speaks. Hear me, dearest, and lift that drooping head!" At the name of Thisbe, Pyramus opened his eyes, and then closed them again. She saw her veil stained blood and the scabbard empty of its sword. "Thy own hand has slain thee, and for my sake," she said. "I too can be brave for once, and my love is as strong as thine. I will follow thee in death, for I have been the cause; and death which alone could part us shall not prevent my joining thee. And ye, unhappy parents of us both, deny us not our united request. As love and death have joined us, let one tomb contain us. And thou, tree, retain the marks of slaughter. Let thy berries still serve for memorials of our blood." So saying she plunged the sword into her breast. Her parents ratified her wish, the gods also ratified it. The two bodies were buried in one sepulchre, and the tree ever after brought forth purple berries, as it does to this day. III. Orpheus and Eurydice The very earliest musicians were gods. Gods such as Athena, Hermes, and Apollo drew sounds so harmonious that the gods on Mount Olympus forget all else. Next to these gods came few mortals so admirable in their art that they almost equaled the great gods. One of these mortals was Orpheus, son of one of the Muses and a Thracian prince. Orpheus was given the gift of music by his mother and that gift was nurtured by Thrace where he grew up. The Thracians were the most musically inclined peoples of Greece. Orpheus was unparalleled in skill when it came to mere mortals; his only rivals were the gods. No one and nothing could A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 62 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City resist him. He had the ability to control both animate and inanimate objects. Little is known about Orpheus prior to his marriage, but it is known that he sailed with Jason on the Argo. He was proved quite useful because when the heroes were weak and weary or the rowing was immensely difficult he would play his lyre arousing the freshness in the heroes thus allowing them to continue on. Orpheus also saved the Argonauts from the Sirens, he played his lyre so as to hypnotize the Sirens and drive out all thoughts except the longing to hear more of his sweet music. The Argonauts than sailed off and set there course, if it were not for Orpheus the Argonauts surely would have become defunct. It is not told where he met his wife and how he courted her, but it is known that no maiden Orpheus desired could have resisted the power of his music. Sadly immediately after the wedding as Eurydice, his wife, walked in a meadow with her bridesmaids, a viper stung her and she died. Orpheus grief was so great that he vowed to go down to the world of death and try to bring Eurydice back. As he played his lyre, Cerberus relaxed his guard; the wheel of Ixion stood motionless; Sisyphus sat at rest upon his stone; Tantalus forgot his thirst; for the first time the faces of the horrific Furies, were wet with tears. No one under his spell could refuse him. The ruler of Hades and his queen granted Orpheus' wish and summoned Eurydice and gave her to him, but upon one condition: that he would not look back at her as she followed him, until they reached the upper world. As they exited the underworld, Orpheus knew Eurydice was following him but he longed to make sure. As he stepped out of the darkness into the light he turned back, but it was too soon Eurydice still hadn't exited the cavern and as he reached for her she disappeared with one last word "Farewell." He attempted to rush after her, but the gods would not consent to allowing Orpheus to enter the underworld a second time, while he was still alive. Overcome with grief, he forsook the company of men and wandered through the wild playing his melodious lyre. At last, a band of Maenads came upon him, they mutilated Orpheus, tearing him limb from limb, and flung his head into the swift river Hebrus. The Muses discovered his head at the Lesbian shore; still without change the head was intact. His limbs were gathered and placed in a tomb at the foot of Mount Olympus, and there to this day, the nightingales sing more sweetly than anywhere else. IV. Ceyx and Alcyone Ceyx, a king in Thessaly, was son of Lucifer, the light-bearer. His wife Alcyone was also of royal blood, she was daughter of Aeolus, King of the Winds. The two loved each other relentlessly, and forbade each other from every being apart. However a day came when Ceyx decided he must leave her to make a long journey across the sea. Various troubling matters convinced Ceyx to consult an oracle about his journey. When Alcyone learned of what Ceyx planned to do she was overwhelmed with grief and terror. She told Ceyx that he should not make this voyage for it was known how powerful the winds upon the sea are. Alcyone requested that if Ceyx go on the voyage that he take her with him for as they could endure anything that comes as longs as they were together. Ceyx was deeply moved by here love for him as it was no better than his love for her, but he held stead fast on his decision. Ceyx set out to sea and that very night a fierce storm broke over the sea. The winds all met in a mad hurricane and sheets of rain poured from the heavens. All the men on the boat, quivering with fear, except one man Ceyx who had Alcyone in his mind as he rejoiced at her safety. Her name was on his lips as the ship sank and the waters closed over him. Alcyone counted off the days. She kept herself busy weaving a robe for her husband to give to him upon his return and she made another robe for herself to be lovely in when he first saw her. Many times a day she prayed to the gods for him, to Juno most of all. The goddess was touched by the prayers for Alcyone did not know she was praying for a man who had fallen to death. Juno summoned her messenger Iris and ordered her to go to the house of Somnus, God of Sleep, and bid him send a dream to Alcyone to tell her the truth about her husband. The old God of Sleep aroused his son, Morpheus, skilled in assuming the form of any and every human being, and he gave him Juno's orders. With noiseless wings he set forth and flew through the night and stood by Alcyone's bed. He had taken on the face of Ceyx drowned and dripping with water. As Ceyx had told A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 63 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Alcyone what happened on the ship she began to wake up as she did she reach to grasp Ceyx but it was too late he was gone. She told herself, "I will not leave you, my husband; I will not try to live." As the first rays of sunlight shone into her abode, she went to the shore, to the place where Ceyx had first departed. As she gazed seaward, for off in the water she saw something floating. The tide was setting and it brought this object closer and closer until she knew it was a dead body. Now it was close to the headland and she realized it was Ceyx, her husband. She ran and leaped into the water crying, "Husband, dearest!" and then instead of sinking into the waves she began to fly over them. She had wings; her body was covered with feathers. She had been changed into a bird. The gods were kind. They did the same with Ceyx. Ceyx joined her in there flight, there love was unchanged. They are always seen together, flying and riding the waves. Every year there are seven days on end in which the sea lies still and calm. These are the days when Alcyone broods over her nest floating on the sea. After the young birds are hatched the charm is broken; but each and every winter these days of peace come, and they are called after her, Alcyon, or more commonly Halcyon days. V. Pygmalion and Galatea Pygmalion, a gifted young sculptor of Cyprus, was a women-hater. He resolved never to marry. His art, he convinced himself, was enough for him. Nevertheless, the statue that he gave and devoted his life to was that of a woman. He was bent on forming the perfect women, one that no man had seen before. He worked on it daily and it grew ever beautiful as his skillful fingers caressed it. When nothing could be added to make the statue perfect, a strange fate befitted its creator; Pygmalion had fallen in love with it. He kissed those enticing lips - they were unresponsive; he took her in his arms - she remained a cold and passive. For a time he tried to pretend, as children do with their toys. He would dress her in rich robes and imagine her affection responses and he would tuck her into bed as children do their dolls. This singular passion did not long remain concealed from the Goddess of Passionate Love, Venus. Venus was rarely interested in things that came her way, but this managed to grab her attention for it was a new kind of love. She was determined to help out this young man. The feast day of Venus was, of course, especially honored in Cyprus, the island that first received the goddess after she rose from the sea foam. Many a young man and women were bearing gifts of great magnitude, and so too was Pygmalion. Venus knows what he desired and she favored his prayer by making the flame at the altar leap up to the heavens three times. Having noticed this good omen, Pygmalion sought out his house and his love. He caresses her and than started back. Was it self-deception or did she really feel warm to his touch? He kissed her lips, a long lingering kiss, and felt them grow soft beneath his lips. He touched her arms, her shoulders; their hardness vanished. It was like watching wax soften in the sun. He clasped her wrist; blood was pulsing there. "Venus," he thought, "This was the goddess' doing." With unutterable gratitude and joy, he put his arms around his love and saw her smile into his eyes and blushes. Venus herself graced their marriage with her presence, but it is not known what happened after that only that he soon named her Galatea, and that their son, Paphos, gave his name to Venus' favorite city. VI. Baucis and Philemon In the Phrygian hill-country, there were once two trees which all peasants near and far pointed out as a great marvel, and no wonder, for one was and oak and the other a linden, yet they grew from a single A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 64 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City trunk. The story of how this came about is proof of the immeasurable power of the gods, and also of the way they reward the humble and religious. Sometimes when Jupiter grew tired of eating ambrosia, drinking nectar, and even a little weary of hearing Apollo's lyre and watching the Graces dance, he would come down to earth. He would disguise himself as a mere mortal and would often travel with Mercury for he was shrewd and resourceful. On this voyage to earth, it was their attempt to see what hospitality lie on earth, for it was he who was protector of all who seek shelter in a strange land. The two gods accordingly, took on the appearance of lowly vagabonds. They walked door to door asking each home owner to admit them and provide food, but none would let them enter and the door was often barred to them. However as they reached the last house, one of which was poorer than all the rest, the door opened and a warm and cheerful voice bade them enter. As they entered, the old man set a bench near the fire and told them to rest and stretch out their tired limbs. The old women threw a soft covering over it. Her name was Philemon, she told the strangers, and her husband's Baucis. As the visitors sat at the dining table, they noticed that one leg was propped up by a piece of broken dish for it was shorter than the rest. As they served the food and the diluted wine, the couple realized that the mixing bowl kept full no matter how much had been taken out. As they saw this, their eyes were overcome with terror and dropping their eyes they prayed silently. Instead of trembling, they told their guests they had a goose and the old man attempted to catch the goose but failed in doing so. But when both painted exhausted from the chase the gods felt that is was time to take some action. "You have been hosts to gods," they said, "and you shall have your reward. This wicked country which despises the poor shall be punished, but not you." They then led the elderly couple out of the hut and then the elderly couple so in amazement as the country-side side that they had known before had disappeared. A great lake surrounded them. There lowly hut began to change into a stately pillared temple of whitest marble with a golden roof. The god granted the two a wish, and as they did so they couple huddled and whispered. The couple had two requests, one that they become priest of this temple and two that they never die alone, and that they may die together. The gods agreed and were pleased with the two. A long time they served in the the grand edifice. By now they were in extreme old age. Suddenly as they exchanged memories of there former life, each saw the other put forth leaves. Hen bark grew around them both. They had time only to cry, "Farewell, dear companion." As the words passed their lips they became trees, but still they were together. The linden and the oak grew from one trunk. VII. Endymion This young man, whose name is so famous, has a very short history. Some poets say he was a kind, some a hunter, but most of them say he was a shepherd. All agree that he was of surpassing beauty and that was the cause of his unique fate. As Endymion guarded his flock of sheep she, the Moon Selene, often looked over him in love. She often came down to Earth to caress Endymion and stare at his gracefulness in sleep. In all the stories about him he sleeps forever, immortal, but never conscious. Night after night the Moon covered him with her kisses. It is said that this eternal slumber was her doing. She lulled him to sleep so as to be able to find him and caress him as she so pleased. But it is said, too, that her passion brings her only a burden of pain, fraught with many sighs. VIII. Daphne A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 65 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City This young lady, a love-marriage hating young huntress who are met with so often in the Mythological stories. She said to have been Apollo's first love. Daphne did not want any mortal or immortal lovers. Her father was the river-god Peneus. Peneus grew tired because she refused the hand of all young men who wooed her and often asked Daphne "Am I never to have a grandson?" She insisted on being like Diana. He would yield and she would be off deep in the woods, a huntress at work. But at last Apollo saw her, and everything ended for her. As she was hunting Apollo began to chase after her but seeing as she was a highly skilled runner it took some time, but as was expected Apollo caught up to her as she reached the bank of her father's river. Bark began to form around her enclosing her; leaves set forth. She had been changed into a tree, a laurel. Apollo watched the transformation in grief and dismay. "O fairest of maidens, you are lost to me," he mourned. "But at least you shall be my tree. With your leaves my victors shall wreathe their brows. You shall have your part in all my triumphs. Apollo and his laurel shall be joined together wherever songs are sung and stories are told." The exquisite shinning-leaved tree appeared to nod its waving head as if in happy consent. IX. Alpheus and Arethusa Arethusa, yet another huntress who loved the comfort of the deep woods. She detested love and marriage and vowed never to marry. One day, as she was tired and hot from the chase, she came upon a crystal-clear river deeply shaded in silvery willows. She undressed and bathed in the river, which was a place that was perfect for bathing. For a while, she swam to and fro, until she began to feel something below her. She sprang up from the river and stood on the bank, as she heard a voice that said "Why such haste fairest maiden?" Without looking back she fled in terror. With all the speed that she could muster up, she kept running and running, but still she was pursued by one stranger, he told her he was the god of the river, Alpheus, and that he was following her only out of absolute love. But she wanted no part of him and yet he unsparingly followed. Arethusa called to her god, Artemis, she changed her into a spring of water, and split the earth so a tunnel was made under the sea from Greece to Sicily. Arethusa plunged down and emerged in Ortygia, where the place in which her spring bubbles up is holy ground, sacred to Artemis. But it is said that she is still not free of Alpheus. The story is that the god changed back into a river, followed her through the tunnel and the now his water mingles with hers in the fountain. They say that often Greek flowers are seen coming up from the bottom, and that if a wooden cup is thrown into the Alpheus in Greece, it would reappear in Arethusa's well in Sicily. Epics of Homer (The Blind Poet) A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 66 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City I. The Iliad The Iliad (Greek: Ἰλιάς, Iliás) is an epic poem recounting significant events during a portion of the final year of the Trojan War — the Greek siege of the city of Ilion (Troy) — hence the title (“pertaining to Ilios”). In twenty-four scrolls, containing 15,693 lines of dactylic hexameter, it tells the wrathful withdrawal from battle of Achilles, the premiere Greek warrior, after King Agamemnon dishonored him — an internecine quarrel disastrous to the Greek cause. This poem establishes most of the events (including Achilles’s slaying of Hector) later developed in the Epic Cycle narrative poems recounting the Trojan War events not narrated in the Iliad and the Odyssey. The Iliad, and its sequel, the Odyssey, are attributed to Homer, but his sole authorship is doubted by some scholars who think the poems exhibit different poetic styles (dialect, idiom, meter) which may indicate several authors, a presumed characteristic of the Ancient Greek oral tradition. Twentieth century scholars dated these poems to the late-ninth and early-eighth centuries BC, notably G. S. Kirk, Richard Janko, and Barry B. Powell (who links its transcription to the invention of the Greek alphabet); however, Martin West and Richard Seaford, posit either the seventh or the sixth centuries BC, as the composition time(s) of this oldest extant literary work of Ancient Greece. The titles of the poem — the Greek Iliad and the Latin Ilium — derive from the city’s name. The Trojan War subject-title derives from the English Troy, derived from the Greek Τροία and Troía; and the Latin feminines Troia and Troiæ, each denominates the State whose capital is Ilium. Moreover, Kauffman posits that the Ilios city-name derives from Wilusa, a Hittite region-name. The Iliad begins thus: μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος οὐλομένην, ἣ μυρί' Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε' ἔθηκεν, Sing, goddess, the rage of Achilles the son of Peleus, the destructive rage that sent countless ills on the Achaeans... The poem’s first word, μῆνις (mēnis) — wrath — establishes the principal theme of the Iliad: the Wrath of Achilles. At the story’s start, the Greeks quarrel about returning Chryseis, a Trojan war-prize of King Agamemnon, to her father, Chryses, an Apollonian priest. When Agamemnon, the Mycenaen King and commander of the Greeks invading Troy, refuses with a threat to ransom the girl to her father, the offended Apollo plagues them with pestilence. At an Achilles-convoked assembly, the Greeks compel Agamemnon’s returning Chryseis to appease Apollo and end the pestilence; he reluctantly agrees, but, in her stead, takes Briseis, Achilles’s war-prize concubine. Dishonored, Achilles wrathfully withdraws himself, and his Myrmidon warriors, from the Trojan War launched to abduct and kill the rescued Helen of Sparta. Thematically analogous to Achilles’s hubris is Hector’s nobility, as Trojan prince, husband, and father, defending country, kith and kin. With Achilles out of battle, Hector successfully breaches the fortified Greek camp at the Trojan shore, wounding Odysseus and Diomedes; the gods are favoring the Trojans. When they threaten to set the Greek ships afire, Patroclus dresses in Achilles’ armor to lead the Myrmidons in repelling the Trojans. In battle, Hector kills the disguised Patroclus, thinking him Achilles. In revenge, Achilles slays Hector in single combat, then defiles his corpse for days, until King Priam, aided by Hermes, recovers Hector’s corpse from Achilles, who pitying the bereaved king, empathetically consents. Hector’s funeral ends the Iliad. Homeric warfare is brutal, bloody, and mean; names, detailed battle descriptions, taunts and war cries convey the immediacy of combat, wounds, and death. A warrior’s death merely aggravates the violence, as the sides battle for booty (armor, corpses) and revenge, which, in turn, motivate the comrades of the dead to cycles of punitive attack and counterattack; the fortunate escape death by friendly charioteers and divine intervention. The Iliad features strong supernaturalism (religion): the Greek and Trojan folk are pious, their armies manned with divinely-descended heroes. They consult prophets and priests in deciding their actions with sacrifices to the gods — who join in battle, fighting mortal and immortal, whilst advising and protecting their human favorites. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 67 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City The characters of the Iliad relate the Trojan War to Greece’s other myths — Jason and the Argonauts, the Seven Against Thebes, the Labors of Hercules, et cetera — of which there exist versions, thus, Homer’s dramatic licence fitting character and event to narrative. The poem tells only of the final weeks of the war’s concluding tenth year, it tells neither of its provocation — Paris’s abducting Helen from her husband, Menelaus, King of Sparta — nor of its first nine years, nor of its ending with Achilles’s death and the fall of Troy. Those matters are subject of the Epic Cycle poems — the Theogonia and Titanomachia, about the world’s creation and early history; the Cypria, about Helen’s abduction; the Aethiopis, Ilias Parva, Iliu Persis, and Nostoi, continuations of the Iliad; and the Telegonia, about the death of Odysseus — which exist as literary fragments dating between the seventh and sixth centuries BC. The Books Homer did not name the twenty-four books of the Iliad; they were named by the translators. The poems Odyssey and Iliad each comprise an equal number of books. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Book 1: After nine years of the Trojan War, King Agamemnon seizes Briseis, Achilles’s war-concubine, for having relinquished Chryseis; dishonored, Achilles wrathfully withdraws; the gods argue the War’s outcome. Book 2: Testing Greek resolve, Agamemnon feigns a homeward order; Odysseus encourages the Greeks to pursue the fight; see the “Catalogue of Ships” and the “Catalogue of Trojans and Allies”. Book 3: In a truce, Paris and Menelaus meet in single combat for Helen, while she and King Priam watch from the city; Aphrodite rescues the over-matched Paris, yet Menelaus is the victor. Book 4: The Greek-favouring Athena provokes a Trojan truce-breaking and battle begins. Book 5: In his aristeia (battle supremacy), Diomedes, aided by Athena, wounds Aphrodite and Ares. Book 6: Glaucus and Diomedes do not fight each other, and swap armor; at Troy, Hector bids farewell to his wife, Andromache, and their son. Book 7: Hector battles Ajax; Paris offers restitution — but not Helen. Book 8: Zeus orders divine withdrawal; Hera and Athena defy him; the war favors Troy. Book 9: The “Embassy to Achilles”: Agamemnon sends Odysseus, Ajax, and Phoenix to Achilles for help, who spurns the offered honours and riches. Book 10: The “Doloneia”: Diomedes and Odysseus kill the Trojan Dolon, and effect a night raid against a Thracian camp. Book 11: Paris wounds Diomedes; Achilles has Patroclus enquire about the fight’s progress; Nestor begs for the Myrmidons. Book 12: Led by Hector, the Trojans breach the Greek camp walls. Book 13: Contravening Zeus’s order, Poseidon rallies the Greeks. Book 14: With the “Deception of Zeus”, Hera helps Poseidon assist the Greeks to repel the Trojans; Hector is wounded. Book 15: Zeus stops Poseidon; Apollo rouses Hector set the Greek ships afire. Book 16: Achilles orders Patroclus (dressed in Achilles’s armour), to repel the Trojans; he kills Sarpedon; Hector kills Patroclus. Book 17: Hector strips Patroclus of Achilles’s armour; Menelaus and the Greeks recover Patroculus’s corpse. (Books XVI and XVII constitute the “Patrocleia”). Book 18: Achilles seeks to avenge Patroclus; Hephaestus forges a new “ Shield of Achilles”. Book 19: Agamemnon and Achilles reconcile; he joins battle, despite his deadly fate. Book 20: The gods join the battle; Achilles drives all the Trojans before him. Book 21: Achilles routs the Trojans, and battles the river Scamander; Apollo leads him astray. Book 22: Achilles kills Hector outside the walls of Troy, dragging the corpse to the Greek camp. Book 23: Funereal games celebrate Patroclus; twelve Trojan youths are burned with the corpse. Book 24: King Priam secretly enters the Greek camp, begging Achilles for Hector’s corpse, who consents; at the funeral pyre, Helen and Andromache comment upon the war. II. The Odyssey A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 68 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City The Odyssey (Greek: Ὀδύσσεια, Odýsseia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. It is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad, the other work traditionally ascribed to Homer. The poem is fundamental to the modern Western canon. Indeed it is the second—the Iliad being the first—extant work of Western literature. It was probably composed near the end of the eighth century BC, somewhere in Ionia, the then Greek-controlled coastal region of what is now Turkey. The poem mainly centers on the Greek hero Odysseus (or Ulysses, as he was known in Roman myths) and his long journey home following the fall of Troy. It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War. In his absence, it is assumed he has died, and his wife Penelope and son Telemachus must deal with a group of unruly suitors, the Mnesteres (Greek: Μνηστ ῆρες) or Proci, competing for Penelope's hand in marriage. Telemachus, Odysseus's son, is only a month old when Odysseus sets out for Troy to fight a war he wants no part of. At the point where the Odyssey begins, ten years after the end of the ten-year Trojan War, Telemachus is twenty and is sharing his absent father’s house on the island of Ithaca with his mother Penelope and a crowd of 108 boisterous young men, "the Suitors", whose aim is to persuade Penelope that her husband is dead and that she should marry one of them. Odysseus’s protector, the goddess Athena, discusses his fate with Zeus, king of the gods, at a moment when Odysseus's enemy, the god of the sea Poseidon, is absent from Mount Olympus. Then, disguised as a Taphian chieftain named Mentes, she visits Telemachus to urge him to search for news of his father. He offers her hospitality; they observe the Suitors dining rowdily, and the bard Phemius performing a narrative poem for them. Penelope objects to Phemius's theme, the "Return from Troy" because it reminds her of her missing husband, but Telemachus rebuts her objections. That night, Athena disguised as Telemachus finds a ship and crew for the true Telemachus. The next morning, Telemachus calls an assembly of citizens of Ithaca to discuss what should be done to the suitors. Accompanied by Athena (now disguised as his friend Mentor), he departs for the Greek mainland and the household of Nestor, most venerable of the Greek warriors at Troy, now at home in Pylos. From there, Telemachus rides overland, accompanied by Nestor's son, to Sparta, where he finds Menelaus and Helen, now reconciled. He is told that they returned to Greece after a long voyage by way of Egypt; there, on the magical island of Pharos, Menelaus encountered the old sea-god Proteus, who told him that Odysseus was a captive of the nymph Calypso. Incidentally, Telemachus learns the fate of Menelaus’ brother Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and leader of the Greeks at Troy, murdered on his return home by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus. Then the story of Odysseus is told. He has spent seven years in captivity on Calypso's island. She is persuaded to release him by the messenger god Hermes, who has been sent by Zeus. Odysseus builds a raft and is given clothing, food and drink by Calypso. The raft is wrecked by Poseidon, but Odysseus swims ashore on the island of Scherie, where, naked and exhausted, he hides in a pile of leaves and falls asleep. The next morning, awakened by the laughter of girls, he sees the young Nausicaa, who has gone to the seashore with her maids to wash clothes. He appeals to her for help. She encourages him to seek the hospitality of her parents, Arete and Alcinous. Odysseus is welcomed and is not at first asked for his name. He remains for several days, takes part in a pentathlon, and hears the blind singer Demodocus perform two narrative poems. The first is an otherwise obscure incident of the Trojan War, the "Quarrel of Odysseus and Achilles"; the second is the amusing tale of a love affair between two Olympian gods, Ares and Aphrodite. Finally, Odysseus asks Demodocus to return to the Trojan War theme and tell of the Trojan Horse, a stratagem in which Odysseus had played a leading role. Unable to hide his emotion as he relives this episode, Odysseus at last reveals his identity. He then begins to tell the amazing story of his return from Troy. After a piratical raid on Ismaros in the land of the Cicones, he and his twelve ships were driven off course by storms. They visited the lethargic Lotus-Eaters and were captured by the Cyclops Polyphemus, only escaping by blinding him with a wooden stake. They stayed with Aeolus, the master of the winds; he gave Odysseus a leather bag containing all the winds, except the west wind, a gift that should have ensured a safe return home. However, the sailors foolishly opened the bag while Odysseus slept, thinking that it contained gold. All of the winds flew out and the resulting storm drove the ships back the way they had come, just as Ithaca came into sight. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 69 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City After pleading in vain with Aeolus to help them again, they re-embarked and encountered the cannibal Laestrygones. Odysseus’s ship was the only one to escape. He sailed on and visited the witch-goddess Circe. She turned half of his men into swine after feeding them cheese and wine. Hermes warned Odysseus about Circe and gave Odysseus a drug called moly, a resistance to Circe’s magic. Circe, being attracted to Odysseus' resistance, fell in love with him and released his men. Odysseus and his crew remained with her on the island for one year, while they feasted and drank. Finally, Odysseus' men convinced Odysseus that it was time to leave for Ithaca. Guided by Circe's instructions, Odysseus and his crew crossed the ocean and reached a harbor at the western edge of the world, where Odysseus sacrificed to the dead and summoned the spirit of the old prophet Tiresias to advise him. Next Odysseus met the spirit of his own mother, who had died of grief during his long absence; from her, he learned for the first time news of his own household, threatened by the greed of the suitors. Here, too, he met the spirits of famous women and famous men; notably he encountered the spirit of Agamemnon, of whose murder he now learned, who also warned him about the dangers of women (for Odysseus' encounter with the dead, see also Nekuia). Returning to Circe’s island, they were advised by her on the remaining stages of the journey. They skirted the land of the Sirens, passed between the many-headed monster Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdis, and landed on the island of Thrinacia. There, Odysseus’ men ignored the warnings of Tiresias and Circe, and hunted down the sacred cattle of the sun god Helios. This sacrilege was punished by a shipwreck in which all but Odysseus drowned. He was washed ashore on the island of Calypso, where she compelled him to remain as her lover for seven years before escaping. Having listened with rapt attention to his story, the Phaeacians, who are skilled mariners, agree to help Odysseus get home. They deliver him at night, while he is fast asleep, to a hidden harbor on Ithaca. He finds his way to the hut of one of his own former slaves, the swineherd Eumaeus. Odysseus disguises himself as a wandering beggar in order to learn how things stand in his household. After dinner, he tells the farm laborers a fictitious tale of himself: he was born in Crete, had led a party of Cretans to fight alongside other Greeks in the Trojan War, and had then spent seven years at the court of the king of Egypt; finally he had been shipwrecked in Thesprotia and crossed from there to Ithaca. Meanwhile, Telemachus sails home from Sparta, evading an ambush set by the suitors. He disembarks on the coast of Ithaca and makes for Eumaeus’s hut. Father and son meet; Odysseus identifies himself to Telemachus (but still not to Eumaeus) and they determine that the suitors must be killed. Telemachus gets home first. Accompanied by Eumaeus, Odysseus now returns to his own house, still pretending to be a beggar. He experiences the suitors’ rowdy behavior and plans their death. He meets Penelope and tests her intentions with an invented story of his birth in Crete, where, he says, he once met Odysseus. Closely questioned, he adds that he had recently been in Thesprotia and had learned something there of Odysseus’s recent wanderings. Odysseus’s identity is discovered by the housekeeper, Eurycleia, as she is washing his feet and discovers an old scar Odysseus received during a boar hunt; he swears her to secrecy. The next day, at Athena’s prompting, Penelope maneuvers the suitors into competing for her hand with an archery competition using Odysseus' bow. Odysseus takes part in the competition himself; he alone is strong enough to string the bow and therefore wins. He turns his arrows on the suitors and with the help of Athena, Telemachus, Eumaeus and Philoteus the cowherd, all the suitors are killed. Odysseus and Telemachus hang twelve of their household maids, who had sex with the suitors; they mutilate and kill the goatherd Melanthius, who had mocked and abused Odysseus. Now at last, Odysseus identifies himself to Penelope. She is hesitant, but accepts him when he correctly describes to her the bed he built for her when they married. The next day he and Telemachus visit the country farm of his old father Laertes, who likewise accepts his identity only when Odysseus correctly describes the orchard that Laertes once gave him.The citizens of Ithaca have followed Odysseus on the road, planning to avenge the killing of the Suitors, their sons. Their leader points out that Odysseus has now caused the deaths of two generations of the men of Ithaca—his sailors, not one of whom survived, and the suitors, whom he has now executed. The goddess Athena intervenes and persuades both sides to give up the vendetta. After this, Ithaca is at peace once more, concluding the Odyssey. Lyric Poetry A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 70 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City I. Homer's Hymn to Venus Muse, sing the deeds of golden Aphrodite, Who wakens with her smile the lulled delight Of sweet desire, taming the eternal kings Of Heaven, and men, and all the living things That fleet along the air, or whom the sea, Or earth, with her maternal ministry, Nourish innumerable, thy delight All seek ... O crowned Aphrodite! Three spirits canst thou not deceive or quell:— Minerva, child of Jove, who loves too well Fierce war and mingling combat, and the fame Of glorious deeds, to heed thy gentle flame. Diana ... golden-shafted queen, Is tamed not by thy smiles; the shadows green Of the wild woods, the bow, the... And piercing cries amid the swift pursuit Of beasts among waste mountains,—such delight Is hers, and men who know and do the right. Nor Saturn's first-born daughter, Vesta chaste, Whom Neptune and Apollo wooed the last, Such was the will of aegis-bearing Jove; But sternly she refused the ills of Love, And by her mighty Father's head she swore An oath not unperformed, that evermore A virgin she would live mid deities Divine: her father, for such gentle ties Renounced, gave glorious gifts—thus in his hall She sits and feeds luxuriously. O'er all In every fane, her honours first arise From men—the eldest of Divinities. These spirits she persuades not, nor deceives, But none beside escape, so well she weaves Her unseen toils; nor mortal men, nor gods Who live secure in their unseen abodes. She won the soul of him whose fierce delight Is thunder—first in glory and in might. And, as she willed, his mighty mind deceiving, With mortal limbs his deathless limbs inweaving, Concealed him from his spouse and sister fair, Whom to wise Saturn ancient Rhea bare. but in return, In Venus Jove did soft desire awaken, That by her own enchantments overtaken, She might, no more from human union free, Burn for a nursling of mortality. For once amid the assembled Deities, The laughter-loving Venus from her eyes Shot forth the light of a soft starlight smile, And boasting said, that she, secure the while, Could bring at Will to the assembled Gods The mortal tenants of earth's dark abodes, And mortal offspring from a deathless stem She could produce in scorn and spite of them. Therefore he poured desire into her breast Of young Anchises, Feeding his herds among the mossy fountains A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 71 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Of the wide Ida's many-folded mountains,— Whom Venus saw, and loved, and the love clung Like wasting fire her senses wild among. II. To An Uncultured Lesbian Woman by Sappho Yea, thou shalt die, And lie Dumb in the silent tomb, Nor of thy name Shall there be any Fame In ages yet to be or years to come: For of the flowering Rose Which on Pieria blows, Thou hast no share: But in sad Hades' house, Unknown, inglorious 'Mid the dim shades that wander there Shalt thou flit forth and haunt the filmy air. Roman Literature A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 72 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. The Romans produced many works of poetry, comedy, tragedy, satire, history, and rhetoric, drawing heavily on the traditions of other cultures and particularly on the more matured literary tradition of Greece. Long after the Western Roman Empire had fallen, the Latin language continued to play a central role in western European civilization. Latin literature is conventionally divided into distinct periods. Few works remain of Early and Old Latin; among these few surviving works, however, are the plays of Plautus and Terence, which have remained very popular in all eras down to the present, while many other Latin works, including many by the most prominent authors of the Classical period, have disappeared, sometimes being re-discovered after centuries, sometimes not. Such lost works sometimes survive as fragments in other works which have survived, but others are known from references in such works as Pliny the Elder's Naturalis Historia or the De Architectura of Vitruvius. Roman Mythology Roman mythology, or Latin mythology, refers to the mythological beliefs of the Italic people inhabiting the region of Latium and its main city, Ancient Rome. It can be considered as having two parts; one part, largely later and literary, consists of borrowings from Greek mythology. The other, largely early and cultic, functioned in very different ways from its Greek counterpart. Roman Major Gods and Goddesses Apollo - god of the sun, poetry, music, and oracles, and a Dii Consentes Bona Dea - goddess of fertility, healing, virginity, and women. Also known as Fauna Bacchus - god of wine, sensual pleasures, and truth, not considered a Dii Consentes by the Romans Carmenta - goddess of childbirth and prophecy, and assigned a flamen minor. The leader of the Camenae. Ceres - goddess of the harvest and mother of Proserpina, and a Dii Consentes, and assigned a flamen minor Cybele - earth mother Diana - goddess of the hunt, the moon, virginity, and childbirth, twin sister of Apollo and a Dii Consentes Flora - goddess of flowers, and assigned a flamen minor Fortuna - goddess of fortune Janus - two-headed god of beginnings and endings and of doors Juno - Queen of the Gods and goddess of matrimony, and a Dii Consentes Jupiter - King of the Gods and the storm, air, and sky god, and a Dii Consentes, and assigned a flamen maior Mars - god of war and father of Romulus, the founder of Rome, and a Dii Consentes, and assigned a flamen maior Mercury - messenger of the gods and bearer of souls to the underworld, and a Dii Consentes (Hermes) Minerva - goddess of wisdom and war, and a Dii Consentes Neptune - god of the sea, earthquakes, and horses, and a Dii Consentes A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 73 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Ops - goddess of plenty Pluto - Pluto a name given to him by the Romans from Greek myths, he is the King of the Dead, and of the underworld. Pomona - goddess of fruit trees, and assigned a flamen minor. Portunes - god of keys, doors, and livestock, he was assigned a flamen minor. Proserpina - Queen of the Dead and a grain-goddess Quirinus - Romulus, the founder of Rome, was deified as Quirinus after his death. Quirinus was a war god and a god of the Roman people and state, and was assigned a flamen maior. Saturn - a titan, god of harvest and agriculture, the father of Jupiter, Neptune, Juno, and Pluto Venus - goddess of love and beauty, mother of the hero Aeneas, and a Dii Consentes Vesta - goddess of the hearth and the Roman state, and a Dii Consentes Volturnus- god of water was assigned a flamen minor. Vulcan - god of the forge, fire, and blacksmiths, and a Dii Consentes, and assigned a flamen minor Uranus - god of the sky before Jupiter. Based on the Greek Ouranos. Roman Arts and Culture Roman art includes the visual arts produced in Ancient Rome, and in the territories of the Roman Empire. Major forms of Roman art are architecture, painting, sculpture and mosaic work. Metal-work, coin-die and gem engraving, ivory carvings, figurine glass, pottery, and book illustrations are considered to be 'minor' forms of Roman artwork. While the traditional view of Roman artists is that they often borrowed from, and copied Greek precedents (much of the Greek sculpture known today is in the form of Roman marble copies), more recent analysis has indicated that Roman art is a highly creative pastiche relying heavily on Greek models but also encompassing Etruscan, native Italic, and even Egyptian visual culture. Stylistic eclecticism and practical application are the hallmarks of much Roman art. Pliny, Ancient Rome’s most important historian concerning the arts, recorded that nearly all the forms of art—sculpture, landscape, portrait painting, even genre painting—were advanced in Greek times, and in some cases, more advanced than in Rome. Though very little remains of Greek wall art and portraiture, certainly Greek sculpture and vase painting bears this out. These forms were not likely surpassed by Roman artists in fineness of design or execution. As another example of the lost “Golden Age”, he singled out Peiraikos, “whose artistry is surpassed by only a very few…He painted barbershops and shoemakers’ stalls, donkeys, vegetables, and such, and for that reason came to be called the ‘painter of vulgar subjects’; yet these works are altogether delightful, and they were sold at higher prices than the greatest [paintings] of many other artists.” The adjective "vulgar" is used here in its original meaning, which means "common". The Greek antecedents of Roman art were legendary. In the mid-fifth century B.C., the most famous Greek artists were Polygnotos, noted for his wall murals, and Apollodoros, the originator of chiaroscuro. The development of realistic technique is credited to Zeuxis and Parrhasius, who according to ancient Greek legend, are said to have once competed in a bravura display of their talents, history’s earliest descriptions of trompe l’oeil painting. In sculpture, Skopas, Praxiteles, Phidias, and Lysippos were the foremost sculptors. It appears that Roman artists had much Ancient Greek art to copy from, as trade in art was brisk throughout the empire, and much of the Greek artistic heritage found its way into Roman art through books and A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 74 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City teaching. Ancient Greek treatises on the arts are known to have existed in Roman times but are now lost. Many Roman artists came from Greek colonies and provinces. The high number of Roman copies of Greek art also speaks of the esteem Roman artists had for Greek art, and perhaps of its rarer and higher quality. Many of the art forms and methods used by the Romans— such as high and low relief, free-standing sculpture, bronze casting, vase art, mosaic, cameo, coin art, fine jewelry and metalwork, funerary sculpture, perspective drawing, caricature, genre and portrait painting, landscape painting, architectural sculpture, and trompe l’oeil painting—all were developed or refined by Ancient Greek artists. One exception is the Greek bust, which did not include the shoulders. The traditional head-and-shoulders bust may have been an Etruscan or early Roman form. Virtually every artistic technique and method used by Renaissance artists 1,900 year later had been demonstrated by Ancient Greek artists, with the notable exceptions of oil colors and mathematically accurate perspective. Where Greek artists were highly revered in their society, most Roman artists were anonymous and considered tradesmen. There is no recording, as in Ancient Greece, of the great masters of Roman art, and practically no signed works. Where Greeks worshipped the aesthetic qualities of great art and wrote extensively on artistic theory, Roman art was more decorative and indicative of status and wealth, and apparently not the subject of scholars or philosophers. Owing in part to the fact that the Roman cities were far larger than the Greek city-states in power and population, and generally less provincial, art in Ancient Rome took on a wider, and sometimes more utilitarian, purpose. Roman culture assimilated many cultures and was for the most part tolerant of the ways of conquered peoples. Roman art was commissioned, displayed, and owned in far greater quantities, and adapted to more uses than in Greek times. Wealthy Romans were more materialistic; they decorated their walls with art, their home with decorative objects, and themselves with fine jewelry. In the Christian era of the late Empire, from 350-500 AD, wall painting, mosaic ceiling and floor work, and funerary sculpture thrived, while full-sized sculpture in the round and panel painting died out, most likely for religious reasons. When Constantine moved the capital of the empire to Byzantium (renamed Constantinople), Roman art incorporated Eastern influences to produce the Byzantine style of the late empire. When Rome was sacked in the 5th century, artisans moved to and found work in the Eastern capital. The Church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople employed nearly 10,000 workmen and artisans, in a final burst of Roman art under Emperor Justinian (527-565 AD), who also ordered the creation of the famous mosaics of Ravenna. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 75 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Aeneid The Aeneid (pronounced /əˈniːɪd/; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced [aeˈne.is] — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic poem written by Virgil in the late 1st century BC (29–19 BC) that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans. It is written in dactylic hexameter. The first six of the poem's twelve books tell the story of Aeneas' wanderings from Troy to Italy, and the poem's second half tells of the Trojans' ultimately victorious war upon the Latins, under whose name Aeneas and his Trojan followers are destined to be subsumed. The hero Aeneas was already known to Greco-Roman legend and myth, having been a character in the Iliad; Virgil took the disconnected tales of Aeneas' wanderings, his vague association with the foundation of Rome and a personage of no fixed characteristics other than a scrupulous piety, and fashioned this into a compelling founding myth or nationalist epic that at once tied Rome to the legends of Troy, glorified traditional Roman virtues and legitimized the Julio-Claudian dynasty as descendants of the founders, heroes and gods of Rome and Troy. The Aeneid can be divided into two halves based on the disparate subject matter of Books 1–6 (Aeneas' journey to Italy) and Books 7–12 (the war in Italy). These two halves are commonly regarded as reflecting Virgil's ambition to rival Homer by treating both the Odyssey's wandering theme and the Iliad's warfare themes. This is, however, a rough correspondence the limitations of which should be borne in mind. Journey to Italy (books 1–6) Virgil begins his poem with a statement of his theme (Arma virumque cano..., "I sing arms and the man...") and an invocation to the Muse, falling some ten lines after the poems inception: (Musa, mihi causas memora..., "O Muse, recount to me the causes..."). He then explains the reason for the principal conflict in the story: the resentment held by the goddess Juno against the Trojan people. This is consistent with her role throughout the Homeric epics. Also in the manner of Homer, the story proper begins in medias res, with the Trojan fleet in the eastern Mediterranean, heading in the direction of Italy. The fleet, led by Aeneas, is on a voyage to find a second home. It has been foretold that in Italy, he will give rise to a race both noble and courageous, a race which will become known to all nations. Juno is wrathful, because she had not been chosen in the judgment of Paris against Aeneas's mother Venus, and because her favorite city, Carthage, will be destroyed by Aeneas' descendants. Also, Ganymede, a Trojan prince, was chosen to be the god's cup bearer—replacing Juno's daughter Hebe. Juno proceeds to Aeolus, King of the Winds, and asks that he release the winds to stir up a storm in exchange for a bribe (Deiopea, the loveliest of all the sea nymphs, as a wife). He agrees, and the storm devastates the fleet. Neptune takes notice: although he himself is no friend of the Trojans, he is infuriated by Juno's intrusion into his domain, and stills the winds and calms the waters. The fleet takes shelter on the coast of Africa. There, Aeneas's mother, Venus, in the form of a hunting woman very similar to the goddess Diana, encourages him and tells him the history of the city. Eventually, Aeneas ventures in, and in the temple of Juno, seeks and gains the favor of Dido, Queen of Carthage, and the city which has only recently been founded by refugees from Tyre and which will later become Rome's greatest enemy. At a banquet given in the honour of the Trojans, Aeneas recounts sadly the events which occasioned the Trojans' fortuitous arrival. He begins the tale shortly after the events described in the Iliad. Crafty Ulysses devised a way for Greek warriors to gain entry into Troy by hiding in a large wooden horse. The Greeks pretended to sail away, leaving a man, Sinon, to tell the Trojans that the horse was an offering and that if it were taken into the city, the Trojans would be able to conquer Greece. The Trojan priest Laocoön, who had seen through the Greek plot and urged the horse's destruction, hurled his spear at the wooden horse. Just after, in what would be seen by the Trojans as punishment from the gods, Laocoön was suddenly grabbed and eaten, along with his two sons, by two giant sea snakes. So the Trojans brought the horse inside the fortified walls, and after nightfall the armed Greeks emerged and began to slaughter the city's inhabitants. Aeneas woke up and saw with horror what was happening to his beloved city. At first he tried to fight against the enemy, but soon he lost his comrades and was left alone to fend off tens of Greeks. Venus intervened directly, telling him to flee with his family. Aeneas tells of his escape with his son Ascanius and father Anchises, his wife Creusa having been separated from the others and subsequently killed in the general catastrophe. He tells of how, rallying the other A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 76 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City survivors, he built a fleet of ships and made landfall at various locations in the Mediterranean, notably Aenea in Thrace, Pergamea in Crete, and Buthrotum in Epirus. This last had been built in an attempt to replicate Troy. In Buthrotum, Aeneas met Andromache, the widow of Hector. She still laments for the loss of her valiant husband and beloved child. There, too, Aeneas saw and met Helenus, one of Priam's sons, who had the gift of prophecy. Through him, Aeneas learned the destiny laid out for him: he was divinely advised to seek out the land of Italy (also known as Ausonia or Hesperia), where his descendants would not only prosper, but in time rule the entire known world. In addition, Helenus also bade him go to the Sibyl in Cumae. Heading out into the open sea, Aeneas left Buthrotum, first making landfall in Italy at Castrum Minervae, but continuing on towards the west coast of the peninsula. While in the open sea, Anchises, the father of Aeneas, peacefully died. The fleet had rounded Sicily and was making for the mainland, when Juno raised up the storm which drove it back across the sea to Carthage.Meanwhile, Venus has her own plans. She goes to her son, Aeneas' half-brother Cupid, and tells him to imitate Ascanius. Disguised as such, he goes to Dido, and offers the gifts expected from a guest. With her motherly love revived in the sight of the boy, her heart is pierced and she falls in love with the boy and his father. During the banquet, Dido realizes that she has fallen madly in love with Aeneas, although she had previously sworn fidelity to the soul of her late husband, Sychaeus, who had been murdered by her cupidinous brother Pygmalion. Juno seizes upon this opportunity to make a deal with Venus, Aeneas' mother, with the intention of distracting him from his destiny of founding a city in Italy. Aeneas is inclined to return Dido's love, and during a hunting expedition, a storm drives them into a cave in which Aeneas and Dido presumably have sex, an event that Dido takes to indicate a marriage between them. But when Jupiter sends Mercury to remind Aeneas of his duty, he has no choice but to part. Her heart broken, Dido commits suicide by stabbing herself upon a pyre with Aeneas' sword. Before dying, she predicts eternal strife between Aeneas's people and hers; "rise up from my bones, avenging spirit" (4.625, trans. Fitzgerald) is an obvious invocation to Hannibal. Looking back from the deck of his ship, Aeneas sees Dido's funeral pyre's smoke and knows its meaning only too clearly. However, destiny calls and the Trojan fleet sails on to Italy. Aeneas's father Anchises having been hastily interred on Sicily during the fleet's previous landfall there, the Trojans returned to the island to hold funeral games in his honour. Eventually, the fleet lands on the mainland of Italy and the quest enters a new phase. Aeneas, with the guidance of the Cumaean Sibyl, descends into the underworld through an opening at Cumae; there he speaks with the spirit of his father and has a prophetic vision of the destiny of Rome. Upon returning to the land of the living, Aeneas leads the Trojans to settle in the land of Latium, where he courts Lavinia, the daughter of king Latinus. War in Italy (books 7–12) Although Aeneas would have wished to avoid it, war eventually breaks out. Juno is heavily involved in causing this war—she convinces the Queen of Latium to demand that Lavinia be married to Turnus, the king of a local people, the Rutuli. Juno continues to stir up trouble, even summoning the Fury Alecto to ensure that a war takes place.Seeing the masses of Italians that Turnus has brought against him, Aeneas seeks help from the Tuscans, enemies of Turnus. He meets King Evander from Arcadia, whose son Pallas agrees to lead troops against the other Italians. Meanwhile, the Trojan camp is being attacked, and a midnight raid leads to the deaths of Nisus and his companion Euryalus, in one of the most emotional passages in the book. The gates, however, are defended until Aeneas returns with his Tuscan and Arcadian reinforcements. In the battling that follows, many heroes are killed, notably Pallas, who is killed by Turnus, and Mezentius, Turnus' close associate who inadvertently allows his son to be killed while he himself flees; he reproaches himself and faces Aeneas in single combat—an honourable but essentially futile pursuit. Another notable hero, Camilla, a sort of Amazon character, fights bravely but is eventually killed. Camilla had been a virgin devoted to Diana and to her nation; the man who killed her was struck dead by Diana's sentinel Opis after doing so, even though he tried to escape. After this, single combat is proposed between Aeneas and Turnus, but Aeneas was so obviously superior that the Italians, urged on by Turnus' divine sister, Juturna, break the truce. Aeneas is injured, but returns to the battle shortly afterwards. Turnus and Aeneas dominate the battle on opposite wings, but when Aeneas makes a daring attack at the city of Latium itself (causing the queen of Latium to hang herself in despair), he forces Turnus into single combat once more. In a dramatic scene, Turnus' strength deserts him as he tries to hurl a rock, and he is struck by Aeneas' spear in the leg. As Turnus is begging on his knees for his life, the poem ends with Aeneas killing him in rage when he sees that Turnus is wearing the belt of his friend Pallas as a trophy. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 77 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Major Writers of Rome I. Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (also known by the Anglicised forms of his name as Virgil or Vergil) (October 15, 70 BCE – September 21, 19 BCE) was a classical Roman poet, best known for three major works —the Eclogues (or Bucolics), the Georgics and the Aeneid—although several minor poems are also attributed to him. The son of a farmer, Virgil came to be regarded as one of Rome's greatest poets. His Aeneid can be considered a national epic of Rome and has been extremely popular from its publication to the present day. Works Legend also has it that Virgil received his first education when he was 5 years old and that he later went to Rome to study rhetoric, medicine, and astronomy, which he soon abandoned for philosophy; also that in this period, while in the school of Siro the Epicurean, he began to write poetry. A group of small works attributed to the youthful Virgil survive, but are largely considered spurious. One, the Catalepton, consists of fourteen short poems, some of which may be Virgil's, and another, a short narrative poem titled the Culex ("The Gnat"), was attributed to Virgil as early as the 1st century CE. These dubious poems are sometimes referred to as the Appendix Vergiliana. During the civil strife that killed the Roman Republic, when Julius Caesar had been assassinated in 44 BCE, the army led by his assassins Brutus and Cassius met defeat by Caesar's faction, including his chief lieutenant Mark Antony and his newly adopted son Octavian Caesar in 42 BCE in Greece near Philippi. The victors paid off their soldiers with land expropriated from towns in northern Italy, supposedly including an estate near Mantua belonging to Virgil—again an inference from themes in his work and not supported by independent sources. Virgil dramatizes the contrasting feelings caused by the brutality of expropriation but also by the promise attaching to the youthful figure of Caesar's heir in the Bucolics in which he had worked out the mythic framework for lifelong ambition to conquer Greek epic for Rome. In themes the ten eclogues develop and vary epic song, relating it first to Roman power (ecl. 1), then to love, both homosexual (ecl. 2) and panerotic (ecl. 3), then again to Roman power and Caesar's heir imagined as authorizing Virgil to surpass Greek epic and refound tradition (ecll. 4 and 5), shifting back to love then as a dynamic source considered apart from Rome (ecl. 6). Hence in the remaining eclogues Virgil withdraws from his newly minted Roman mythology and gradually constructs a new myth of his own poetics-he casts the remote Greek region of Arcadia, home of the god Pan, as the place of poetic origin itself. In passing, he again rings changes on erotic themes, such as requited and unrequited homosexual and heterosexual passion, tragic love for elusive women or magical powers of song to retrieve an elusive boy. He concludes by establishing Arcadia as a poetic ideal that still resonates in Western literature and visual arts. Readers often did and sometimes do identify the poet himself with various characters and their vicissitudes, whether gratitude by an old rustic to a new god (ecl. 1), frustrated love by a rustic singer for a distant boy (his master's pet, ecl. 2), or a master singer's claim to have composed several eclogues (ecl. 5). Modern scholars largely reject such efforts to garner biographical details from fictive texts preferring instead to interpret the diverse characters and themes as representing the poet's own contrastive perceptions of contemporary life and thought. Biographical reconstruction supposes that Virgil soon became part of the circle of Maecenas, Octavian's capable agent d'affaires who sought to counter sympathy for Mark Antony among the leading families by rallying Roman literary figures to Octavian's side. It also appears that Virgil gained many connections with other leading literary figures of the time, including Horace and Varius Rufus (who later helped finish the Aeneid). After he had completed the Bucolics (so-called in homage to Theocritus, who had been the first to write short epic poems taking herdsmen's life as their apparent theme — bucolic in Greek meaning "on care for cattle"), Virgil spent the ensuing years (perhaps 37–29 BCE) on the longer epic called Georgics (from Greek, "On Working the Earth", because farming is their apparent theme, in the tradition of Greek Hesiod), which he dedicated to Maecenas (source of the expression tempus fugit ["time flies"]). Virgil and Maecenas took turns reading the Georgics to Octavian upon his return from defeating Antony and his consort Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE. In 27 BCE the Roman Senate conferred on Octavian the more than human title A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 78 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Augustus, well suited to Virgil's ambition to write an epic to challenge Homer, a Roman epic developed from the Caesarist mythology introduced in the Bucolics and incorporating now the Julian Caesars' family legend that traced their line back to a mythical Trojan prince who escaped the fall of Troy. II. Horace Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (Venosa, December 8, 65 BC – Rome, November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. Works Horace is generally considered by classicists to be one of the greatest Latin poets and is known for having coined many Latin phrases that remain in use today, whether in Latin or translation, including carpe diem ("pluck the day" literally, more commonly used in English as "seize the day"), Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori (It is sweet and fitting to die for one's country), Nunc est bibendum (Now we must drink), and aurea mediocritas ("golden mean."). His works, like those of all but the earliest Latin poets, are written in Greek metres, ranging from the hexameters which were relatively easy to adapt into Latin to the more complex measures used in the Odes, such as alcaics and sapphics, which were sometimes a difficult fit for Latin structure and syntax. Alphabetically, his works include: • • • • • • • • • • • Ars Poetica, or The Epistle to the Pisones (18 BC) Carmen Saeculare or Song of the Ages (17 BC) Carminum liber primus or Odes I (23 BC) Carminum liber quartus or Odes IV (13 BC) Carminum liber secundus or Odes II (23 BC) Carminum liber tertius or Odes III (23 BC) Epistularum liber primus (20 BC) Epistularum liber secundus (14 BC) Epodes (30 BC) Sermonum liber primus or Satirae I (35 BC) Sermonum liber secundus or Satirae II (30 BC) Among the better known works of Horace are: • • • • • • • Odes (or Carmina) (23-13 BC) Epodes (30 BC) Satirae I (Sermonum liber primus) (35 BC) and Satirae II (Sermonum liber secundus) (30 BC) Ars Poetica, or The Epistle to the Pisones (18 BC) Epistularum liber primus (20 BC) Epistularum liber secundus (14 BC) Carmen Saeculare or Song of the Ages III. Martial Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English as Martial) (March 1, between 38 and 41 AD between 102 and 104 AD), was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. In these short, witty poems he cheerfully satirises city life and the scandalous activities of his acquaintances, and romanticises his provincial upbringing. He wrote a total of 1,561, of which 1,235 are in elegiac couplets. He is considered the creator of the modern epigram. An Epigram is a brief, clever, and usually memorable statement. Derived from the Greek: ἐπίγραμμα (epi-gramma) "to write on - inscribe", the literary device has been employed for over two millennia. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 79 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City The Greek tradition of epigrams began as poems inscribed on votive offerings at sanctuaries — including statues of athletes — and on funerary monuments, for example "Go tell it to the Spartans, passerby…” These original epigrams did the same job as a short prose text might have done, but in verse. Epigram became a literary genre in the Hellenistic period, probably developing out of scholarly collections of inscriptional epigrams. Though modern epigrams are usually thought of as very short, Greek literary epigram was not always as short as later examples, and the divide between 'epigram' and 'elegy' is sometimes indistinct (they share a characteristic metre, elegiac couplets); all the same, the origin of the genre in inscription exerted a residual pressure to keep things concise. Many of the characteristic types of literary epigram look back to inscriptional contexts, particularly funerary epigram, which in the Hellenistic era becomes a literary exercise. Other types look instead to the new performative context which epigram acquired at this time, even as it made the move from stone to papyrus: the Greek symposium. Many 'sympotic' epigrams combine sympotic and funerary elements — they tell their readers (or listeners) to drink and live for today because life is short. We also think of epigram as having a 'point' — that is, the poem ends in a punchline or satirical twist. By no means do all Greek epigrams behave this way; many are simply descriptive. We associate epigram with 'point' because the European epigram tradition takes the Latin poet Martial as its principal model; he copied and adapted Greek models (particularly the contemporary poets Lucillius and Nicarchus) selectively and in the process redefined the genre, aligning it with the indigenous Roman tradition of 'satura', hexameter satire, as practised by (among others) his contemporary Juvenal. Greek epigram was actually much more diverse, as the Milan Papyrus now indicates. Our main source for Greek literary epigram is the Greek Anthology, a compilation from the 10th century AD based on older collections. It contains epigrams ranging from the Hellenistic period through the Imperial period and Late Antiquity into the compiler's own Byzantine era - a thousand years of short elegiac texts on every topic under the sun. The Anthology includes one book of Christian epigrams. IV. Epictetus Epictetus (Greek: Ἐπίκτητος; AD 55–AD 135) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was probably born a slave at Hierapolis, Phrygia (present day Pamukkale, Turkey), and lived in Rome until his exile to Nicopolis in northwestern Greece, where he lived most of his life and died. His teachings were noted down and published by his pupil Arrian in his Discourses. Philosophy, he taught, is a way of life and not just a theoretical discipline. To Epictetus, all external events are determined by fate, and are thus beyond our control, but we can accept whatever happens calmly and dispassionately. Individuals, however, are responsible for their own actions which they can examine and control through rigorous self-discipline. Suffering arises from trying to control what is uncontrollable, or from neglecting what is within our power. As part of the universal city that is the universe, human beings have a duty of care to all fellow humans. The person who followed these precepts would achieve happiness. So far as is known, Epictetus himself wrote nothing. All that remains of his work was transcribed by his pupil Arrian (author of the Anabasis Alexandri). The main work is The Discourses, four books of which have been preserved (out of an original eight). Arrian also compiled a popular digest, entitled the Enchiridion, or Handbook. In a preface to the Discourses, addressed to Lucius Gellius, Arrian states that "whatever I heard him say I used to write down, word for word, as best I could, endeavouring to preserve it as a memorial, for my own future use, of his way of thinking and the frankness of his speech." Epictetus focused more on ethics than the early Stoics. Repeatedly attributing his ideas to Socrates, he held that our aim was to be masters of our own lives. The role of the Stoic teacher, according to Epictetus, was to encourage his students to learn, first of all, the true nature of things, which is invariable, inviolable and valid for all human beings without exceptions. The nature of things is further partitioned into two categories: those things that are subject to our exclusive power (prohairetic things) and those things that are not subject to our exclusive power (aprohairetic things). The first category of things includes judgment, impulse, desire, aversion, etc. The second category of things, which can also be called adiaphora, includes health, material wealth, fame, etc. Epictetus then A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 80 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City introduced his students to two cardinal concepts: the concept of Prohairesis and the concept of Dihairesis. Prohairesis is what distinguishes humans from all other creatures. It is the faculty that, according to our own judgments, makes us desire or avert, feel impelled or repel, assent to or dissent about something. Epictetus repeatedly says that "we are our prohairesis." Dihairesis is the judgement that is performed by our Prohairesis, and that enables us to distinguish what is subject to our exclusive power from what is not subject to our exclusive power. Finally, Epictetus taught his students that good and evil exist only in our Prohairesis and never in external or aprohairetic things. The good student who thoroughly grasped these concepts and employed them in everyday life was prepared to live the philosophic life, whose objective was ataraxia (an undisturbed and serene state of mind). This meant fully understanding that we should not be affected by the external objects of our lives, because they are exclusively not up to us. This reasoning is in accordance with the knowledge of the true "nature of things," that is, the predetermined and complexly fixed order of the universe and the cosmos. Ataraxia was Epictetus', and the Stoics', ideal model of eudamonia, or "happiness and fulfillment." The essence of Epictetus's psychology is revealed by two of his most frequently quoted statements: We are disturbed not by events, but by the views which we take of them. I must die. Must I then die lamenting? I must be put in chains. Must I then also lament? I must go into exile. Does any man then hinder me from going with smiles and cheerfulness and contentment? The final entry of the Enchiridion, or Handbook, which is Arrian's anthology of quotes by Epictetus, begins "Upon all occasions we ought to have these maxims ready at hand": Conduct me, Zeus, and thou, O Destiny, Wherever thy decree has fixed my lot. I follow willingly; and, did I not, Wicked and wretched would I follow still. (Diogenes Laertius quoting Cleanthes; quoted also by Seneca, Epistle 107.)" Whoe'er yields properly to Fate is deemed Wise among men, and knows the laws of Heaven. (From Euripides' Fragments, 965) O Crito, if it thus pleases the gods, thus let it be. (From Plato's Crito) Anytus and Meletus may indeed kill me, but they cannot harm me. (From Plato's Apology) A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 81 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City German Literature German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language. This includes literature written in Germany itself as well as German-language Swiss and Austrian literature, and to a lesser extent works of the German diaspora. German literature of the modern period is mostly in Standard German, but there are some currents of literature influenced to a greater or lesser degree by dialects (e.g. Alemannic). An early flowering of German literature is the Middle High German period of the High Middle Ages. Modern literature in German begins with the authors of the Enlightenment (such as Herder) and reaches its "classical" form at the turn of the 18th century with Weimar Classicism (Goethe and Schiller). The Nibelungenlied The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. The story tells of dragon-slayer Siegfried at the court of the Burgundians, how he was murdered, and of his wife Kriemhild's revenge. The Nibelungenlied is based on pre-Christian Germanic heroic motifs (the "Nibelungensaga"), which include oral traditions and reports based on historic events and individuals of the 5th and 6th centuries. Old Norse parallels of the legend survive in the Völsunga saga, the Prose Edda, the Poetic Edda, the Legend of Norna-Gest, and the Þiðrekssaga. Though the preface to the poem promises both joyous and dark tales ahead, the Nibelungenlied is by and large a very tragic work, and these four opening verses are believed to have been a late addition to the text, composed after the body of the poem had been completed. The original version instead began with the introduction of Kriemhild, the protagonist of the work. The epic is divided into two parts, the first dealing with the story of Siegfried and Kriemhild, the wooing of Brünhild and the death of Siegfried at the hands of Hagen, and Hagen's hiding of the Nibelung treasure in the Rhine (Chapters 1-19). The second part deals with Kriemhild's marriage to Etzel, her plans for revenge, the journey of the Nibelungs to the court of Etzel, and their last stand in Etzel's hall (Chapters 20-39). A. Siegfried and Krimhild I. My Noble Falcon It began with Kriemhild having a dream. Kriemhild was the beautiful daughter of King Dancrat (Guiki) of Burgundy and Uote (Grimhild). She had three brothers, Gunther (Gunnar), Gernot and Giselher, who ruled and shared the kingdom between them. Kriemhild dreamt of a beautiful falcon but was torn apart by two eagles. The dream upset her and she told her mother Uote. Uote interpreted that the falcon represented her husband. However, Kriemhild was still young, and was not interested in falling love with any man. While at Xanten, a city within the kingdom of the Netherlands, Siegfried was newly knighted. There was great celebration because Siegfried was the son of King Siegmund and Sieglind ( Hjordis). Siegfried hearing of Kriemhild's great beauty, the young hero decided to woo her. Siegfried's parents were A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 82 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City happy with their choice, because they did not trust Kriemhild's three brothers, particularly Hagen, Gunther's powerful vassal. Siegfried won to win the girl through his prowess and deeds. Siegfried arrived with his twelve companions to the Burgundy's capital on the Rhine, called Worms. Only Hagen recognised the young hero. Hagen told Gunther how Siegfried won treasure from the Nibelungs, two brothers and mighty princes named Schilbung and Nibelung. Siegfried killed Schilbung and Nibelung, and captured seven hundred men of Nibelungland. Then the hero wrested the cloak of darkness from Alberich, the treasurer of the Nibelungs. This cloak was called Tarnkappe, would make the wearer invisible. Siegfried became the lord of the Nibelungs' land (Nibelungland). Hagen also told of how Siegfried had killed a dragon and bathed in its blood. His body became invulnerable because of the dragon's blood. Siegfried had only one vulnerable spot in his body, like the Greek hero Achilles. As was soaked from the dragon's blood, a large leaf fell and landed between Siegfried's shoulder blades. Only this area was untouched by the dragon's blood. This was the only vulnerable spot of his skin. Hagen told Gunnar that he would gain a great and powerful ally if he befriended Siegfried. So Gunther and his brothers set about winning Siegfried's friendship. Siegfried stayed with Gunther in Worms. The young hero attended the functions and festivals in Burgundy, with Gunther and his brothers. Kriemhild had only seen the brave warrior from a distance. She had fallen in love Siegfried, but the two had not yet been properly introduced until a year later. When news broke out that the Saxons and the Danes were making war against Burgundy, Siegfried decided to aid Gunther. Liudeger was the king of Saxony, while his brother named Liudegast was the king of Denmark. The combined Saxons and Danish armies had the strength of sixty thousand men, while Gunther's force was no more than a thousand strong. Siegfried advised that Gunther should stay in Worms, while the young guest led the Burgundian army. Siegfried was the best warrior in the war. In the reconnaissance, Siegfried captured Liudegast and killed twenty-nine Danish knights. Siegfried allowed one survivor to return to the Danish camp with the news of their king's capture. In the battle that followed, fought his way through enemy ranks until he reached King Liudeger of Saxony. They fought until Liudeger recognised the image on Siegfried's shield. Thereupon, Liudeger surrendered himself to Siegfried. Liudeger and Liudegast became prisoners of war, and were shipped to Worms as hostages. Gunther treated his enemy kings magnanimously. A large celebration was held for their victory. After a period, Gunther released Liudeger and Liudegast when they became his vassals. II. Wooing of Brunhild During the victory celebration, Siegfried for the first time met Kriemhild. It was Gernot who thought that they would benefit from the marriage between Siegfried and Kriemhild. Siegfried would enjoy Kriemhild's company for days. The hero and the maiden had fallen deeply in love. Siegfried would do anything for Kriemhild's brothers to win her favour. When Gunther heard of the great beauty of Brunhild, Queen of Iceland, the Burgundian king wished to set out to win her. Siegfried advised Gunther against this, because he was aware of queen's great strength. All her suitors, who had wooed Brunhild, met their death when she defeated them in a contest. Hagen advised Gunther to take Siegfried with him. Siegfried agreed to help Gunther win Brunhild, in return that the hero was allowed to marry Kriemhild. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 83 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Siegfried advised Gunther and everyone else to pretend that Siegfried was a vassal to Gunther when they were in the presence of Brunhild. When they arrived at Isenstein, Brunhild's stronghold in Iceland, the warrior queen immediately recognised Siegfried. She thought that Siegfried had come to woo her. Brunhild seemed willing to marry Siegfried, because he was the strongest and bravest warrior in the world. She thought that Siegfried would be a worthy husband than any of the other men who had wooed her. Brunhild was terribly disappointed when Siegfried proclaimed that he was Gunther's vassal and that it was Gunther here, who came to woo her. Brunhild only agreed to marry him if Gunther could defeat her in a contest. Brunhild's words angered Gunther and Hagen. Siegfried told Gunther that he would help him through his ordeal. Gunther had to face a Brunhild's spear. Then the Rhenish king must throw a boulder as far as he could, but he must also jump further than the boulder that he would throw. Gunther and his followers were quite dismayed at the size of her spear and the boulder he must throw. The poet informed the readers that even twelve ordinary men could barely lift the stone. When the contest began, Siegfried worn his cloak of invisibility and fought for Gunther. Brunhild threw her large, heavy spear at Gunther. Siegfried holding the shield for Gunther caught the spear. The king and hero would have been skewered had they were not protected by Siegfried's magical cloak. Yet blood spurt from his mouth, where the spear had struck Siegfried. Siegfried hurled Brunhild's spear back at the queen, but with the spear-point reversed, so that only the blunt end of spear struck Brunhild. Brunhild was knocked down to the ground, but was uninjured. She immediately leaped to her feet. Not knowing of the deception, she praised Gunther for his strength. Then Brunhild easily lifted the large rock and hurled the boulder as far as she could. At the same time she released the boulder she leaped after the stone. The stone landed at a great distance, but she easily leapt further than the stone. Gunther and his followers were amazed and afraid of her great strength. Gunther then pretended to lift and throw the stone. It was Siegfried who threw the stone, even at a great distance than Brunhild. Siegfried then leaps after the stone, carrying Gunther with him. They flew past the stone. Brunhild was angry that she lost the contest, but conceded that she will marry Gunther. However she refused to leave until she had gathered her vassals and and gave out some of her wealth. Hagen and the other fearing that she would betray them, since they would be heavily outnumbered. Siegfried promised Gunther to gather his men from Nibelungland. Using his magic cloak, Siegfried left Isenstein, found a bark (boat) and rowed across the sea to Nibelungland. Siegfried had to fight and overcome the gatekeeper and Alberich, the dwarf and treasurer of Nibelungland. Then, Siegfried gathered a thousand of the best warriors, and returned to Isenstein. Brunhild reluctantly left her home for a new home in Worms, with her future husband. A double marriage was arranged, because Siegfried and Kriemhild were to be married on the same day, with Brunhild and Kriemhild's brother. Only Brunhild was unhappy at the wedding, because she was still in love Siegfried. Siegfried and Kriemhild enjoyed their wedding night, but the same could not be said for Gunther and Brunhild. Not only did Brunhild resist her new husband trying to make love to her; Brunhild easily overpowered Gunther. The new queen bound him with her girdle and suspended him high on the wall peg, while she slept on their bed. Gunther was totally embarrassed how his wife had easily manhandled him. In the morning, Brunhild released him and threatened to do the same each night, if he tried to make love to her. Gunther regretted that he had ever married her. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 84 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City When Siegfried found out Gunther's problem with his new wife, he again promised to help the king. At night, Siegfried sneaked into Gunther's room. In the darkness of night, Siegfried took the king's place in bed with Brunhild. Brunhild threatened the king with violence and threw Siegfried across the room. Though stunned by her strength, Siegfried became angry and attacked the queen. They fought one another in the darkness, until Siegfried overcame her. Brunhild was in pain when she surrendered to the hero. Brunhild thought it was Gunther who bested her. Before Siegfried left Brunhild, Siegfried foolishly took her gold ring and her orphrey girdle. Gunther then took over Siegfried's place, but had difficulty taking his wife's virginity. However, once Gunther had deflowered Brunhild, her seemingly invincible strength vanished and reduced her power to that of an ordinary woman. Siegfried returned to his own chamber, and foolishly gave Brunhild's ring and girdle to Kriemhild. Two weeks later, Siegfried decided to return home with his new wife. In Netherlands, Siegmund and Sieglind welcomed Kriemhild, and loved the girl like their own daughter. Siegfried and Kriemhild had a son, which they named after her treacherous brother, Gunther. Siegfried became king of the Netherlands, ruling with his father. Siegfried was also the lord of Nibelungland, and possessed the great hoard of treasure of the Nibelungs. For ten years, Kriemhild was living in happy contentment with her husband. Soon, that happiness would be short-lived. III. Death of Siegfried In Burgundy, Brunhild was still unhappy with her marriage with Gunther. Brunhild also thought that it was strange that Gunther had allowed Kriemhild to marry Siegfried, whom she believed was a vassal to her husband. She still did not realise the deception of how Siegfried won her for Gunther. Brunhild wanted to know the truth about Siegfried's status and persuaded Gunther to invite his sister and Siegfried for the coming festival. Siegfried returned to Burgundy with his wife and son. His father also attended the festival with them. In the festival, Gunther had treated Siegfried as an equal, which surprised Brunhild. Still thinking that Siegfried was only her husband's vassal; she treated Kriemhild as inferior to her. This led to quarrels between the two queens. When Brunhild confronted Kriemhild that Siegfried was her husband's vassal, the other queen claimed that Siegfried was not only her brother's equal, but a hero who was stronger and braver than her own brother. Neither queen would back away from their claims. This finally led to Kriemhild revealing that it was her husband overcame Brunhild. Kriemhild also (falsely) believed that her husband had taken Brunhild's virginity. Brunhild was not only angry at her sister-in-law's claim; she was also humiliated and embarrassed. Especially when Kriemhild foolishly revealed the ring and girdle she had received from Siegfried. Her quarrel with Kriemhild had distressed and shocked the queen, that she demanded the truth from Gunther. She demanded that Gunther to punish Siegfried and Kriemhild. Gunther had no choice but to confront Siegfried. Siegfried swore that he had never boasted of being Brunhild's first man. Gunther immediately dropped charges against his brother-in-law. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 85 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City But this did not satisfy Brunhild's demands for vengeance. Hagen, who did not like Brunhild when they first met, now promised the queen that he willing to plot against Siegfried's downfall. At first, Gunther was reluctant to turn against Siegfried, since the hero had helped him win his war and his wife for him. But Hagen managed to persuade his king that it was best for Siegfried to die. It seemed Hagen envied Siegfried's great wealth, power and prowess. Though Hagen was Gunther's best warrior, Hagen was really no match for Siegfried. First, Gunther would announce false news that Liudeger and Liudegast was going to invade his land again, and was to ask Siegfried for aid, which Siegfried had readily agreed. Hagen then went to Kriemhild, to find out if Siegfried had any weakness. Kriemhild, unaware of her brother's henchman of treachery, she disclosed that Siegfried's only weakness was small area on the hero's back, between the shoulder blades. Hagen lied to her, saying that he would protect her husband back in battle. Kriemhild, who was reassured by Hagen's words, told the villain that she would sew a patch on Siegfried's tunic, so that Hagen knows what area to protect. The day Siegfried was about to set out with the army, Gunther gave another false news that Liudeger and Liudegast had withdrawn all claims to his land. Instead, Gunther invited Siegfried on a hunting trip. Remembering her dream Kriemhild had a feeling of foreboding. She failed to persuade Siegfried to stay with her, rather than go hunting with her brother. Kriemhild began to suspect treachery from Hagen and her brother. During the long day of hunting in the woods, Siegfried killed a bear with a sword. During lunch Hagen had secretly salted the food, to make Siegfried thirsty. Hagen also ensured that the servants left behind the wine. Hagen challenged Siegfried to a race to a spring beyond the hills. Here, they may drink to quench their thirsts. Siegfried eagerly agreed and told them he would give them a chance by carrying all his equipment and weapons, while Gunther and Hagen can run in their tunics. Siegfried easily outran his brother-in-law and Hagen, and reached the spring before the two. However, he let Gunther drink first. Siegfried stood his spear and sword against his tree, before taking off his armour. While Siegfried took a drink from the spring, Hagen quickly hid Siegfried's sword (Balmung) and picked up the hero's javelin. With patch on the hero's tunic, which revealed his vulnerable area, Hagen was able to drive the spear unerringly into Siegfried's back, between the shoulder blades. The spear reached Siegfried's heart. Though, Hagen had treacherously stabbed him in the back, Gunther's henchman fled in terror from the mortally wounded hero. In anger, Siegfried leaped to his feet to avenge himself, but could not find his sword. Taking his shield with him, he pursued and caught up with his enemy. Siegfried bashed Hagen with his shield. Without his sword, Siegfried could not kill his Hagen. Soon, Siegfried collapsed from blood loss, apparently dying from his wound. Some of those people, who were loyal to the hero, mourned for him. Gunther also arrived, wept and mourned for Siegfried. Siegfried rebuked Gunther for his tears, because he knows that his brother-in-law was treacherous. Hagen did not care if Kriemhild knew of his treachery, took Siegfried's body back to the palace and set it at the threshold. When Kriemhild woke up before dawn, one of her servants discovered the body. Kriemhild knew immediately that the body was her husband's. According to an older manuscript of the Nibelungenlied, Brunhild laughed when she heard Kriemhild's laments, which this poem had left out. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 86 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Kriemhild was inconsolable over Siegfried's death, and knew that Hagen and Brunhild were responsible for the murder. News soon reached Siegmund of his son's death, who became distraught. The men of Nibelungland swore vengeance. Kriemhild knew that her father-in-law could not hope to defeat her brothers, dissuaded him from seeking revenge. Kriemhild told Siegmund that she would exact revenge upon her enemies. She told Siegmund that he must help and arrange a suitable funeral for the hero they loved. When Gunther went to comfort Kriemhild, she rebuked him for treachery against the man who helped him win great honour as king. It was customary, that mourner would move around the bier. When Hagen and Gunther appeared before the bier, Siegfried's wound flow anew, revealing his murderers. Kriemhild accused him responsible for her husband's death. Kriemhild did not believe her brother's lie that robbers had killed Siegfried. After a long funeral, Siegfried was finally buried. Siegmund knew who was responsible for his son's death, decided to go home. Siegmund ask his daughter-in-law to come with him to the Netherlands. Kriemhild would still be queen, being Siegfried's wife. However, her mother, and two brothers, Gernot and Giselher, managed to persuade with them. Giselher promised to be her protector and offered his own palace as her home. Siegmund was upset that Kriemhild would not leave her family behind. Kriemhild gave her son Gunther to Siegmund to raise, while she stayed with her family. Unlike the Norse counterpart, such as the Volsunga Saga, Brunhild did not committed suicide at Siegfried's funeral, like Brynhild did at Sigurd's funeral (see Brynhild in Volsunga Saga). After the funeral of Siegfried's funeral, Brunhild had disappeared from the rest of the Nibelungenlied, which I considered to be quite strange. IV. Treasure of the Nibelungs Kriemhild lived with younger brother Giselher, mourning for her brave husband, Siegfried. She continued to go to church as well as regularly visit her husband's grave. For over three years, she refused to reconcile with her brother Gunther and her enemy Hagen. Hagen, who knew of the fable treasure of the Nibelungs, convinced his king to take the first step in conciliation with his sister, so they could bring the treasure to Worms, the city of Burgundy. Gunther's younger brothers, Gernot and Giselher convinced Kriemhild to make peace with their elder brother (Gunther). Soon, Gunther convinced her of bring the Nibelung treasure to Burgundy. Alberich the Nibelung Treasurer thought that since Kriemhild was Siegfried's widow, then she had right to the treasure. Beside that Alberich could protect the gold now that Siegfried's cloak of invisible was lost. Kriemhild became the richest woman in the world. Rather than use the treasure for herself, she continuously gave away treasure to friends and strangers who visited her. Her generosity irritated Hagen. Hagen also feared that she would use the treasure to gather followers or an army so she could destroy Hagen and his lord. (Since Gunther reluctance to punish Hagen in anyway for the murder of Siegfried or for stealing her inheritance (the Nibelung treasure), she would one day, destroy her brother along with Hagen, to avenge Siegfried's death.) Hagen complained to his lord, and Gunther rebuked his henchman that the treasure belonged to his sister, which she made do what she like. Gunther refused to do anything about it. So Hagen took matter in his own hands, and stole the hoard. To prevent Kriemhild regaining the treasure, he had the entire hoard sank in the Rhine, near Locheim. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 87 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Now Hagen had murdered her husband and stole her treasure. Though this angered the three Burgundian kings, they did not punish him. Gunther and his brothers also knew of the treasure location, and swore not to reveal it. However in the second last chapter (28), Hagen said that the three kings commanded him to sink the treasure in the Rhine. This contradicted this scene. Once again, Hagen and her brother incurred her wrath. B. Kriemhild’s Revenge I. Wooing of Kriemhild Thirteen years, after Siegfried's death, Etzel (Atli or Attila), the king of the Huns or of Hungary, became a widower, when his beautiful wife, Helche (Erka) died. His vassals and friends advised that the king should take a new wife. They thought that Kriemhild was the most suitable wife for Etzel. Kriemhild was still the most beautiful woman in the world. Etzel knew of the reputation of Kriemhild's late husband's prowess as a warrior. At first, he was reluctant because he was a heathen while Kriemhild was a Christian, but he finally agreed to at least try to win her. Etzel decided to send Rüdiger (Rudiger), the Margrave of Pochlarn (in Austria), as his ambassador. Rudiger was living in exile and became vassal of Etzel. Rudiger lived in Pochlarn with his wife Gotelind, and his daughter who was unnamed in the story. Rudiger also knew of Kriemhild and her family, including Hagen. He had visited the Rhineland when he was younger. The Burgundian kings welcomed Etzel's envoy. When they heard of Rudiger's request, the three princes approved of the arrangement. Only Hagen opposed the proposal marriage to Kriemhild. With Etzel as her husband, Hagen warned them that Kriemhild would be powerful enough to destroy him and the Burgundian house. Kriemhild also opposed the marriage arrangement, because she still mourned over Siegfried's. She was also reluctant to marry a heathen. After a few days of consideration, she saw that marrying would allow her to avenge Siegfried's death. When Kriemhild extracted an oath from Rudiger that he would avenge any wrongdoing, she finally agreed to marriage to Etzel. Rudiger assumed legal guardianship over Kriemhild. Arrangement was quickly arrange for her travel to Hungary. Eckewart, a Burgundian margrave, who had followed her to the Netherlands, accompanied her to Hungary. A hundred ladies travelled with her. Kriemhild was escorted into Etzel's empire by 500 of Rudiger's warriors. Though, Hagen had sunk most of Kriemhild's treasure, the poet remarked that she still had more than a hundred packhorses could carry. Hagen still wanted to steal the rest of treasure from Kriemhild, which upset her and her brothers. First they stopped at the town called Pochlarn, Rudiger's own land. Kriemhild met the Margrave's wife (Gotelind) and daughter (unnamed). Kriemhild showered Rudiger with gifts: twelve gold bracelets and fine cloths. Kriemhild went through many towns before she met Etzel in Tulln, in Austria. Among the vassals of Etzel who met Kriemhild was Dietrich von Bern. On Rudiger's advice, Kriemhild greeted Etzel with a chaste kiss in greeting. When she took off her wimple, she revealed to all those present that she was lovelier than Etzel's late beloved queen, Helche were. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 88 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Then Etzel and his vassals escorted Kriemhild to Vienna, in Austria. They were wedded in Vienna, on Whitsuntide, and the festivities lasted 17 days. During that time she won many supporters through her generosity. She showered the public with her gifts. The other vassals of Etzel also followed her suit, and generously gave gifts to people. On the eighteenth day, they left Vienna and travelled to Etzelnburg, Etzel's capital in Hungary. II. Invitation to a Festival Seven years after the marriage to Etzel, Kriemhild bore a son named Ortlieb (Aldrian in the Thriðreks saga). It has now been 13 years since she had married Etzel, yet Kriemhild continued to mourn over Siegfried's death. During those years, she won the people over to her, including many powerful vassals of her husband. She decided it was time for her take her revenge upon Hagen and her eldest brother, Gunther. She persuaded Etzel to send an invitation to her brothers for the midsummer festival. She knew that Hagen would be reluctant to meet her in Hungary; she also knew that her enemy would follow Gunther despite the danger. Etzel was unaware of her intention; send his two minstrels or fiddlers, named Werbel and Swemmel, as envoy to Burgundy. As predicted, Hagen opposed the Burgundian princes to visit their sister in Hungary. All his arguments that Kriemhild would bring about their downfall, fallen on deaf ears. Kriemhild's brothers were determined to see her. Hagen managed to persuade Gunther to at least take an well-armed escort of a thousand men. Ever loyal to Gunther, Hagen decided to go with kings to Hungary. Gunther left Rumold, the Lord of the Kitchen, as regent of Burgundy during his absence. It should be note at this point of time, when the three brothers decided to undertake this journey to Hungary that the poet began to call the Burgundians: Nibelungs. Originally, the Nibelungs were people who come from mythical land of Nibelungland, and became vassals of Siegfried, when he killed the two kings and acquired their fable wealth. In this half of the poem, the Burgundians and the Nibelungs became indistinguishable. Either the Nibelungs were another name of the Burgundians or it was the name of the dynasty in Burgundy. On the day of their departure, their mother (Uote) had tried to persuade her sons to remain home, since she had a vision of their death and the destruction of the dynasty. But this time, Hagen was determined to go to Hungary and face Kriemhild's wrath, mainly because Gernot had taunted him of cowardice. III. The Nibelungs in the Pochlarn In the journey to Hungary, Hagen set out to find a ferry at the Danube River, where met a group of nixies. One water sprite warned them to turn back, because they were all doom to die. Only the chaplain would survive this journey. But he did not believe them, so they direct them to the ferryman. The nixie told Hagen to treat the ferryman with respect. However, the ferryman refused them passage and attacked Hagen. Hagen used the sword and severed the ferryman's head. Then Hagen himself used the ferry to bring Gunther and his warriors across the river. When Hagen saw the chaplain, Hagen became angry at the fairy's prophecy that only the priest would survive. Hagen tried to drown the chaplain, by throwing him overboard. The chaplain realising that Hagen was trying to kill him swam back to shore, and return home. The kings and warriors were shocked and outraged at Hagen's attack upon priest. Hagen explained to the kings why he try to drown the chaplain, kill the ferryman, and of the prophecy their doom in Hungary. This upset Nibelung warriors. Yet they continue on their journey, where A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 89 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City they were attack by two margraves. The margraves were angry at the attack on their vassal (ferryman). In the fighting, Hagen's brother Dancwart killed one of the margraves, named Gelpfrat, while the other fled. The Nibelungs arrived safely to Pochlarn, where the Margrave Rudiger entertained them. Here, Giselher met Rudiger's daughter, asked for her hand in marriage. They were promptly married, before Rudiger departed with Burgundian kings to Hungary. Gotelind, Rudiger's wife, gave each guest a parting gift. When she was going to give a gift to Hagen, he refused to accept any except the beautiful shield that hanged on the wall. The shield belonged to a warrior named Nuodung (Nauðung), who was killed in the war by Witege. This war was fought between Ermanaric and the hero Dietrich, in the Battle of Ravenna. This is only of the few allusions to Dietrich's exile and war against his uncle. A complete tale about Dietrich is given in the Thidrekssaga, where the hero was called Thidrek. This brought tears to the Margravine, because Nuodung was a kinsman of Gotelind. Hagen was now going to Hungary, equipped with the invincible sword of Siegfried (Balmung) and the fabulous shield of Nuodung. IV. Battle in the Hall The Nibelungs arrived in shiny armours at Gran, Etzel's capital. Dietrich was unhappy at the arrival of the Nibelungs, because he knew that Kriemhild was set to turn Etzel's vassals against the Nibelung guests. Dietrich who greeted the princes and Hagen; he warned the latter of Kriemhild's plot. She only greeted youngest brother, Giselher, with a kiss. On the first day, Kriemhild failed to set her subjects against Hagen. Kriemhild and Hagen were rude towards one another. Hagen refused to pay any sort of respect to her, while Kriemhild accused him of murdering Siegfried and stealing her treasure. Hagen did not deny his guilt, but he told her bluntly that she should love her current husband (Etzel) rather than continuing to mourn Siegfried, who was dead for the last 26 years. At night, Volker and Hagen kept watch, while the Nibelung kings and their followers slept. Her warriors failed to attack them when they found Hagen and the Fiddler standing guard. The first death occurred the next day, in a bohort (sort of like a jousting tournament). Either Volker purposefully or accidentally killed a Hun. Etzel prevented further fighting between the outraged Hunnish horsemen and his guests. Though, Kriemhild pleaded with Dietrich to back her cause for vengeance, Dietrich refused to aid her, so she turned to Bloedelin, brother of Etzel, promising land formerly owned by Nuodung. When Etzel asked the Rhenish princes to raise his son, Ortlieb, as a warrior in Burgundy, Hagen had impetuously told the Hunnish king that he would not serve Ortlieb, and that the prince's life was shortlived. Though the Hagen's words hurt Etzel, Etzel's powerful vassals were offended by the slights. Meanwhile, Bloedelin brought armed men to the guests' quarters. Bloedelin confronted Dancwart and accuse Gunther and Hagen of treachery against the queen's first husband. When Dancwart could not dissuade Bloedelin (Bloedel), the Burgundian marshal struck first, decapitating Bloedelin with his sword. Fighting immediately broke out. All the Rhenish squires except Dancwart were killed in the quarters. Dancwart managed to fight his way to where Etzel was entertaining his guests. Hagen hearing how Bloedelin's men killed all the squires in their quarters, Hagen decapitated Ortlieb so that his head fell on to Kriemhild's laps. The Hunnish warriors were stunned by the attack on their prince. Hagen then killed Ortlieb's tutor and severed the ambassador's hand (Werbel's). Fighting broke out in the hall. Volker joined Hagen in slaying Hunnish warriors. Gunther and his brothers tried to stop the fighting, but soon realised that they couldn't stand to one side. Gunther allowed Dietrich to leave the hall. Dietrich took Kriemhild and Etzel out of the hall. Giselher gave his father-in-law (Rudiger) safe conduct to leave. Dietrich and Rudiger took their retainers with A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 90 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City them. The three Burgundian kings, however, refused to allow Hunnish warriors to leave. All the remaining Hunnish knights within the hall were killed. Upon Giselher's advice the corpses of the dead Huns were thrown out of hall, because they knew the fighting would not end. Hagen foolishly taunted Etzel. Battle was renewed when Hagen killed Margrave Iring of Denmark. The Danes attacked the Burgundians, but were slaughtered in the hall. V. The Nibelungs’ Last Stand With the death of his son Ortlieb and many of his warriors in the hall, Etzel refused to give truce to Nibelung brothers. Kriemhild would allow her brothers leave Hungary in peace, if they would give her Hagen as her prisoner. Her brothers refused to give up Hagen, so the fighting began once again. During the battle, Kriemhild had the hall set on fire, to drive out the Burgundians, but many Hunnish knights were killed. Kriemhild then called upon Rudiger's oath to her, when he persuaded her to marry Etzel. Rudiger, who had guarranteed safe escort to the Nibelungs into Etzel's court, offer them gifts and his daughter to Giselher, Rudiger wanted to remain neutral from the fighting. However, Etzel and Kriemhild urged him to fight. Gunther and his brothers try to dissuade Rudiger from battle, but he told them he was constrained by oath of fealty to the king and his promise to avenge Kriemhild. In the fighting, Gernot and Rudiger killed one another. Gernot had killed the margrave with the sword Rudiger had given him. Both sides lamented Rudiger's death. When Dietrich heard about Rudiger's death, he was upset and sent Hildebrand to find the truth of the news from the Nibelungs. Hildebrand and other followers lamented over Rudiger's death. Hildebrand wants to recover Hildebrand's body for proper burial, but Volker's taunted and provoked the men of Verona, particularly Wolfhart, Hildebrand’s nephew. Fierce fighting broke out between the Nibelungs and the knights of Verona. When Volker killed Sigestap, nephew of Dietrich, Hildebrand avenged Sigestap's death by downward blow to Volker's head. Helpfrich killed Dancwart, while Wolfhart and Giselher killed one another. Only Gunther, Hagen and Hildebrand were only one to survive. Hagen attacked Hildebrand, hoping to avenge Volker's death. Hagen only managed to wound the old warrior with Balmung (Siegfried's sword), who fled to Dietrich, with news of decimated Amelungs. Dietrich lamented Rudiger's death, but he was dealt with further shock, when he realised that Hildebrand was the only surviving warrior of his. Dietrich armed himself to confront Gunther and Hagen. Dietrich asked Gunther to surrender to him as prisoner. Dietrich promised safe conduct out of Hungary if they surrendered him, escorting Gunther and Hagen back to their own country. As a warrior and a knight, Hagen angrily refused the offer. To surrender was to bring disgrace to his valour and skills as a warrior, and be forever branded as a coward. So, Hagen attacked Dietrich. Though, Hagen was armed with Siegfried's sword, Dietrich managed to wound his opponent. Dietrich then proceeded to bound Hagen and delivered his opponent to the latter's mortal enemy, Queen Kriemhild. Though, Kriemhild was happy with Hagen's capture, Dietrich asked the queen to spare his life. Then Dietrich confronted Kriemhild's brother, and Gunther was similarly overcome and bound as prisoner to his sister. Kriemhild kept her brother and her enemy in separate prison cells. Kriemhild confronted Hagen, demanding the return of Siegfried's treasure in return for freedom to return to Burgundy. Hagen mocked her, saying he would never disclose the treasure as long as one of Nibelung kings was alive. So she had her brother beheaded. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 91 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Kriemhild brought Gunther's head to Hagen. Since the last of his brother was dead, she demanded that she tell him to disclose the treasure whereabouts. Hagen told her that he would still not tell her where he had sunk the treasure. Kriemhild took up her husband's sword, Balmung. With Hagen bound and helpless, Kriemhild struck off Hagen's head with the Balmung. Etzel and Dietrich finding Gunther and Hagen dead, lament that a woman had killed Hagen. Hildebrand immediately retaliated, by executing the queen. So ended the "Nibelungs' last stand". French Literature French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. Literature written by citizens of other nations such as Belgium, Switzerland, Canada, Senegal, Algeria, Morocco, etc. is referred to as Francophone literature. The French language is a romance dialect derived from Vulgar Latin and heavily influenced principally by Celtic and Frankish. Beginning in the 11th century, literature written in medieval French was one of the oldest vernacular (non-Latin) literatures in Western Europe and it became a key source of literary themes in the Middle Ages across the continent. Although the European prominence of French literature was eclipsed in part by vernacular literature in Italy in the 14th century, literature in France in the 16th century underwent a major creative evolution, and through the political and artistic programs of the Ancien Régime, French literature came to dominate European letters in the 17th century. In the 18th century, French became the literary lingua franca and diplomatic language of western Europe (and, to a certain degree, in America), and French letters have had a profound impact on all European and American literary traditions while at the same time being heavily influenced by these other national traditions (for example: British and German Romanticism in the nineteenth century). French literary developments of the 19th and 20th centuries have had a particularly strong effect on modern world literature, including: symbolism, naturalism, the "roman-fleuves" of Balzac, Zola and Proust, surrealism, existentialism, and the "Theatre of the Absurd". French imperialism and colonialism in the Americas, Africa, and the Far East have brought the French language to non-European cultures that are transforming and adding to the French literary experience today. Under the aristocratic ideals of the ancien régime (the "honnête homme"), the nationalist spirit of post-revolutionary France, and the mass educational ideals of the Third Republic and modern France, the French have come to have a profound cultural attachment to their literary heritage. Today, French schools emphasize the study of novels, theater and poetry (often learnt by heart). The literary arts are heavily sponsored by the state and literary prizes are major news. The Académie française and the Institut de France are important linguistic and artistic institutions in France, and French television features shows on writers and poets (the most watched show in French history was Apostrophes, a weekly talk show on literature and the arts). Literature matters deeply to the people of France and plays an important role in their sense of identity. As of 2006, French literary people have been awarded more Nobel Prizes in Literature than novelists, poets and essayists of any other country, although writers in English have won twice as many Nobels as the French. Besides literature written in the French language, the literary culture of France may include literature written in other languages of France. In the medieval period many of the competing standard languages in various territories that later came to make up the territory of modern France each produced literary traditions, such as Anglo-Norman literature and Provençal literature. Literature in the regional languages continued through to the 18th century, although increasing eclipsed by the rise of the French language and influenced by the prevailing French literary model. Conscious A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 92 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City language revival movements in the 19th century, such as Félibrige in Provence, coupled with wider literacy and regional presses, enabled a new flowering of literary production in the Norman language and others. Frédéric Mistral, a poet in Occitan (1830–1914), was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1904. Breton literature since the 1920s has been lively, despite the falling number of speakers. In 1925, Roparz Hemon founded the periodical Gwalarn which for 19 years tried to raise the language to the level of other great "international" languages by creating original works covering all genres and by proposing Breton translations of internationally recognized foreign works. In 1946, Al Liamm took up the role of Gwalam. Other reviews came into existence and gave Breton a fairly large body of literature for a minority language. Among writers in Breton are Yann-Ber Kalloc'h, Anjela Duval and Per-Jakez Hélias. Picard literature maintains a level of literary output, especially in theatrical writing. Walloon literature is bolstered by the more significant literary production in the language in Belgium. Catalan literature and literature in the Basque language also benefit from the existence of a readership outside the borders of France. The Song of Roland The Song of Roland, or, in French, La Chanson de Roland, is the best known of the Old French epics. It was possibly first composed some time in the 10th or 11th century, though the earliest extant version of the chanson was found in the 12th century, in a manuscript designated as "Digby 23", now kept at the Bodleian Library in Oxford. There are later versions that can be found in other manuscripts, but none of them are as complete as the Digby version. The author of the chanson de Roland was possibly Turoldus, whose name was include at the very end of the epic. Whether he was the original composer of the epic or that he was the compiler of Digby manuscript, or a fictional author, is uncertain. The author of the chanson clearly set out to immortalise the hero Roland and the so-called Twelve Peers, in similar fashion that later medieval poets immortalise King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table. A. Treachery Charlemagne (or Charles I) was besieging Cordoba, when King Marsile of Spain called upon a meeting at his palace in Saragossa, to discuss what they should do about Charlemagne. Charlemagne's army had conquered much of Marsile's kingdom for the last seven years, and Marsile was at loss of how he can prevent himself from losing his crown and the final stronghold to the Franks. It was Blancandrin of Castel de Valfunde, who counsel Marsile with a plan to betray the offering peace to Charlemagne. The peace would be to lure Charlemagne out of Spain by offering hostages, treasures, and most importantly a false declaration that Marsile would become Charlemagne's vassal and convert to the Christian faith. Marsile would pretend to follow Charlemagne to Aix (or Aix-la-Chapelle), the capital of the Franks, to swear allegiance to Charlemagne and be baptised. With Charlemagne back at Aix, Marsile could try to reconquer the land and cities that Charlemagne has won. Blancandrin said it was better for Marsile to break the last two promises and let the hostages die, then for Marsile to lose his entire kingdom. Blancandrin had even offered his own son as hostage. So Marsile sent Blancandrin as his envoy to Charlemagne, with treasures and the selected highranking hostages. Blancandrin brought before the Frankish king, the offer - hostages, treasure, and the promise of Marsile becoming vassal to Charlemagne. So that night, Charlemagne summoned his counsellors and noblemen, for advice on this matter of Marsile's proposal. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 93 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City It was Roland who voiced his rejection of the Saracen proposal of peace, and his distrust for Marsile. Since Cordoba has been captured, they only need to capture Marsile's capital, Saragossa, and Charlemagne would have the entire Spanish peninsula in his hands; so there was no need of accepting any truce with Marsile. The hero also reminded the assembly that Charlemagne had previously sent an embassy, Basan and Basile, to Marsile, but they were treacherously beheaded the two counts. Roland's stepfather, Ganelon, on the other hand, rebuked the young hero of being reckless and for warmongering. If Marsile want peace and ask for mercy, then Charlemagne should magnanimously accept, especially if the Saracen king becomes a Christian and a vassal to Charlemagne. Duke Naimes, Charlemagne's wisest counsellor, thought that Ganelon's argument was the most sensible and diplomatic solution. He volunteered to go, but Charlemagne refused to be deprived of Naimes' wisdom. Also the person who goes to Saragossa may not return alive if the truce don't go well. Roland then offer to go, but Oliver and the king, refused his nomination as ambassador, since Roland was no diplomat, and was clearly hostile to the Saracens. Roland was most likely to offend the Saracen king. Archbishop Turpin also offered to go Marsile, but he was also rejected. Roland then suggested that his stepfather should go, since it was Ganelon's idea to accept peace from the enemy. Ganelon was angry stepson's nomination because anyone who goes would probably not return alive, but he reluctantly accepted the position when Charlemagne thought he was the ideal candidate. Ganelon swore before Charlemagne and the whole assembly that he would bring Roland's downfall. Ganelon decided to go alone, since the Frank noblemen agree on his nomination; his kinsmen would have come with him. When Charlemagne gave his glove to Ganelon as the mark of his appointment, Ganelon rudely let the glove fall on the ground - which all members of the council saw as a bad omen. So Ganelon set out for Saragossa with Blancandrin. In their journey, Blancandrin learned of Ganelon's hatred for his stepson, and with the Saracen encouragement, Ganelon vowed to make Roland and the other members of the Twelve Peers pay with their lives for his humiliation at Charlemagne's court. At Saragossa, though Marsile greeted Ganelon's warmly, but the message of Charlemagne that he delivered would have brought about Ganelon's immediate death, but Blancandrin intervened, and asked his king for patience and to listen to Ganelon's suggestion. Ganelon advised Marsile that the only way to make Charlemagne leave Spain forever is to bring about Roland's death. Roland is Charlemagne's right hand in warfare; without Roland, the Frankish king would despair and could not hope to conquer Spain. Marsile should pretend to follow Charlemagne to Aix, to accept baptism, and Spain would be divided in half: Roland would rule one half of the kingdom, while Marsile would rule the other. When Charlemagne would leave for France, Ganelon would arrange it so that Roland to accept the post of rearguard with the Twelve Peers and 20,000 men. Marsile should then gather half of his army to destroy Roland and his warriors in an ambush. With this plan from Ganelon, Marsile and those in his court rejoiced that Charlemagne's ambassador was willing to commit treason out of spite for his stepson; they rewarded Ganelon with rich gifts. Even Bramimonde, Marsile's consort, bestowed a kiss upon Ganelon. Ganelon returned to Galne, a city which Roland had captured, and gave the news to Charlemagne, along with a false letter from the Saracen king that Marsile would follow Charlemagne to Aix, to be baptised and accept fief from Charlemagne. So, the king immediately ordered to break camp, and immediately prepare the withdrawal from Spain: to return home. Charlemagne was unaware that Marsile indeed intending to follow the Frankish army, but with four hundred thousand armed Saracen warriors. On the night before Charlemagne was due to make a trek across the mountains of the Pyrenees, the king had a couple of unsettling dreams. They were actually visions of treachery from Ganelon and from Marsile. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 94 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City In one dream, Ganelon seized Charlemagne's lance and violently broke the weapon. In the second vision, Charlemagne was in a chapel at Aix, where he was bitten by a wild boar, while a leopard attacked his body. A hunting dog came and bit off the boar ear, before fighting with the leopard. In the morning, Charlemagne called for his advisers, wanting to know who should remain behind and guard the passes and narrow defiles while the main body of Charlemagne's army moved ahead into France. Ganelon immediately suggested Roland should protect the army's rear, while Ogier the Dane take the position of the vanguard. The vanguard is normally led by Roland, so he was angry that he must command the rearguard forces. Unlike Ganelon, who dropped Charlemagne's staff that indicated he was serving as embassy on behalf of the king, Roland didn't not drop the king's gauntlet and bow now that he have been given command of the rearguard. Charlemagne immediately recognised that his dreams of Ganelon's treachery, but he was powerless to prevent it. When Charlemagne brought up the issue of Roland taking half of his army to guard the passes and defiles, the hero immediately rejected his uncle's offer. Roland boasted that he needs no other than his eleven companions and his twenty thousand warriors that was already under his command. However there are some notable warriors to join Roland; among them are Archbishop Turpin, Astor, Duke Gaifier and Count Gautier del Hum joined Roland. B. On the Field of Rencesvals As Charlemagne moved his main body of his army through the pass of Rencesvals, Roland remained in Spain. Despite, being back at his kingdom, Charlemagne was grieving and told Duke Naimes about his vision that Roland and the Twelve Peers would be destroyed by Ganelon's treachery. At Saragossa, Marsile gathered four-hundred thousand Saracen warriors to attack Roland's twenty thousand men. His nephew, Aelroth, boastfully wants to face Roland himself. Eleven other volunteered to fight against the Twelve Peers. Among them are Falsaron, Marsile's brother; a Berber king named Corsalis; Malprimis of Brigant; the emir from Balaguer; the almacor from Moriane; Turgis of Turteluse; Escremiz of Valterne; Estorgan and his companion Estramariz; Margariz of Seville; and Chernubles of Munigre. Each one hollowly boasting that he would be the one to kill Roland. And they all marched towards Rencesvals. Roland ordered Count Gautier to guard the defiles and passes of Rencesvals with a thousand Frank warriors. But even here, Gautier would face strong opposition from King Almari of Belferne. When the Franks heard the arrival of their enemies, Oliver went to investigate on the hilltop and saw the Saracens vastly outnumbered them. Oliver returned to Roland with the news that they could not possibly win with only 20,000 knights; his advice was that Roland should sound the horn, so Charlemagne reinforced them. Roland flatly refused, mainly because he didn't want people to see him as a coward, and that he was overconfident that they could defeat Marsile. Two more times, Oliver returned to the hill and then back to Roland, calling upon his companion to call for aid, but each time, Roland rejected Oliver's wise advice. Roland called for the Franks to be armed and ready to fight the Saracen army. Roland knew now the full extent of his stepfather's treachery and that Ganelon had accepted gifts from the Saracen king. As the two sides charged into one another, Aelroth boasted that they will destroy Charlemagne and his kingdom. But his prowess and glory (or lack of it) was short-lived; Roland hearing the rash Marsile's nephew drove his spear into Aelroth, breaking his back. Oliver's killed Falsaron, Marsile's brother, when he was making similar boast. Corsablix met his end at Archbishop Turpin. Gerin killed Malprimis, while his companion account for the emir. Samson ended the almacor's life; Anseis overthrew Turgis; Engeler ends Escremiz of Valterne; Oton over Estorgans, Berenger against Astramariz. Though, Margariz attacked Oliver with his spear, the Frank paladin was unharmed, and the Saracen didn't stay. Cherubles wasn't so lucky. After 15 blows against various unnamed Saracens, Roland's A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 95 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City spear was destroyed, so he drew Durendal from his scabbard, and sliced Cherubles from head down to his groin. This sword even cut it way to the Saracen's horse's spine. That was how powerful Roland was. There are too many little deeds done by the Twelve Peers, to record here, but the Franks have done very well against Marsile's forces, right up til noon. Because around this time, Marsile had joined in the fray. Realising that even outnumbered, the Franks had slaughtered a hundred thousand of his men. The first of Roland's eleven companions began to fall. Climborin was among the Saracen nobles who greeted Ganelon in friendship; he killed Engeler. Oliver avenged Engeler, by not only killing Climborin, but also Duke Alphaien and Escababi. Valdabrun killed Duke Samson, but Roland avenged his companion's life. Anesis had fallen to an African named Malquiant, son of Malcuid, but Turpin took his revenge upon Malquiant. Grandonie of Cappadocia, son of King Capuel, did a lot of damage on the Twelve Peers, accounting for Gerin, Gerer and Berenger, as well as Guiun from Saint-Antoine and Austorie of Valence. It was Roland who stopped Grandonie, just like he did against Cherubles earlier. Roland realised that he should have heeded Oliver's warning, because there were only 60 Frankish warriors are left; so the hero decided that he would blow his horn, the Oliphant. This time, it was Oliver who said it would not be honourable now that that tide has shifted. Twice more, Roland said he should sound the horn, but Oliver argued against it. Archbishop Turpin told the two friends to cease arguing with one another. Although, Turpin agreed that calling for aid from Charlemagne would be too late in arriving to help them, but at least Charlemagne could avenge their death. So with this advice, Roland blew his Oliphant, which Charlemagne could be heard 30 leagues away from the battlefield. The king exclaimed that the rearguard must be in battle, but Ganelon dismissed that there were no battle. But Naimes and other members of Charlemagne heard it too when Roland blew the horn a second time, and still Ganelon persisted that Roland and the rearguard was in no trouble, and they should ride on towards Aix. A third time, the horn was blown, confirmed everyone's fear. Charlemagne immediately ordered his army to turn back to Spain, hoping that he would save what left of the rearguard force. Charlemagne also ordered the immediate arrest of his treacherous brother-in-law. Ganelon was placed under detention of Charlemagne's master cook, whose charges would beat Roland's stepfather, until the king's return. Back at Rencesvals, the effort of blowing the Oliphant so hard, caused ruptured in Roland's temple, and bleeding at the nose and mouth, which was probable the cause of his death. Roland, Oliver and the archbishop returned to battle. By this time, Marsile rode into thick of the battle, felling Bevon, Beaune of Dijon, and the peers Yvoire, Yvon and Gerard of Roussillon. This caused both anguish and anger in Roland. He rode in and attacked Marsile. Roland severed Marsile's hand, as well as chopping off Jurfaleu the Blond's head; Jurfaleu was Marsile's son. Wounded, Marsile fled from the battlefield, which caused a major number of Saracens to abandon the battle like cowards. This however didn't help the surviving Charlemagne's rearguard, and the 50,000 Saracens still outnumbered Roland's dwindling force; on the Saracen side, Marganice, Marsile's uncle was still in command of the field, along with Alfrere and Garmalie. Marganice could still victory can be won, so when he saw the opportunity, he ran his through Oliver at the back. Despite this mortal wound, Oliver killed Marganice with his sword, Halteclere, and still he continued to fight while can still stand, killing more Saracens. Even Roland was awed at his companion's feat, but Oliver was losing his eyesight. When Roland too close to his companion, Oliver nearly killed him, the Halteclere splitting his helmet, but the blade did not touch Roland's head. Oliver finally feeling his death approaching, dismounted his horse, and confessed his sins, before his heart failed him. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 96 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City With Oliver's death, Roland grieved for him, and fainted was still on his horse, Veillantif. When he regained his sense, Gautier had come down from the defiles and heights of Rencesvals, having lost all his men in his command. But Gautier, the archbishop and Roland were the only ones still left alive. Hearing Gautier's tiding made the hero furious, so he killed 20 Saracens in quick succession, while Gautier felled six and the archbishop five. But Gautier fell when he came under the volley of javelins. Turpin also received a mortal wound, pierced by four spears, but still the archbishop fought on. Roland blew his horn again; and this attempt caused the hero to almost faint from the pain. But Charlemagne could barely hear the sound of the Oliphant, and the Franks blew their own bugles in answer. Fearing of facing Charlemagne, the Saracens attacked Roland and Turpin. Roland lost his horse, Veillantif. Though, his shield was in tattered and his hauberk was rent in many places, none of the blows could cut or pierce him. This caused the Saracens to panic and flee from the two implacable warriors. Roland then began searching for all of his Peers, and laid them around the archbishop. The grief caused Roland to faint again. Despite his wounds, Turpin took the hero's Oliphant and went to a nearby stream, to fetch water for Roland, but weakened by his wounds and loss of blood, the Archbishop of Reims died. Roland regained his sense, only to find the archbishop dead with his entrails spilled on the ground near the water. Roland also felt that he was dying too because blowing the Oliphant had caused internal bleeding inside of his head. He moved towards a tree where he found 4 blocks of large marble, and where Roland fainted again. The hero was unaware that one of the Saracens was feigning death. This pagan thought the paladin was dead, and attempted to take Durendal from Roland. At this point, Roland was jolted to his sense, and sensing a cowering thief, swung the Oliphant against the pagan. The horn broke the helmet and the Saracen's skull, before he gouged out both eyes. Fearing that a Saracen would gain his sword and horn and exhibited them as trophy of Saracen's victory, Roland tried to break both Durendal and the Oliphant, but even his might could not break them. Ten times he beat his sword against the stone, but it would neither break nor shatter. At this point, the hero praised the sword, and listed some parts that make up his sword hilt. Enclosed in the hilt was St Peter's tooth, St Basil's blood, hair from St Denis and part of the raiment of St Mary, Jesus' mother. Now that he felt death approaching, he confessed his sins, and began praying to God for salvation and to the archangels Michael and Gabriel to guide him. Seeing that all attempt to destroy the Durendal to no avail, he decided to hide it under his body, as he sat against the pine tree, facing the direction of his enemies in Spain. And then, he died. C. Battle of Charlemagne and Baligant It was about this point Charlemagne arrived with his army, on the field littered with the dead. He was too late. He found the bodies of the Twelve Peers. The king and his entire lamented the loss of rearguard force, the Twelve Peers, and his beloved nephew; they were the flower of Charlemagne's army, so the loss of them seemed devastating. Naimes noticed a great deal of dust rising, and rightly assuming that the Saracens were fleeing from Rencesvals. Setting some guards to watch over their bodies, Charlemagne set out in pursuit of the enemies. It seemed that God was extending his hand to help Charlemagne, by causing the sun to stop, before it could set, so the Franks could catch the Saracens. The Saracens seeing the Frankish army, they panic, and tried to reach Saragossa. Most these routed enemies were driven into the river Ebro, where they drowned. Some stood their ground before the river, and were annihilated. Since it was now dark, Charlemagne decided to set up camp at Val Tenebros, letting his men and horses to rest. That night, Charlemagne mourned for the loss of so many good men, but eventually he fell asleep, where he had vision of Gabriel informing him to not concern himself with those who died, and take A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 97 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City comfort that Roland's soul had been taken to heaven. Charlemagne must concentrate in capturing Saragossa and put his treacherous brother-in-law on trial. Marsile who fled after receiving his wound - a missing hand, managed to escape the disaster that befell those men that had died at Val Tenebros and the Ebro River. Seven years earlier, when he first fought against the Franks, he sent a missive to an old emir, named Baligant from Babylon (not to be confused with a city in Mesopotamia; this city is in Egypt, possibly Cairo) to come to his aid. Baligant arrived with a large fleet in Spain, and was approaching Marsile's capital, Saragossa, with a large army. Baligant sent an envoy, where Marsile informed the emir's messengers that he had lost his right hand in battle and his son. He had no desire to rule any longer since he was without an heir, so he was surrendering his city and kingdom (Spain) to Baligant by giving the key to the emir's envoy. Upon hearing this news, Baligant set out to face Charlemagne's army. That morning Charlemagne returned to Rencesvals, where he mourned for his nephew and the Twelve Peers. He was about to make arrangement for those who died their burial, but Baligant's army arrived. So both armies got ready for battle, deploying the battalions and assigning captains to these divisions (there is a long description of this, which I will not list). However, Charlemagne did arrange a new division of 15,000 young warriors, commanded by Count Rabel and Count Guineman, to serve as the vanguard, like that led by the Twelve Peers of 20,000 men; they were to spearhead the attack against the Saracens. On the other side, Baligant's son, Malpramis, led the spearhead division. Charlemagne divided the rest of his force into 10 divisions, while Baligant had 40 divisions. Charlemagne's horse was called Tencendur and armed himself with his sword Joiuse, while Baligant's sword was Preciuse and his spear Maltet. The two opposing vanguards clashed first, before the rest of the two large armies join in the battle. Malpramis fought well, but ended at the worse end of fight, when the elder warrior, Duke Naimes killed him. Naimes would have lost his life, when he was struck by King Canabeus, Baligant's brother, but he was rescued by Charlemagne. Despite the size of Baligant's army, Charlemagne's smaller army proved to be more experienced. But the deciding factor of the battle was the meeting between the two rulers. Both kings were unhorsed, when they smashed their spear against one another; they fought each other with their swords. Baligant almost got the better of the fight, when his sword stunned Charlemagne, but the angel Gabriel intervene renewing Charlemagne who returned the blow with Joiuse, and split open Baligant's head. Seeing their emir dead, the Saracen warriors began to flee, with the Frankish warriors on their heel. Charlemagne's army chased the enemies all the way to Saragossa. When Marsile heard his wife Bramimonde, he cried out that Baligant's army was fleeing towards their city, he knew that the emir was dead; Marsile also died from sorrow. Bramimonde surrendered the city to Charlemagne, when the Franks broke through the gates. Only those who accept Christianity and baptised were spared; so over 100,000 Saragossa residents were baptised. Bramimonde was held as royal captive, and she was to accompany to France, in the hope that she would become Christian. D. Trial of Ganelon The next day, Charlemagne left the city Saragossa, determined to return to France and to Aix, to try Ganelon for treason. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 98 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Charlemagne's return to Aix was marred by another tragedy. Aude, Oliver's sister, was Roland's bride. When Charlemagne broke the news, but told her that he could marry his son, Louis, she rejected the king's offer, and collapsed, dead from grief. She was promptly buried. Charlemagne then have his brother-in-law tried, charged with treason, and the king's court full of noblemen would be the jury. Ganelon's thirty kinsmen came to support him, particularly Pinabel from Castel de Sorence. Charlemagne put forward that Ganelon accepted gold, arranging so that Marsile could ambush the force of the Twelve Peers, leading to the death of Roland and his companions. Ganelon argued that he hadn't committed treason, because Roland had wronged him, so it was a quarrel just between him and his stepson. Pinabel challenged anyone to prove Ganelon's treason, by the mean of single combat. No one was willing to face Pinabel in combat, so the nobles tried to reconcile the king with Ganelon and absolved his brother-in-law of treason. Charlemagne angrily called his noblemen "traitors". Only Thierry, brother of Duke Geoffrey of Anjou, supported the king's case, and accepted the challenge of single combat from Pinabel. Thierry accused of Ganelon of treason, and causing the death of Roland, the Twelve Peers, and 20,000 knights under Roland's command at Rencesvals. For this combat to be prepared, Ganelon must provide hostages as surety. Thirty of Ganelon's kinsmen swore pledge of loyalty. The single combat took place outside of Aix, on the green meadow. Pinabel was tall and strong knight, and considerably experience. Thierry, on the other hand, was shorter, and slender in built. Everyone sorrowfully believed that Thierry would lose. Both aside tried to get the other side to surrender, because each side admired the opponent's courage, but Pinabel refused to reconciliation if Ganelon must die as a traitor. So they fought one another. They broke spear against one another, and were both unhorsed. They leaped to their feet, and drew their swords, trading blow after blow. Again, the angel Gabriel interfered, when Pinabel's sword cut open Thierry's helmet, scoring a cut from forehead to the right cheek. Thierry's return blow was more decisive and precise, splitting Pinabel's head, spilling out his brains. Thierry had overthrown his foe. The noblemen now unanimously voted that Ganelon was guilty of treason. Ganelon's kinsmen were not spared; they all were hanged on the gallows-trees. Ganelon's fate was worse than his kinsmen. His limbs were pulled out of his body; each limb was tied to a horse. The poem ended, shortly after Bramimonde accepted baptism and became a Christian; her name was changed to Juliana. That night, Charlemagne had another vision, as he slept. Gabriel told Charlemagne must gather an army to help King Vivien in Imphe, whose city was besieged by the pagans from Brie, but Charlemagne complained that his life was old and wearied. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 99 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Spanish Literature Due to historic, geographic and generational diversity, Spanish literature has known a great number of influences and it is very diverse. Some major literary movements can be identified within it. The El Cid El Cid was the most famous medieval Spanish hero, a historical figure who became a national hero to Castile. Such elevation made him also a legendary figure, due to the epic poem written in the 12th century, and several versions that followed. It was for this reason that I put his legend here. The poem is divided into three cantars. A. The Lord (Background) El Cid or The Cid is actually a Spanish Arabic title or honour, because it mean "The Lord". His real name was Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar or simply as Ruy Díaz de Vivar. Vivar being a village near Burgos in Castile, Spain; a place where he was born around 1043 to Diego Laínez, a minor nobleman. But his mother came from a greater aristocratic family than her husband. El Cid was raised in the court of Ferdinand I, where he was promoted to armiger regis (standard bearer) at age 22. He had also received the title of "The Champion", which in Spanish is El Campeador. He was a follower of Sancho, Ferdinand's elder son, not Alfonso. When Ferdinand died, Christian Spain was divided between his two sons, Sancho received Castile, and Alfonso became king of Leon. There were rivalry between the two brothers, and El Cid had supported Sancho. But Sancho died in 1072, while besieging Zamora, leaving Alfonso as sole ruler of Christian Spain. El Cid lost his rank as armiger regis. His wife was named Jimena, daughter of Count de Oviedo, whom he married in 1074. Jimena is also King Alfonso's niece. His children were a son, named Diego Rodríguez, and two daughters, Cristina and Maria. In the poem, his daughters were called Elvira and Sol. His loss of regal favour continued, when he supported the Moorish king of Seville, against García Ordóñez, who supported the King of Garanda. El Cid may have won the battle, but his decline in Castile's court was dealt a further blow, when he attacked and defeated Toledo, a Moorish kingdom under Alfonso's protection, in 1081. It was this reason that El Cid was exile, and where the poem of El Cid begins. See Exile for the beginning of the Cid's tale. The poem included the capture of Valencia and regaining Alfonso' favour. The poem didn't end with El Cid's death, but after the marriages of his two daughters to the princes of Navarre and Aragon. For at least ten years, he served the Moorish kings in Saragossa, under al-Mu'tamin and his successor, al-Musta'in II, where he won greater reputation as a warrior and a general, defeating enemies of Saragossa. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 100 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City In 1094, El Cid captured Valencia, after a protracted siege that began in 1092. In which he became Lord of Valencia, governing a large part of the surrounding region. He died in Valencia 1099 at the age of 56. Valencia fell to the Moors, not long after his death, because King Alfonso didn't think he could control this region of Valencia. B. Exile The epic of the Cid actually begin with his exile, which was around 1081. The king Alfonso VI of Leon had banished him because the Cid was a strong supporter of the king's rival, Sancho II of Castile, Alfonso's brother. The poem begins with El Cid leaving Vivar with his followers (vassals); Vivar is his village near Burgos. He sheds tears because of his departure from his home. He entered Burgos, hoping to find lodging and buy supplies, but in Burgos, people closed their doors, refusing to offer him lodge and sell him supply because they fear the king. The Cid would have broken down one of the locked doors, but a nine-year-old girl told him courteously why no one will offer him hospitality. If the king finds out that anyone offering help to him would lose their home, money and their eyes. The Cid realise the extent of the king's wrath and the length King Alfonso VI will go to punish him. He had six-day grace to leave Castille. So he rode to the church (of Santa Maria), prayed there, and then rode away from the town, camping on the other side of the river Arlanzon, opposite of Burgos. But one citizen, named Martin Antolinez, came to El Cid's camp, bearing food and wine for El Cid and his followers. They arranged to secretly get money, a loan from two money lenders, so El Cid can pay his followers. El Cid decided to pay a visit to his wife, Jimena, in San Pedro de Cardeña. She was staying with five other noble ladies at the Abbey, under the abbot Don Sancho. El Cid gave some money to the abbot, to allow his wife stay at the monastery, during his absence. It is revealed by his wife, that other lords serving the king, was responsible for his banishment, but gave no reason, other to make El Cid blameless. While the Abbot Don Sancho prepared a feast, the church bell rang, indicating that Castile's favourite son is leaving the kingdom. One hundred and fifteen knights hearing the bell toll, he rode out to the bridge at Arlanzon, to join him. El Cid welcomed them. El Cid and his followers stayed at the monastery for a few days, when the king's grace had expired, and then he left San Pedro after one final morning mass (matins). Even more knights joined as he was leaving Castile, riding towards the border, making several stops. He slept and had a vision of Gabriel, telling him that his future will be successful despite being exiled by his king. So on the last day of grace, he rode off with his followers. By this time, he had three-hundred horsemen, and unknown number of foot-soldiers. His second-in-command was Minaya Álvar Fáñez, a very competent knight, as well as being a nephew of El Cid. He passed through the mountains at night, until he reached the valley, where they intend to capture the Moorish town of Castejon de Henares. He did so, in an ambush. His captured men and women in the field, then he killed fifteen men who were supposed to guard the gate. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 101 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City They shared the plunder from Castejon, but El Cid thought that it was too close to his king's realm for him to stay, the Alfonso should come after him. So El Cid decided to not stay in Castejon. When he left, he didn't take any of the citizens in Castejon, but the plunder he took, didn't impoverish Castejon. He moved with his followers, to lay siege to Alcocer. He was camped outside of Alcocer for fifteen weeks before El Cid realised that they would not surrender to him, so he feint a retreat to draw the Moorish warriors out of Alcocer. Seeing the Castilian forces leave the camp, they thought that if they attack now they could reap in the wealth from plunders. So the army of Alcocer left the city and pursued El Cid's fleeing forces. El Cid seeing that the Moors had taken his bait, he turned his knights around to attack the men of Alcocer. Alcocer lost 300 men in this clever trap, so they surrendered to the Spaniards. Alcocer was forced to pay tributes to their conqueror. Ateca, Terrer and Calatayud hearing the news of Alcocer's capture, dispatched missives pleading to the king of Valencia, Mu'taman, asking for aid. Mu'taman gathered 3000 Moorish warriors under the leadership of two kings, Fariz and Galve. The Moorish army arrived and managed to cut off water supply to Alcocer, which El Cid now holds. He prevented his troops from fighting a pitch battle for three weeks, but realised that the city was running short on water. So he led his knights and infantry out to fight out the pitch battle. El Cid wanted to draw the Moors out of formation before his men attacked at his order, but his standard bearer, Pedro Bermúda, the Cid's nephew, couldn't restrain himself, charged forward. El Cid had no choice but to go after Pedro, to prevent his standard falling into enemy's hand. Despite being outnumbered, El Cid achieved another victory. 1300 Moors lay dead on the battlefield. Minaya's horse was killed in the fighting; El Cid rescued Minaya and gave his lieutenant a new horse, formerly owned by Moorish leader, whom the hero had killed. The tide of the battle favoured when struck King Fariz several times; Fariz seeing that he was wounded in the third blow, turned his horse around and fled. Galve also fled when he was wounded by the Castilian knight, Martin Antolinez. The Spaniards pursued their enemies, where Fariz sought refuge in the city of Terrer and Galve in Calatayud. The Moors' camp was taken, and they found themselves rich with gold, shields, swords and horses. The Castilian army returned to Alcocer, where El Cid even generously allowed the Moorish citizens in the share of the spoil from the Cid's latest victory. El Cid decided to share his wealth with the king who had exiled him. He sends Minaya with a huge gift of thirty horses, each horse with Moorish saddle, harness and sheathed sword. King Alfonso was pleasantly surprise at El Cid's generosity, but not enough to pardon El Cid, so the hero must remain in exile, however, Minaya was free to move freely in Castile. The king also made further concession - any Castilian knight wanting to join El Cid's growing army may do so freely, without fear of prosecution from him. Two hundred knights (and unknown number of infantry) decided to join Minaya when he returned to El Cid. El Cid had left Alcocer, conquering more land, reaching Huesa and Montalban, and even gained tributes from Saragossa, by the time Minaya returned to him. The Moor residents were actually sad that El Cid was leaving Alcocer. Ramon Berenguer, the Frankish Count of Barcelona was however angry that El Cid had laid waste to his nephew's territory, so he gathered an army, which consisted of both Christian and Moor warriors, to confront El Cid. El Cid had no quarrel with Ramon, and asked the count not to fight him; the Count of Barcelona foolishly refused to listen. So a battle was fought, where El Cid's army defeated the Count's army, and Ramon was taken captive. El Cid had also won a fine sword, Colada, which was worth more than a thousand silver marks. Count Ramon sulked at having lost the battle, and wouldn't eat for several days, even though El Cid treated him well. El Cid offered the Count freedom along with two other gentlemen, if the Ramon would eat with him. This, Ramon finally agreed. Ramon left El Cid in good term. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 102 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City C. Lord of Valencia El Cid turned his attention toward the sea, leaving Saragossa behind, capturing Jerica, Onda and Almenara in rapid succession, as he moved his men closer to Valencia. The people of Valencia fearing that El Cid would take more lands away from them, they sent an army to meet the Castilians. El Cid attack the Valencians with the main body, with Minaya harried the flanks with only a hundred knights. This strategy defeated the Valencians; two Moorish leaders were killed in the rout. The campaign towards Valencia took three years, capturing even more towns, including Benicadell, and then began the siege on Valencia. The Valencians had learned the lesson of not confronting El Cid on the battlefield. Yusuf, a king of Morocco fearing the capture of Valencia, send a large army to relieve the city. During the siege of Valencia, more men from all over Spain joined the ever-victorious El Cid. His fame had spread all over Spain. The ten-month siege saw the dwindling food supply reduced the city into starvation. They had no choice but to surrender because the army from Morocco had failed to arrive in time; the gates of Valencia opened to El Cid. El Cid became even wealthier than he was ever before. Hearing of Valencia's capture, the King of Seville sent an army of 30,000 Moors into a battle against El Cid near Huerta. The Moors were decisively defeated, and fleeing Moors were forced to cross the swallowing water of the river Júcar. The King of Seville escaped with three wounds. El Cid was now the Lord of Valencia. El Cid reaped even more wealth from the siege of Valencia and the battle against the men of Seville. El Cid decided to send Minaya back to Castile, with more gifts to King Alfonso - three thousand horses, already equipped with saddles and harnesses. Only the nobleman, Count Garcia Ordonez wasn't pleased with El Cid's successes, which the king quickly rebuked that the Campeador had served him better in exile than Garcia have in his court. Apparently Garcia Ordonez was one of those responsible for the falling out between the king and El Cid. This count was the Cid's mortal enemy. Minaya also pleaded on El Cid's behalf, to allow the Cid's wife and two daughters to join him in Valencia. This request, the king granted. Alfonso had also restored properties of El Cid's vassals, which he had earlier confiscated, as well as releasing all services to him, who wished to join El Cid in Valencia. The king sent a royal courier with Minaya, as well as an armed escort to ensure the safety of the Cid's wife and daughters as they leave Castile. Two young noblemen in the king's court, known as the Infantes of Carrión - named Deigo Gonzólez and Fernando Gonzólez - saw that they could gain a lot by marrying El Cid's daughters. So the Infantes of Carrion asked Minaya to speak on their behalf about marriage proposals to the Cid's two daughters. The Infantes were sons of Don Gonzalo, and brothers of Ansur Gonzólez. Minaya then went to San Pedro, to fetch Dona Jimena and her daughters. Jimena was happy to rejoin her husband. After making preparation for departure, paying the Abbot for his kindness to El Cid's family and the creditors Rachel and Vidas clearing the interest that El Cid owed them, they finally left the Burgos. Another sixty knights joined Minaya's escort. They stopped by Molina, a town, of whose Moorish governor named Abengalbón was friendly towards El Cid, played as host to the Campeador's family. Abengalbón also joined Minaya's company, all the way to Valencia. The moment news arrived that Minaya has arrived in Valencia; El Cid rode out on Babieca to greet his wife and daughters. The joyous occasion was disrupted by the arrival of the army of Morocco that had come by sea. 50,000 troops were disembarked from the ships. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 103 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Jimena and her daughters were alarmed by the size of the Moorish army, but her husband was very confident that his army will defeat the invaders from Morocco. The two armies fought in a battle outside of the city walls of Valencia. Even the Bishop Jerome took part in the battle. King Yusuf fled after El Cid struck him three times with his sword. The Moorish army was decisively defeated, with only 104 men escaping, out of the 50,000. The number of booty left on the battlefield was staggering, and the number of horses amount to 1500 in this latest victory. The next day, the Campeador sent Minaya back to Castile, with Pedro Bermúda, to give to his king with a gift of 200 horses and King Yusuf's beautiful tent. Alfonso was impressed by both victory and the rich, new gifts, which he accepted. Count Garcia Ordonez was again displeased at the Cid's new success. The Infantes of Carrión had again; brought up the marriage proposals to El Cid's two daughters, but this time they had brought their petition before their king. The Alfonso thought this would be fine arrangement, but he would leave the matter to El Cid for approval. The king proposed that he should meet with El Cid, and the king told Minaya and Pedro Bermúda that El Cid should make the arrangement of where and when. The meeting was to give pardon to El Cid. The agreement for the meeting took place on the bank of the river Tagus, in three weeks. Lot of preparation took place. El Cid left behind two knights, Álvar Salvaórez and Galindo Garcíaz in charge of the city's defence. Valencia's gates would remain closed for the duration of his absence; Ruy Díaz was thinking the safety of his wife and daughters. When the king approached Cid and his retinue, the hero dismounted with 15 other knights. They were on their knees, and the king granted pardon to Cid and his followers. Alfonso also restored Cid to the royal favour that he had lost. The king was Cid's host for that day, but the next day it was Cid who was host and the king was guest. The king brought up the petition of marriage from the Infantes of Carrion to Cid, the champion was reluctant because of their young age (and was not truly happy with this arrangement), but agreed to any decision of the king. So the king said they would be married, and the Infantes were now vassals to the Cid. Alfonso also approved that the Cid remain as Lord of Valencia. When El Cid left the king, more nobles and knights followed the hero back to Valencia, to attend the wedding. Reunited with his wife and daughters, he gave them the use of their impending marriages to the Infantes. The ceremony took place the following day, and performed by Bishop Jerome. The celebration afterward lasted for 15 days, with El Cid giving away many gifts to guests. D. Treachery and Justice The Infantes proved to be not fearless knights, for one morning, a lion escaped from the net. While the Cid's men tried to protect their sleeping lord, Fernado hid under the couch, while his equally frightened brother, Deigo, hid in the wine cellar. When El Cid woke from the commotion, he went to the lion, unarmed, and he dragged the beasts back into the net, which surprised his men. The Infantes felt shame of their cowardice because their father-in-law's men had mocked them, but they also resented their father-inlaw's boldness. It was around this time that King Bucar arrived 50,000 Moorish warriors from Morocco, with the intention of capturing Valencia. But as the men in Valencia prepared for battle, El Cid heard from one of his men that the Infantes have no desire to fight in a war, and wished to return home. The Cid informed his sons-in-law that they need not fight.... A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 104 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Unfortunately, around this point, 50 lines are missing from the poem, but it would seem that the Infantes would take to the field and fight anyway. Cid asked his nephew, Pedro Bermúda, to protect the Infantes in battle, but Pedro refused. Bishop Jerome asked to strike the 1st blow against the Moors, and did so, by killing 2 with his lance and 5 with his sword. El Cid and his men then fought and drove away the Moors. In the pursuit, El Cid killed King Bucar and won the Moorish king's sword, Tizon. Another new victory and it seemed that his sons-in-law have proven themselves in the battlefield. The Cid shared his wealth among his men and his sons-in-law. El Cid and Minaya Álvar Fáñez had praised the Infantes, but some of the men still mocked them. So secretly they decided take all their new wealth and their young wives back to Carrion, but they would not return to Valencia. Back home, they will discard their wives, and marry other daughters. When the Infantes asked for leave to return home, the father-in-law had no suspicion of treachery from Fernado and Deigo, so he readily agreed to their departure. The Cid gave more wealth as dowry. He had even gave them the swords that he won in battle - Colada and Tizón. El Cid sent his nephew, Félez Muñoz with his daughters, so that he can bring any news from his daughters in Carrion. They stopped by Molina, ruled by Abengalbon, a Moorish governor and a good friend of El Cid. Abengalbon welcomed the Infantes and the daughters of El Cid, but the visit soured, when Abengalbon's attendant overheard a conspiracy from the Infantes to murder the governor and rob him of his treasure. Abengalbon would have arrested the Infantes were they not sons-in-law of El Cid, so the governor sent them away. Because they bragged about what they have done to Cid's daughters, the news reached the king's ears, which distressed Alfonso greatly. As the company arrived at the forest of Corpes, the Infantes sent their retinues ahead (including Félez Muñoz), while the Infantes stayed with their young wives. Deigo and Fernado revealed their intention, and began beating the sisters senseless with their belts and spurs, and left them for dead. The treacherous brothers headed back towards Carrion, thinking they can escape the consequences of their actions - be rich for the rest of their lives and free to marry. Félez Muñoz was concern for his young cousins; retrace his steps back into the forest, finding his cousins unconscious and physically abused. He nursed them until they had regained conscious, and then escorted them the Tower of Dona Urraca. Diego Tellez, a vassal of Alvar Fanez, was a leader of the Tower, and he sent message to El Cid. They moved to San Esterban, where the young women can stay in comfort and regain their strength before returning to Valencia to their parents. El Cid sent Minaya, Pedro Bermúda and Martín Antolínez to escort his daughters home. When they returned, the two young ladies rejoiced being reunited with their parents. El Cid was also angry at the treatment of his daughters, sent a vassal, Muno Gustioz, to King Alfonso about the treachery of the Infantes and what happened to his daughters. The king agreed that a trial will be held in Toledo, because he felt partly responsible for insisting and arranging the marriages of Cid's daughters to the Infantes and believed that these treacherous noblemen should be held accountable for their crimes. The Infantes didn't want to go to Toledo, but fear the wrath of their king, who threatened to strip them of their nobility titles and exile them. Even Count Garcia Ordonez was there, an enemy of El Cid and supporter of Carrion. In the court of Toledo, before other noblemen, where Cid brought his case before the king. El Cid first demand the return of his swords that he had given to his sons-in-law. Since the Infantes had admitted they were no longer want Cid's daughters as their wives, they had no rights to keep the swords; so they A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 105 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City returned the swords. El Cid gave one sword, Colada, to Martín Antolínez, and the other sword, Tizón, to Pedro Bermúda. The Infantes, other noblemen of Carrion were hoping that was the end of El Cid's demand, but they were sadly mistaken. El Cid then demanded the return of the dowry, 3000 marks in gold and silver. They were no longer entitled to the money, since they were no longer sons-in-law of the Cid. But the Infantes could not pay the money back since they had already spent it. So the king offered the money, and the king will take it out of Carrion at his leisure. The Infantes had no choice in the matter, since the court held them accountable for their actions. Finally, El Cid then demanded satisfaction for the ill-treatment of his daughters. Fernado Gonzólez tried to defend his action toward his wife, claiming that he had the rights to marry a queen or empress, and not petty noble. Pedro Bermúda challenged Fernado being not only a traitor, who abused Cid's daughter that the daughter was in the king's charge, but also for being a coward, who hid under the couch when the lion was loose in the palace in Valencia. Fernado Gonzólez had no choice but to accept the challenge. Martín Antolínez also charged and challenged Deigo Gonzólez in combat, for being a traitor and coward too. The Infantes' other brother, Ansur Gonzólez challenged the court's verdict, and Muño Gustioz challenged Ansur in trial of combat. El Cid was satisfied by 3 single combats, but the noblemen and supporters of the Carrion, including Count Garcia Ordonez, that the combats to be held in Carrion, because they were hoping assassinate the challengers before combats could take place. Alfonso agreed, but offered personal escort and protection to champions of El Cid. El Cid didn't want to go to Carrion, so he decided to return home, but he was very confident that his champions could defeat the Infantes. But before he left, since his daughters' marriages were annuled by the king and the court, they were single again, so the Princes of Aragon and Navarre, named Íñigo Jiménez and Ojarra respectively, wished to marry the Cid's daughters. Both hero and king approved of these arrangements; these were the marriages that El Cid could accept. The 2 princes accompanied El Cid back to Valencia. The single combats involved jousting and the use of sword. Mercy will be granted to loser. Any combatant leaving the field will forfeit their combat to his opponent. The 3 Infantes brothers were no match for the 3 champions, despite having expensive armours. Pedro Bermúda and Fernado Gonzólez jousted first, and Pedro managed to pierce Fernado's shield and armour with his lance, and unhorsed Fernado. Fernado conceded that he was defeated, when he saw Pedro approached him with drawn sword. In the clash between Martín and Deigo, they broke the lances and attacked each other with swords, while still mounted on chargers. Martín cut through Deigo's strap, thereby losing his helmet. Fearing death, Deigo rode out of the field, which signified that he lost his contest. Muño pierced Ansur's armour in the 2nd charge, and unhorsed the 3rd Infantes. On his back, Ansur cried out for mercy, which was granted. So the Infantes of Carrión were branded traitors, by trials by combat. They lost their titles and were exiled. With the king's blessings, the 3 victors were given permission to return to Valencia with the news that their lord's daughters were avenged. The news reached Valencia with great rejoicing of the 3 victory, and El Cid and his wife enjoyed celebration of double wedding of their daughters to the princes. So end the poem of El Cid. (It should be noted that in history, Cristina married Ramiro, Prince of Aragon, but in the poem he is called Íñigo Jiménez, while Maria married Ramón Berenguer III, count of Barcelona, and not of Navarre.) A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 106 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City The Story of Don Quixote A. The First Part The Author’s Dedication of the First Part Cervantes respectfully dedicates his novel to the Duke of Bejar and asks him to protect the novel from ignorant and unjust criticism. Prologue Cervantes belittles his novel and denies that Don Quixote is an invented character, claiming that he, Cervantes, is merely rewriting history. He reports a likely fictional account of a conversation with a friend who reassures Cervantes that his novel can stand without conventional embellishments, such as sonnets, ballads, references to famous authors, and Latin phrases. He humorously suggests that such adornments can be added to a book after its completion. Cervantes accepts this advice and urges us to enjoy the novel for its simplicity. Chapter I Cervantes mentions an eccentric gentleman from an unnamed village in La Mancha. The man has neglected his estate, squandered his fortune, and driven himself mad by reading too many books about chivalry. Now gaunt at fifty, the gentleman decides to become a knight-errant and set off on a great adventure in pursuit of eternal glory. He polishes his old family armor and makes a new pasteboard visor for his helmet. He finds an old nag, whom he renames, Rocinante, and takes the new name Don Quixote de la Mancha. Deciding he needs a lady in whose name to perform great deeds, he renames a farm girl on whom he once had a crush, Dulcinea del Toboso. Chapter II Don Quixote sets off on his first adventure, the details of which Cervantes claims to have discovered in La Mancha’s archives. After a daylong ride, Don Quixote stops at an inn for supper and repose. He mistakes the scheming innkeeper for the keeper of a castle and mistakes two prostitutes he meets outside for princesses. He recites poetry to the two prostitutes, who laugh at him but play along. They remove his armor and feed him dinner. He refuses to remove his helmet, which is stuck on his head, but he enjoys his meal because he believes he is in a great castle where princesses are entertaining him. Chapter III In the middle of dinner, Don Quixote realizes that he has not been properly knighted. He begs the innkeeper to do him the honor. The innkeeper notes Don Quixote’s madness but agrees to his request for the sake of sport, addressing him in flowery language. He tries to cheat Don Quixote, but Don Quixote does not have any money. The innkeeper commands him always to carry some in the future. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 107 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Trouble arises when guests at the inn try to use the inn’s well, where Don Quixote’s armor now rests, to water their animals. Don Quixote, riled and invoking Dulcinea’s name, knocks one guest unconscious and smashes the skull of another. Alarmed, the innkeeper quickly performs a bizarre knighting ceremony and sends Don Quixote on his way. Don Quixote begs the favor of the two prostitutes, thanks the innkeeper for knighting him, and leaves. Chapter IV On the way home to fetch money and fresh clothing, Don Quixote hears crying and finds a farmer whipping a young boy. The farmer explains that the boy has been failing in his duties; the boy complains that his master has not been paying him. Don Quixote, calling the farmer a knight, tells him to pay the boy. The boy tells Don Quixote that the farmer is not a knight, but Don Quixote ignores him. The farmer swears by his knighthood that he will pay the boy. As Don Quixote rides away, satisfied, the farmer flogs the boy even more severely. Don Quixote then meets a group of merchants and orders them to proclaim the beauty of Dulcinea. The merchants inadvertently insult her, and Don Quixote attacks them. But Rocinante stumbles in mid-charge, and Don Quixote falls pitifully to the ground. One of the merchants’ mule-drivers beats Don Quixote and breaks his lance. The group departs, leaving Don Quixote face down near the road. Chapter V A laborer finds Don Quixote lying near the road and leads him home on his mule. Don Quixote showers the laborer with chivalric verse, comparing his troubles to those of the great knights about whom he has read. The laborer waits for night before entering the town with Don Quixote, in hopes of preserving the wounded man’s dignity. But Don Quixote’s friends the barber and the priest are at his house. They have just resolved to investigate his books when Don Quixote and the laborer arrive. The family receives Don Quixote, feeds him, and sends him to bed. Chapter VI The priest and the barber begin an inquisition into Don Quixote’s library to burn the books of chivalry. Though the housekeeper wants merely to exorcise any spirits with holy water, Don Quixote’s niece prefers to burn all the books. Over the niece’s and the housekeeper’s objections, the priest insists on reading each book’s title before condemning it. He knows many of the stories and saves several of the books due to their rarity or style. He suggests that all the poetry be saved but decides against it because the niece fears that Don Quixote will then become a poet—a vocation even worse than knight-errant. The priest soon discovers a book by Cervantes, who he claims is a friend of his. He says that Cervantes’s work has clever ideas but that it never fulfills its potential. He decides to keep the novel, expecting that the sequel Cervantes has promised will eventually be published. Chapter VII Don Quixote wakes, still delusional, and interrupts the priest and the barber. Having walled up the entrance to the library, they decide to tell Don Quixote that an enchanter has carried off all his books and the library itself. That night, the housekeeper burns all the books. Two days later, when Don Quixote rises from bed and looks for his books, his niece tells him that an enchanter came on a cloud with a dragon, took the books due to a grudge he held against Don Quixote, and left the house full of smoke. Don Quixote believes her and explains that he recognizes this enchanter as his archrival, who knows that Don Quixote will defeat the enchanter’s favorite knight. Don Quixote’s niece begs him to abandon his quest, but he refuses. He promises an illiterate laborer, Sancho Panza, that he will make him governor of an isle if Sancho leaves his wife, Teresa, and children to become Don Quixote’s squire. Sancho agrees, and after he acquires a donkey, they ride from the village, discussing the isle. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 108 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Chapter VIII After a full day, Don Quixote and Sancho come to a field of windmills, which Don Quixote mistakes for giants. Don Quixote charges at one at full speed, and his lance gets caught in the windmill’s sail, throwing him and Rocinante to the ground. Don Quixote assures Sancho that the same enemy enchanter who has stolen his library turned the giants into windmills at the last minute. The two ride on, and Don Quixote explains to Sancho that knights-errant should never complain of injury or hunger. He tears a branch from a tree to replace the lance he broke in the windmill encounter. He and Sancho camp for the night, but Don Quixote does not sleep and instead stays up all night remembering his love, Dulcinea. The next day, Don Quixote and Sancho encounter two monks and a carriage carrying a lady and her attendants. Don Quixote thinks that the two monks are enchanters who have captured a princess and attacks them, ignoring Sancho’s and the monks’ protests. He knocks one monk off his mule. Sancho, believing he is rightly taking spoils from Don Quixote’s battle, begins to rob the monk of his clothes. The monks’ servants beat Sancho, and the two monks ride off. Don Quixote tells the lady to return to Toboso and present herself to Dulcinea. He argues with one of her attendants and soon gets into a battle with him. Cervantes describes the battle in great detail but cuts off the narration just as Don Quixote is about to deliver the mortal blow. Cervantes explains that the historical account from which he has been working ends at precisely this point. Chapter IX Cervantes says he was quite irked by this break in the text, believing that such a knight deserves to have his tale told by a great sage. He says that he was at a fair in the Spanish city of Toledo when he discovered a boy selling Arabic parchments in the street. He hired a Moor to read him some of the stories. When the Moor began to translate one line about Dulcinea, which read that she was “the best hand at salting pork of any woman in all La Mancha,” Cervantes rushed the Moor to his home to have him translate the whole parchment. According to Cervantes, the parchment contained the history of Don Quixote, written by Cide Hamete Benengeli. From this point on, Cervantes claims, his work is a translation of Benengeli’s story. This second portion of the manuscript begins with the conclusion of the preceding chapter’s battle. The attendant gives Don Quixote a mighty blow, splitting his ear. Don Quixote knocks the man down and threatens to kill him. He spares him when several ladies traveling with the man promise that the man will present himself to Dulcinea. Chapter X Afterward, Sancho begs Don Quixote to make him governor of the isle that he believes they have won in battle. Don Quixote assures him that he will fulfill his promise soon. Sancho then begins to worry that the authorities might come after them for beating the lady’s attendant. Don Quixote assures Sancho that knights never go to jail, since they are permitted to use violence in the pursuit of justice. Sancho offers to care for Don Quixote’s bleeding ear. Don Quixote tells him about the Balsam of Fierbras, which he says has the power to cure any wound and is easy to make. Sancho suggests that they could make money by producing the balsam, but Don Quixote dismisses the suggestion. Upon seeing the damage the attendant did to his helmet, he swears revenge, but Sancho reminds him that the attendant promised to present himself to Dulcinea in return. Don Quixote abandons his oath of revenge and swears to maintain a strict lifestyle until he gets a new helmet. Unable to secure other lodging, the two sleep out under the sky, which pleases Don Quixote’s romantic sensibilities but displeases Sancho. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 109 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Chapter XI Don Quixote and Sancho join a group of goatherds for the night. They eat and drink together, and Sancho gets drunk on the goatherds’ wine while Don Quixote tells the group about the “golden age” in which virgins roamed the world freely and without fear. He says that knights were created to protect the purity of these virgins. A singing goatherd then arrives. At the request of the others and despite Sancho’s protests, he sings a love ballad to the group. One of the goatherds dresses Don Quixote’s wounded ear with a poultice that heals it. Chapter XII A goatherd named Peter arrives with news that the shepherd-student Chrysostom has died from his love for Marcela. As Peter tells the story of the lovesick Chrysostom, Don Quixote interrupts several times to correct Peter’s poor speech. Peter explains that Marcela is a wealthy, beautiful orphan who has abandoned her wealth for a shepherdess’s life. Modest and kind, Marcela charms everyone but refuses to marry, which has given her a reputation for cruelty in affairs of the heart. The goatherds invite Don Quixote to accompany them to Chrysostom’s burial the next day, and he accepts. They all go to sleep except for Don Quixote, who stays up all night sighing for Dulcinea. Chapter XIII On the way to the funeral, a traveler named Vivaldo asks Don Quixote why he wears armor in such a peaceful country. Don Quixote explains the principles of knighthood. Vivaldo compares the severity of the knight’s lifestyle to that of a monk’s, and Don Quixote says that knights execute the will of God for which the monks pray. Vivaldo and Don Quixote discuss knight-erranty, and Don Quixote explains that tradition dictates that knights-errant dedicate themselves to ladies rather than to God. He adds that all knights-errant are in love, even if they do not show it. He describes Dulcinea to the company in flowery and poetic terms. The group then arrives at the burial site, where six men carrying Chrysostom’s body arrive. Chrysostom’s friend Ambrosio makes a speech exalting the deceased, and Vivaldo asks him to save some of Chrysostom’s poetry despite Chrysostom’s request that it be burned. Vivaldo takes one poem, and Ambrosio asks him to read it aloud. Chapter XIV Vivaldo reads the poem aloud. It praises Marcela’s beauty, laments her cruelty, and ends with Chrysostom’s dying wish that famous Greek mythical characters receive him in the afterlife. Marcela herself then appears and claims never to have given Chrysostom or any of her other suitors any hope of winning her affection. She attributes all her beauty to heaven and says she is not at fault for remaining chaste. Marcela leaves before Ambrosio can respond. Some of the men try to follow her, but Don Quixote says he will kill anyone who pursues her. He then follows Marcela to offer her his services. Chapter XV Don Quixote and Sancho stop to rest and eat lunch. Rocinante wanders off into a herd of mares owned by a group of Yanguesans and tries to mate with them. The Yanguesans beat Rocinante. Don Quixote then attacks the numerous Yanguesans, and he and Sancho lose the battle. While lying on the ground, Don Quixote and Sancho discuss the balsam that, Don Quixote claims, knights use to cure wounds. Don Quixote blames their defeat on the fact that he drew his sword against non-knights, a clear violation of the chivalric code. The two quarrel about the value that fighting has in the life of a knight-errant. On Don Quixote’s orders, Sancho leads him to an inn on his donkey. They arrive at another inn, which Don Quixote mistakes for a castle. Chapter XVI Rather than admit that Don Quixote received a vicious thrashing from a gang of Yanguesans, Sancho tells the innkeeper that his master fell and injured himself. The innkeeper’s wife and beautiful daughter A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 110 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City tend to Don Quixote’s wounds. Don Quixote begins to believe that the daughter has fallen in love with him and that she has promised to lie with him that night. In actuality, Maritornes, the daughter’s hunchbacked servant, creeps in that night to sleep with a carrier who is sharing a room with Don Quixote and Sancho. As an aside, Cervantes then tells us that Cide Hamete Benengeli specially mentions the carrier because Benengeli is related to him. Nearly blind, Maritornes accidentally goes to Don Quixote’s bed instead of the carrier’s. Don Quixote mistakes her for the beautiful daughter and tries to woo her, and the carrier attacks him. Maritornes jumps into Sancho’s bed to hide. Awakened by the commotion, the innkeeper goes to the bedroom and he, the carrier, and Sancho have a terrific brawl. An officer staying at the inn hears the fighting and goes upstairs to break it up. The officer sees Don Quixote passed out on the bed and believes he is dead. He leaves to get a light to investigate the scene. Chapter XVII Don Quixote tells Sancho that the inn is enchanted and recounts his version of the evening’s events. He says a princess came in to woo him and a giant beat him up. Just then, the officer returns, and Don Quixote insults him, provoking him to beat Don Quixote. Sancho, angry about his own injuries, rails against Don Quixote’s story, but Don Quixote promises to make the balsam to cure Sancho. He tells Sancho not to get angry over enchantments, since they cannot be stopped. Don Quixote mixes ingredients and drinks the potion. He vomits immediately and passes out. Upon waking, he feels much better and believes he has successfully concocted the mythical balsam. Sancho also takes the potion, and although it makes him tremendously ill, he does not vomit. Don Quixote explains that the balsam does not work on Sancho because he is a squire and not a knight. As Don Quixote leaves the inn, the innkeeper demands that he pay for his stay. Surprised that he has stayed in an inn and not a castle, Don Quixote refuses to pay on the grounds that knights-errant never pay for lodging. He rides off, slinging insults at the innkeeper. Several rogues at the inn capture Sancho, who also refuses to pay, and toss him in a blanket. Don Quixote, too bruised to dismount from Rocinante, believes that the enchantment prevents him from helping Sancho. Sancho finally gets away and feels proud for not having paid. But it turns out that the innkeeper has stolen Sancho’s saddlebags. Chapter XVIII As they ride away from the inn, Sancho complains bitterly to Don Quixote about the injuries their misadventures cause him. Suddenly Don Quixote sees clouds of dust coming along the road and mistakes them for two great armies on the brink of battle. Sancho warns his master that the two clouds actually come from two herds of sheep. Unconvinced, Don Quixote describes in great detail the knights he thinks he sees in the dust. Cervantes eventually cuts off the account, remarking that Don Quixote is merely reeling off ideas he has encountered in his “lying books” about chivalry. Don Quixote rushes into the battle and kills seven sheep before two shepherds throw stones at him and knock out several of his teeth. Sancho points out that the armies were really just sheep, prompting Don Quixote to explain that a sorcerer turned the armies into sheep in the midst of battle to thwart his efforts. Don Quixote takes more of the balsam, and as Sancho comes close to see how badly his master’s teeth have been injured, Don Quixote vomits on him. Nauseous, Sancho then vomits on Don Quixote. When Sancho tries to fetch something to clean them up, he discovers that his saddlebags have been stolen. Fed up, he vows to go home. Don Quixote says that he would rather sleep in an inn that night than in the field, and tells Sancho to lead them to an inn. Chapter XIX Sancho tells Don Quixote that their troubles stem from Don Quixote’s violation of his vow to keep a strict lifestyle until he finds a new helmet. Don Quixote agrees, noting that he had forgotten the vow, and blames Sancho for failing to remind him. As night falls, the two encounter a group of priests mourning as they A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 111 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City escort the body of a dead man. When the priests refuse to identify themselves, Don Quixote knocks one of them off his horse, and the others scatter. Don Quixote tells the wounded priest that he has come to avenge injuries. The priest complains that Don Quixote has injured him without avenging anything. Sancho steals goods from the priest’s mule. As the priest rides away, Sancho yells after him that this mischief was the work of Don Quixote, the Knight of the Sad Countenance. Pleased with his new title, Don Quixote asks Sancho where he came up with it. Sancho replies that Don Quixote’s face looks sad without its teeth. But Don Quixote asserts that Sancho so named him because a sage, who Don Quixote claims is dictating his life’s story, made Sancho think of this title. The two ride into a valley and eat dinner. They then have a conversation that Cervantes promises to record in the next chapter. Chapter XX Don Quixote and Sancho hear a scary pounding. Sancho implores his master to wait until morning to investigate the sound, but Don Quixote swears to take on the unknown foe. Don Quixote tells Sancho to wait three days and then report his death to Dulcinea if he has not returned. Sancho secretly ties up Rocinante’s legs, immobilizing him, and Don Quixote concedes that since Rocinante seems unable to move, he must wait until morning to investigate. Sancho begins telling a story. He tells each detail twice, and Don Quixote interrupts and commands him to tell the story only once. But Sancho says that this is the way stories are told in his homeland, so Don Quixote allows him to proceed. Sancho then vividly describes a shepherdess. Don Quixote asks whether he knew the shepherdess. Sancho says that he did not but that when he first heard the story it seemed so real that he could swear he had seen her. Sancho tells how a shepherd in love with this shepherdess had to cross a river with a herd of goats, and Sancho instructs Don Quixote to keep count while he tells the story of how many goats the character takes across. Midway through, Don Quixote tells Sancho to proceed with the story as though all the goats were already across. Sancho asks his master whether he knows how many goats have already crossed, and Don Quixote admits that he does not. Sancho ends his story, and Don Quixote cannot persuade him to tell the rest of it. In the morning, Sancho and Don Quixote set off. Cervantes says that Sancho’s faithfulness convinces Don Quixote that Sancho is a good man. When the two arrive at a small bunch of houses by a river, they discover that the scary pounding comes from fulling-hammers, which are used to beat cloth. Sancho laughs, and Don Quixote hits him with his lance. Don Quixote says that Sancho must speak less to him in the future. Sancho accepts the order after Don Quixote tells him that he has left Sancho money in his will. Chapter XXI Don Quixote and Sancho see a man on a mule with something glittering on his head. The man is a barber wearing a basin on his head to protect him from the rain. But Don Quixote mistakes the man for a great knight wearing the mythic Mambrino’s helmet and vows to win the helmet from him. When the barber sees Don Quixote charging at him, the barber runs away, leaving behind his mule and basin. Sancho laughs at Don Quixote and tells him that the “helmet” is just a basin. Don Quixote explains that the enchanted helmet must have fallen into the hands of someone who did not know its value and then melted it down, making it into a basin. He resolves to wear it in the meantime and have it made back into a helmet at the next village. When Sancho again begins to complain about the treatment he received at the inn while Don Quixote stood by idly, Don Quixote explains that Sancho’s treatment was just a joke. He adds that had it been serious, he would have returned to avenge it. Don Quixote then explains how he will win the affections of a princess by fighting for her father, the king. He says he will then marry her and make Sancho rich. Chapter XXII The manuscript continues, Cervantes says, with the account of Don Quixote and Sancho’s encounter with a chain gang of galley slaves. The prisoners are guarded by two armed men on foot and two A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 112 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City armed horsemen. Sancho warns Don Quixote not to interfere with the chain gang, but Don Quixote approaches the group anyway and asks each prisoner to tell his story. Each slave makes up a story in which his criminal actions appear to be justified or even necessary. Upon seeing the men detained against their will, Don Quixote charges the officers. Anxious to be free, the prisoners join the charge. After the men gain freedom, Don Quixote commands them to present themselves to Dulcinea, which they refuse to do out of fear for their safety. Don Quixote insults them, and they attack him, running away with his and Sancho’s possessions. Freeing the galley slaves distresses Sancho, who is concerned that the Holy Brotherhood, or police, will come after them. Sancho urges Don Quixote to flee into the mountains. Chapter XXIII Don Quixote and Sancho ride into the woods of the Sierra Morena. Unfortunately for them, one of the galley slaves, Gines de Pasamonte, is also hiding in these woods. Gines steals Sancho’s donkey, whose name we now learn is Dapple. On the road through the mountains, Don Quixote and Sancho find a saddle and a bag containing a notebook, shirts, and money. Don Quixote gives Sancho the money, and Sancho decides that this payment makes up for all his previous troubles. In the notebook, Don Quixote finds a poem and a love letter, which indicate that their author was spurned by his lover and driven to madness by her infidelity. Don Quixote then sees a nearly naked man hopping through the wilderness and resolves to follow him and learn his tale. Sancho opposes the idea because he wants to protect the money they have found and fears that the man might claim the money if they catch up with him. Don Quixote explains to Sancho, however, that they have no choice but to look for the naked man once they consider that the money might belong to him. While searching for the man, Don Quixote and Sancho encounter an old goatherd who tells them the story of the naked man. A polite, rich gentleman, he appeared one day to ask the goatherds to help him locate the wildest part of the Sierra Morena. The goatherds pointed the man in a direction and he ran off. Later, he returned and assaulted one of the goatherds on the road, stealing his food. They pursued him and several days later found him in a ragged state, so they offered him food and care. The man treated them courteously at some times but rudely at others. Just as the old goatherd concludes the story, the man, whom Cervantes now calls the Ragged Knight of the Sorry Countenance, appears. Don Quixote gives him a long hug. Chapter XXIV The Ragged Knight of the Sorry Countenance asks Don Quixote for food and then says that he will tell his story as long as Don Quixote and the others promise not to interrupt him. His name is Cardenio, and he is a wealthy nobleman from the region of Andalusia in southern Spain. From childhood he has been madly in love with the beautiful Lucinda. The two were to be married, but Cardenio received a letter from a duke requesting Cardenio’s service as a companion to the Duke’s son Ferdinand. Cardenio went to the Duke and met Ferdinand. Ferdinand immediately liked Cardenio and the two became friends. Ferdinand was in love with a young farmer’s daughter, but he had wooed her secretly and did not want to tell his father. To avoid his father’s wrath, Ferdinand decided that he needed to go away for a little while and forget about the farmer’s daughter. He asked to go to Cardenio’s parents’ home, under the pretext of buying some horses. There, Ferdinand met Lucinda, whom he praised as one of the great beauties of the world. Cardenio mentions that Lucinda was a fan of chivalric books. Cardenio and Don Quixote then spar over whether a queen in one of the books mentioned had an affair with her counselor. The altercation ends Cardenio’s story and sends him into a fit of madness. He beats Sancho, the goatherd, and Don Quixote before running off into the wilderness. Chapter XXV As Sancho and Don Quixote ride away, Sancho becomes angry with his master for imposing a code of silence on him and for arguing inanely with Cardenio. Don Quixote retracts his order that Sancho A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 113 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City remain silent but stands by his defense of the fictional queen. Don Quixote then tells Sancho that he will be staying alone in the Sierra Morena to do penance in order to win honor for himself. He says that he has been absent from Dulcinea for so long that he has concerns about her fidelity. Instead of returning to check up on her, he has decided that it would be more valorous to go mad imagining the slights his ladylove has committed against him. Sancho derides his master’s plan as folly, and Don Quixote is amazed that Sancho has not yet realized that everything knights-errant do is folly. Don Quixote writes a love letter for Sancho to convey to Dulcinea and then reveals Dulcinea’s identity to him. Sancho is shocked, since he knows her to be a coarse peasant. But Don Quixote tells Sancho that many ladyloves were invented princesses whose only purpose was to inspire their knights-errant, and therefore Dulcinea is a princess if he says she is. Sancho promises to return as quickly as he can, and after watching Don Quixote take off his trousers and do a headstand to indicate his madness, he sets off on Rocinante. Chapter XXVI In his penance, Don Quixote decides to follow the example of the great knight Amadis, commending himself to God and praying in the name of Dulcinea. He wanders around the valley, writing verses on trees. Sancho, on his way home, encounters the priest and the barber at the inn where he was tossed in the blanket. The priest and the barber stop him and ask him what has become of Don Quixote. Sancho tells them about his master’s penance and about the letter he must deliver to Dulcinea. He explains that Don Quixote has promised to give him a governorship and a beautiful wife when Don Quixote himself becomes an emperor. The priest and the barber conclude that Sancho has gone mad and promise him in jest that Don Quixote will certainly become an emperor or at least an archbishop. This last point troubles Sancho because he fears that an archbishop would not provide him with adequate rewards. The priest and the barber then decide to go to Don Qui-xote, disguising themselves as a damsel in distress and her squire in order to trick Don Quixote into coming home again. Chapter XXVII Equipped with their costumes, the priest and the barber set out with Sancho to find Don Quixote and lure him home again. Sancho relates to them the saga of his adventures as they journey. When they arrive, Sancho goes on ahead, planning to tell Don Quixote that he has seen Dulcinea, that he has given her his letter, and that she begs for Don Quixote to come home to her. If Don Quixote still refuses to come home, the priest and the barber will go ahead with their plan to pretend to be a damsel in distress who seeks his assistance. While waiting for Sancho to return, the priest and the barber encounter Cardenio, who tells them his story, this time including the conclusion that he failed to recount to Don Quixote. Cardenio explains that Ferdinand, while visiting Cardenio’s house, found a letter from Lucinda and was so taken with her that he devised a plan to win her for himself. Ferdinand sent Cardenio back to the Duke’s house and proposed to Lucinda. While at the Duke’s house, Cardenio received a letter from Lucinda begging him to come home because Ferdinand had proposed, her greedy parents had accepted, and she felt that she would soon kill herself. Cardenio rushed home just in time to see the wedding take place. Despite her words, Lucinda did not kill herself but instead accepted Ferdinand as her husband. Cardenio rushed away from the wedding and went out into the wilderness, driven mad with grief and hatred. Cervantes interrupts to say that the end of Cardenio’s story marks the end of the third part of the history by Cide Hamete Benengeli. Chapter XXVIII Before returning to the narration, Cervantes says that Don Quixote’s era is lucky that Don Quixote has brought back knight-errantry. Back in the story, the priest, the barber, and Cardenio meet a young woman named Dorothea, whom they initially take for a man because she is wearing a man’s clothes. Dorothea tells her tragic story. The incredibly beautiful daughter of a wealthy farmer, she happened to attract the attention of the son of her father’s master. The son wooed her persistently, but she resisted until one day when he appeared in her bedroom by trickery and swore to marry her. She succumbed to him because she was afraid he A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 114 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City would rape her if she did not. He left town and abandoned her. Dorothea chased him in hopes of enforcing his pledge to marry her but discovered that he had already married someone else in a nearby town. She then relates the circumstances of that marriage, revealing that the son who falsely proposed to her was Ferdinand, the Duke’s son, and that his new bride in the nearby town was Lucinda. Dorothea tells them she then ran off into the wilderness out of shame. Chapter XXIX Cardenio is thrilled to learn from Dorothea that when Lucinda fainted, Ferdinand found a letter on her that revealed her love for Cardenio. Cardenio vows to help Dorothea avenge the wrong Ferdinand has done to her. Dorothea offers to play the distressed damsel in the plot to lure Don Quixote home. Sancho returns with news that Don Quixote refuses to return to Dulcinea until he has won honor through penance. The priest tells Sancho that Dorothea is Princess Micomicona, who is seeking Don Quixote’s help to redress a wrong a giant has done her. Sancho, the costumed Dorothea, and the barber, wearing a fake beard, find Don Quixote. In high poetic style, Dorothea beseeches Don Quixote to slay a giant who has taken over her kingdom. Don Quixote promises to follow her and not engage in any other adventures along the way. Sancho is pleased, believing he will now get his governorship. The priest and Cardenio overtake the party on the road. The priest greets Don Quixote, who recognizes neither the priest nor Cardenio. The priest tells Don Quixote that freed galley slaves have mugged him and the barber. Chapter XXX Dorothea weaves a story about the giant who has attacked her kingdom. She slips up several times during the story, even forgetting the name the priest has given her, and the priest has to interject to prevent her from revealing their ploy. Dorothea says she will marry Don Quixote after he vanquishes the giant, but Don Quixote refuses because he loves Dulcinea. His refusal upsets Sancho, who insults Dulcinea. Don Quixote beats Sancho. Just then, Gines de Pasamonte reappears with Sancho’s donkey and flees on foot. Cardenio and Dorothea discuss Don Quixote’s madness, and Cardenio remarks that Don Quixote is so crazy that he is sure no author could have invented him. Chapter XXXI Don Quixote pulls Sancho aside and begs him to tell about his visit to Dulcinea. Sancho makes up a story, saying that Dulcinea was at work and did not have the time or ability to read Don Quixote’s letter. As they ride along, the young boy whom Don Quixote tried to save from his master in Chapter IV appears, reviling Don Quixote for stupidly accepting his master’s word and leaving him to a worse beating. Don Quixote swears that he will reap vengeance on the young shepherd’s master, but the young shepherd tells Don Quixote not to interfere in the future, fearing that he would only make matters worse. Chapter XXXII I shall never be fool enough to turn knight-errant. For I see quite well that it’s not the fashion now to do as they did in the olden days when they say those famous knights roamed the world. Don Quixote, Sancho, the priest, the barber, Dorothea, and Cardenio arrive at the same inn where Sancho was tossed in the blanket. The barber takes off his disguise. The innkeeper, his wife, their daughter, and Maritornes join the priest, the barber, Dorothea, and Cardenio to talk about Don Quixote’s madness and the books that have caused it. The priest and the barber want to burn the inn’s collection of chivalric literature, but the innkeeper defends these tales, claiming that the government would not allow them to be published if they were untrue. But he adds that he will never become a knight-errant, because he knows chivalry is out of style. He tells the company that an unnamed man left an old trunk filled with books and manuscripts at the inn. The priest, despite his skepticism about the books of chivalry, asks the innkeeper for permission to copy one of the manuscripts, which the priest reads to the crowd. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 115 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Chapter XXXIII The manuscript that the priest reads tells the story of Anselmo and Lothario, two close friends who live in Florence, Italy. Anselmo marries Camilla, a beautiful woman who has the purest intentions. One day Anselmo tells Lothario he wants to test Camilla’s purity and chastity. He asks Lothario to woo Camilla to see whether she will be able to resist. Lothario, in a lengthy speech filled with sonnets and classical references, tells Anselmo that his plan is stupid, but Anselmo does not listen. Lothario falsely tells Anselmo, on several occasions, that he has tried and failed to woo Camilla. Anselmo spies on the two of them and realizes that Lothario has been lying to him—he has not made any false advances toward Camilla. Anselmo makes Lothario swear that he will try to woo Camilla while Anselmo is away for a week on a business trip. Lothario does try to woo Camilla and inadvertently falls in love with her. Camilla sends a letter to Anselmo begging him to come home and rescue her from his deceitful friend Lothario. Chapter XXXIV Anselmo receives Camilla’s letter, realizes that his plan is working, and refuses to come home early. Over time Camilla succumbs to Lothario’s advances and they begin a love affair. When Anselmo returns, Lothario tells him that Camilla has resisted his seduction. Anselmo adds to the plan by asking Lothario to write love poetry for Camilla, which the lovestruck Lothario is now thrilled to do. Camilla’s maid, Leonela, helps Lothario and Camilla carry on their affair and takes a lover of her own. Though worried that Leonela will bring her shame, Camilla does not interfere because she fears Leonela will tell Anselmo about her affair with Lothario. One morning, Lothario sees Leonela’s lover leaving the house and thinks Camilla has taken another lover. In a fit of jealous rage, he tells Anselmo that he has seduced Camilla but that she has not yet acted on her love for him. Lothario reveals Camilla’s plan to meet him in a closet on a certain day and encourages Anselmo to observe his wife’s infidelity. In the meantime, Camilla tells Lothario of her concerns about Leonela, prompting Lothario to realize his mistake. He tells her about his blunder, and she forms a plan to trick Anselmo so that she and Lothario can carry out their affair in the open. She meets Lothario in the closet and, aware that Anselmo is watching, pretends to stab herself rather than give up her purity to Lothario. The deception works, enabling Camilla to carry on her affair with Lothario without Anselmo ever suspecting. Chapter XXXV While the priest is reading, Sancho rushes into the room to tell everyone that Don Quixote has slain the giant who captured Dorothea’s kingdom. Rushing to see what has happened, they find that Don Quixote is battling the giant in his sleep and has destroyed several of the innkeeper’s wineskins, which Sancho has mistaken for a giant’s head. When Sancho cannot find the giant’s head, he becomes crazed, fearing that he will not get his governorship. The priest finishes reading the story contained in the manuscript. Anselmo discovers Leonela’s affair. To prevent Anselmo from killing her, Leonela promises to tell him something very important the next morning. When Anselmo tells Camilla about his discovery, she runs away to Lothario’s, afraid that Leonela will reveal their affair to Anselmo. Camilla and Lothario flee. When Anselmo wakes the next morning, Leonela has run away. Not finding Camilla either, Anselmo goes to Lothario’s for help and discovers that Lothario too has left. On the way to another friend’s house, he learns of Lothario and Camilla’s treachery from a traveler. Reaching his friend’s house, Anselmo dies of grief from the loss of his honor. The priest announces that he likes the manuscript but finds it impossible to believe that a husband could be so stupid. Chapter XXXVI Ferdinand and Lucinda arrive at the inn in disguise. After a tearful scene, Ferdinand reunites with Dorothea, and Cardenio reunites with Lucinda. Ferdinand tells the company that he and his friends kidnapped Lucinda from the convent where she stayed after running away from the wedding. He now swears A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 116 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City his love for Dorothea. Everyone weeps with joy except Sancho, who weeps for the loss of his kingdom now that he and Don Quixote know that Dorothea is not a princess. Chapter XXXVII In distress, Sancho wakes Don Quixote to tell him that Dorothea is not really a princess and that the giant he fought in his dreams was really just a wineskin. Don Quixote dismisses Sancho’s news merely as further evidence of the inn’s enchantment. He reassures Dorothea that he has sworn to be her protector and that it was unnecessary for her father to turn her into an ordinary maiden to protect her from the enchantment. He then tells her about his fight with the giant, but he stops mid-story, remarking that “time, which unveils all mysteries, will reveal this one when we least expect it.” Dorothea tells Don Quixote that she is still the Princess Micomicona and still needs his assistance. While Don Quixote berates Sancho for his apparent lie, a traveler dressed like a Moor—hereafter referred to as the captive—and his beautiful companion, Zoraida, arrive at the inn in search of a place to stay. The captive tells the company that Zoraida is a Moorish lady of rank who wants to be baptized. Over dinner, Don Quixote gives a speech about the relative merits of scholars and knights. He is so articulate that at that moment no one thinks he is crazy. Chapter XXXVIII Don Quixote continues his lecture on the superiority of knights over scholars. Everyone is impressed with his intelligence, but still no one believes that chivalry is more important than scholarship. The captive begins to tell the story of his imprisonment and rescue in Moorish lands. Chapter XXXIX The captive tells the group that he left home many years earlier after his father divided the family estate and ordered his three sons to leave home to become a soldier, a priest, and a sailor, respectively. He gives a lengthy account of the wars in which he has fought. The captive mentions that he fought alongside Don Pedro de Aguilar, Ferdinand’s brother. Chapter XL The captive recounts his capture and imprisonment in Algiers. One day he was on the roof of the prison when Zoraida, who had fallen in love with him from afar, dropped some money to him from a window. Along with the money, she included a letter that said she had converted to Christianity and that offered him financial assistance to escape, free her, and bring her to Spain to be his wife. The captive used Zoraida’s money to ransom himself and some of his fellow prisoners, buy a boat, and make arrangements to free Zoraida from her father’s home. Chapter XLI The captive says that he snuck into Zoraida’s father’s garden to see her, told her of his plan to escape from Algiers, and finally kidnapped her. Zoraida’s father awoke while the captive was kidnapping her, so they brought the father with them on the ship and dropped him off some miles away from the city. The captive and his companions rowed for several days until French pirates robbed them of all Zoraida’s riches. Once they arrived in Spain, they determined to go to the captive’s father, baptize Zoraida, and get married. Chapter XLII After the captive finishes his story, a judge named Licentiate Juan Perez de Viedma arrives at the inn with his beautiful daughter, Clara. The captive realizes that the judge is his brother. The priest, after successfully testing the judge to see whether he still loves his missing brother, reunites the two. While everyone sleeps that night, a youth sings love ballads outside the inn. Cardenio creeps into the women’s room to tell them to listen. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 117 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Chapter XLIII Dorothea wakes Clara so she can hear the singing, saying it is the most beautiful singing she has ever heard. Clara reveals that the singing youth is actually a young lord who used to live with his father next door to her and the judge. Clara adds that he has followed her in disguise because he is in love with her. She and the young lord have never spoken, but she loves him and wishes to marry him. Dorothea promises to try to arrange for Clara to speak with him. Meanwhile, Don Quixote stands guard outside the inn. The innkeeper’s daughter and her maid, Maritornes, fool him into giving them his hand through a window. They tie his hand to a door and leave him standing in his stirrups on Rocinante’s back for the night. Four horsemen arrive and mock Don Quixote as they try to enter the inn. Chapter XLIV Don Quixote makes such a racket that the innkeeper comes out to see what is going on. The horsemen are servants to the father of Don Louis, the young lord in love with Clara. The four horsemen find Don Louis and order him to come home with them, but he refuses. The judge takes Don Louis aside and asks him why he refuses to return home. Meanwhile, two guests attempt to leave the inn without paying, and the innkeeper fights them. Don Quixote refuses to assist the innkeeper because he has sworn not to engage in any new adventures until he has slain the giant who captured Dorothea’s kingdom. Cervantes returns to the conversation between Don Louis and the judge. Don Louis tells the judge of his love for Clara and begs for her hand in marriage. The judge says he will consider the proposal. Meanwhile, Don Quixote, through words alone, has successfully persuaded the two guests to quit beating the innkeeper. A barber—the same one from whom Don Quixote earlier steals the basin that he believes is Mambrino’s helmet—arrives at the inn. The barber accuses Don Qui-xote and Sancho of theft, but Sancho defends them by claiming that Don Quixote vanquished the barber and took the items as spoils of war. Chapter XLV The people at the inn play along with Don Quixote’s insistence that the basin is actually Mambrino’s helmet. A huge fight breaks out, but Don Quixote finally ends the brawl by asking the priest and the judge to calm everyone. The judge decides to bring Don Louis to Andalusia along with him and Clara, and he tells the servants about his plan. A member of the Holy Brotherhood, attracted to the scene by the outbreak of violence, realizes that he has a warrant for Don Quixote’s arrest for freeing the galley slaves. Don Quixote laughs at the man and rails about the stupidity of trying to arrest a knight-errant. Chapter XLVI The priest pacifies the members of the Holy Brotherhood by convincing them that Don Quixote is insane and should not be held accountable for his actions. Still under the impression that Dorothea is the Princess Micomicona, Don Quixote tells her that the time has come to continue their journey to her kingdom so that he may slay the giant. Sancho objects, telling everyone that he has seen Dorothea kissing Ferdinand and that she cannot, therefore, be a princess. Don Quixote is infuriated by Sancho’s insolence, but Dorothea pacifies him by telling him that Sancho must have been subject to an enchantment that made him believe he saw her kissing Ferdinand. Don Quixote forgives Sancho, who says he believes that the inn must be enchanted because of all the bizarre things that have happened. Sancho adds, however, that he is still certain that the blanket-tossing he received there was an act committed by real people. Don Quixote assures Sancho that the blanket-tossing was an enchantment as well, which is why Don Quixote has not avenged it. Sancho does not believe him. The barber and priest contrive a plan to get Don Quixote back to their village without the help of Dorothea and Ferdinand. They build a cage, capture Don Quixote, bind him, and place him in the cage on the A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 118 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City back of an ox cart. The barber then pretends to be a sage and predicts Don Quixote’s valorous return to his village and his reunion and marriage to Dulcinea. Chapter XLVII Don Quixote accepts the enchantment that he believes is afflicting him but wonders why he travels so slowly. He concludes that enchantments must have changed since the old days, when knights were whisked away on clouds and traveled at very high speeds. Sancho warns Don Quixote that he is not enchanted, but Don Quixote does not believe him. As the group leaves, the innkeeper gives the priest some papers from the trunk the unknown man left at the inn. The priest is anxious to read them. On the road, the group meets another priest, a canon of Toledo, who rides with the group for a while to talk to the priest from Don Quixote’s hometown. Sancho challenges the barber, saying that he knows that the barber and the priest have taken Don Quixote captive. The barber threatens to lock Sancho in the cage too, and Sancho becomes indignant. The canon tells the priest that he considers books of chivalry to be ridiculous lies and harmful to the populace. He also berates the style of chivalric books, saying that they should all be banished. The priest says he agrees for the most part but that he is able to appreciate them. Chapter XLVIII The canon says he began writing a book of chivalry but stopped because he discovered that an author must write either good books that the crowds dislike or low-quality books that displease the critics. He then rails against the state of theater in Spain and suggests that there should be a government official to oversee decisions about which plays get produced and which do not. Sancho tells Don Quixote that the barber and the priest have been faking his enchantment out of jealousy of his great deeds. Sancho asks Don Quixote whether he needs to use the bathroom; Don Quixote replies that he does. Chapter XLIX Sancho tells Don Quixote that since enchanted people have no bodily needs, Don Quixote’s need to use the bathroom proves that he is not enchanted. Don Quixote responds that there are new kinds of enchantment but promises nonetheless to try to free himself. When the party stops for lunch, the priest lets Don Quixote out of the cage, and he and the canon argue about chivalry. The canon marvels that Don Quixote mingles fact and fiction with no concern for the difference. Chapter L Don Quixote tells the story of the Knight of the Lake, a fantasy story of enchantment that, he claims, proves the delightful and fascinating nature of stories of knight-errantry. Don Quixote also tells the canon that since becoming a knight-errant he himself has been brave, courteous, and well-bred, enduring many adventures and enchantments. A goatherd appears, chasing a goat that has wandered into the group’s picnic. The group is amused that the goatherd speaks to the animal. The goatherd then tells the group that he is a peasant but that he knows how to converse with both men and beasts. The priest says that he is not surprised. Chapter LI The goatherd, whose name is Eugenio, tells the group that he and his friend Anselmo have been driven to the simple life of shepherds by Leandra, a beautiful, wealthy young woman from their town. Leandra ran away with an arrogant soldier who then robbed her and abandoned her in a cave in the woods. Eugenio tells the group that the woods in the area ring with sounds of the sobbing shepherds who are in love with Leandra. Leandra’s father put her in a convent in hopes that over time she would recover her honor. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 119 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Chapter LII The goatherd insults Don Quixote and the two of them brawl as the others cheer them on. Don Quixote then sees a group of penitents carrying an icon of the blessed Virgin Mary, on their way to pray for rain. Thinking that the penitents are rogues who have captured a lady, he attacks them and gets a beating from one of them. Sancho thinks Don Quixote has died and mourns his friend in a particularly eloquent elegy. Sancho’s words stir Don Quixote, who agrees to go home until his luck changes. When Don Quixote and Sancho arrive home, Sancho’s wife (now called Juana), asks him what he has brought her. He puts her off, promising that he will soon be made a governor and that he has tales that will surely amuse her for now. Don Quixote’s niece and housekeeper welcome him home but worry about his madness. They fear he will disappear again, which, Cervantes tells us, he will. Cervantes ends the narration by saying that he searched far and wide for more manuscripts about Don Quixote but that he was unable to find them until he met an aged doctor who found a leaden box in the remains of an ancient hermitage. The box contained several parchments with sonnets and epitaphs to Don Quixote, Sancho, and Dulcinea, which Cervantes reproduced. Finally, he tells us that, at great cost to himself, he has found an account of the third expedition of Don Quixote and hopes to publish it. B. The Second Part The Author’s Dedication of the Second Part Cervantes offers his novel to the Count of Lemos, saying that he is sending Don Quixote back out into the world to “purge the disgust and nausea caused by another Don Quixote who has been running about the world masquerading as the Second Part.” Cervantes says he rejected an offer from the emperor of China to be the rector of a college of Castilian language in which The History of Don Quixote would be the primary textbook. Because the emperor did not send an advance, Cervantes sent his envoy away and decided to commend his work to the Count of Lemos. Prologue Cervantes introduces the Second Part, the account of the third expedition of Don Quixote, by railing against an author who has published a false sequel to the First Part of Don Quixote. Cervantes suggests that if readers run into that author, they should tell him a story about a man who, using a hollow cane, inflated a dog to the astonishment of bystanders. The man’s response to his audience’s questioning was to ask them whether they think it is an easy thing to blow up a dog. Cervantes also wants the reader to pass on an anecdote about a man who carried around a heavy slab that he drops on dogs in the street. One day, a dog owner beats the man, making him too afraid to drop slabs on any more dogs. Cervantes suggests the author should be likewise afraid to publish any more bad books. Cervantes defends his honor against the personal slights the other author has made, saying that although he may be poor and a cripple, he has earned his wounds in battle and is proud of them. Chapter I Cervantes tells us that Cide Hamete Benengeli continues his account of Don Quixote’s adventures by recounting the priest and the barber’s visit to Don Quixote after a month of not seeing him. Don Quixote initially seems sane, but when the priest gets him started talking about chivalry, it becomes clear that Don Quixote has not given up his intention of being a knight-errant. Chapter II Sancho comes to visit Don Quixote to find out when they will again embark on their quest for adventure, but the niece and the housekeeper try to keep Sancho out of the house. Don Quixote orders them to let Sancho in and then asks Sancho about Don Quixote’s reputation in the village. Sancho tells him that many consider him mad. He then tells Don Quixote about the publication of a book of their previous adventures. The A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 120 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City book contains so many details that Sancho marvels that the writer could have learned about all of them. Don Quixote thinks that the writer is a sage enchanter, but Sancho says the writer is a Moor whose name is Cide Hamete Aubergine. Sancho goes to the village to find the student Sampson Carrasco, from whom he has heard about the book. Chapter III While Sancho fetches Sampson, Don Quixote muses that the Moorish enchanter who wrote the book must either want to tear him down or exalt him. He laments that the author is a Moor because he does not believe that Moors ever tell the truth. Sampson arrives and tells Don Quixote about the book and its author, Cide Hamete Benengeli. He also mentions that the book has been translated into Christian tongues. Sampson criticizes the novel for the anecdotal digressions in which Don Quixote plays no part but says that everyone enjoys reading the novel nonetheless. He also mentions several textual inconsistencies regarding the appearance and disappearance of Dapple. Sancho says he can explain those inconsistencies but runs off with a stomachache. Chapter IV Sancho returns and explains that a thief stole Dapple from him when he was strung up. Sampson says that Sancho’s explanation does not justify the inconsistencies in the book, and Sancho replies that perhaps the author or the printer made an error. He explains how he spent the hundred crowns he found in the saddlebags in the Sierra Morena, and Sampson promises to tell the author so that he can revise the book. Sampson says that the author promises to publish the Second Part when he finds the manuscript. Sampson then tells Don Quixote about a jousting festival in Saragossa and suggests that he seek fame there. Don Quixote begs Sampson to write a poem in which each line begins with a letter of Dulcinea’s name. Chapter V Cervantes tells us that “the translator” doubts that this chapter is authentic because it seems impossible that Sancho would have spoken in such a high style. Cervantes does not identify this translator. Sancho goes home to Teresa—whose name at the end of the First Part is Juana—and tells her that he will soon be leaving with Don Quixote on another adventure. Teresa warns Sancho not to dream too much and to be content with his station. Sancho replies that he wants to marry off his daughter and make her a countess. Teresa objects to this plan, saying that people are happier when they marry within their own class. Chapter VI The niece and housekeeper beg Don Quixote to stay at home. They say that if he must go he should join the king’s court rather than go on more adventures. Don Quixote insists that he must do what he was born to do and pursue his life as a knight-errant. He discusses honor and pedigree, claiming that he knows of only two ways to increase fame and honor—through arms or letters—and that he has chosen arms. Chapter VII Distressed at Don Quixote’s madness, the housekeeper begs Sampson to speak with him. Sancho visits Don Quixote, and they discuss Teresa’s advice and her wish that Sancho receive wages from Don Quixote. Don Quixote refuses to fix Sancho’s wages and tells him to stay home if he does not have the strength to be a squire. Sancho weeps and promises to come along. Sampson too visits Don Quixote, but instead of dissuading him from his journey, Sampson encourages him to embark at once. Cervantes alludes to a plan Sampson has developed with the priest and the barber and says that the plan will be detailed later in the history. Chapter VIII Cervantes says that Cide Hamete Benengeli blesses Allah before recounting that Don Quixote and Sancho once again go on the road. He begs us to forget the past adventures and pay attention only to what is to come. Don Quixote and Sancho think it a good sign that Rocinante and Dapple bray and stamp as they set A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 121 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City out. Sancho thinks it an especially good sign that Dapple whinnies louder than Rocinante does. Cervantes interjects to say that Benengeli’s history does not indicate whether Sancho’s belief is based on astrology. Don Quixote decides to go to El Toboso to visit Dulcinea. On the road, he and Sancho discuss the importance of fame. Don Quixote says that people value fame even in its negative form. Sancho says he believes they should try to become saints rather than knights because saints go to heaven. Don Quixote argues that the world already has enough saints and that he was born to be a knight-errant. Chapter IX Don Quixote and Sancho decide to enter El Toboso at night. Sancho panics because he does not know which house is Dulcinea’s, even though he supposedly visited her to give her Don Quixote’s letter in the First Part. The two run into a ploughman who tells them he does not know of any princesses in the area. They go outside the town to sleep. Chapter X Cervantes says that the author, presumably Cide Hamete Benengeli, wanted to skip this chapter for fear that he would not be believed but decided to write it anyhow. Don Quixote dispatches Sancho to fetch Dulcinea and bring her to him. Sancho panics because he has never seen Dulcinea and fears he will be attacked if people see him wandering around the town looking for women. Sancho sits down for a while and has a lengthy dialogue with himself. He concludes that he can fool Don Quixote by abducting the first peasant girl he sees riding on the road and presenting her as Dulcinea. Sancho sees three young peasant girls riding. Cervantes says that the author does not clarify whether these girls are riding on horses or donkeys. Sancho rushes to Don Quixote and informs him that Dulcinea is approaching with two maids on horseback, but Don Quixote objects that he can see merely three peasants on donkeys. As the girls ride by, Sancho grabs one of them and falls down on his knees before her, praising her as Dulcinea. Though appalled by her appearance—and especially by her smell—Don Quixote believes that she is Dulcinea. He says that a wicked enchanter who wants to deny him the pleasure of seeing Dulcinea’s beauty has changed her into a peasant. Sancho describes Dulcinea to Don Quixote as he claims he saw her, including a mole with seven or eight nine-inch hairs coming out of it. Chapter XI On the road, Don Quixote and Sancho encounter a wagon filled with actors in costume. Don Quixote stops to speak to them, but one of the costumes frightens Rocinante and the horse throws Don Quixote to the ground. One of the actors imitates Don Quixote’s antics by stealing Dapple and reenacting the scene. Don Quixote rides Rocinante up to the wagon to avenge the injury but stops short when he sees the whole company lined up in the road, armed with rocks. Sancho talks his master out of attacking the group, pointing out that the actors are not knights and that they returned Dapple unharmed. Chapter XII While sleeping in a grove, Don Quixote and Sancho meet another knight who claims to be pining away for his mistress, Casildea de Vandalia, to whom he recites poetry. The narrator calls him the Knight of the Wood and calls his squire the Squire of the Wood. Sancho and the Squire of the Wood go off into the night to talk while Don Quixote and the Knight of the Wood stay where they are to talk. Chapter XIII Sancho and the Squire of the Wood eat and drink while discussing their shared expectation that their masters will make each of them a governor of an isle. They also tell each other about their children. Sancho laments Don Quixote’s madness but says that he is honest and pure, unlike the Knight of the Wood, who, according to the Squire of the Wood, is quite a rogue. Sancho declares that he is a great taster of wines, and the two of them drink until they pass out, still holding the wine flask. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 122 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Chapter XIV Meanwhile, Don Quixote and the Knight of the Wood discuss their knightly adventures. The Knight of the Wood tells Don Quixote that his lady has sent him into the world to make all knights proclaim her beauty. He says that his greatest conquest was his defeat of Don Qui-xote de la Mancha. Don Quixote tells the Knight that this cannot be possible and challenges him to a duel. The Knight of the Wood accepts but says that they must wait until morning. They rouse Sancho and the Squire of the Wood, who discuss whether they too should fight. At dawn, Sancho sees the Squire of the Wood’s nose and becomes so frightened by its size that he scurries up a tree before the duel. The Knight of the Wood dresses in such fine, shiny material that he is renamed the Knight of the Mirrors, but he refuses to show Don Quixote his face. Don Quixote pauses to help Sancho into the tree, throwing off the timing of the duel. As a result, the Knight of the Mirrors cannot get his horse going again fast enough, enabling Don Quixote to knock him off his horse quite easily. Don Quixote removes the Knight of the Mirrors’s visor, revealing Sampson Carrasco. Don Quixote does not believe that Sampson stands before him; he thinks that he is still under an enchantment. The Squire of the Wood removes his pasteboard nose and reveals himself as Thomas Cecial, Sancho’s neighbor. Sampson confesses Dulcinea’s beauty, and Don Quixote spares him. Chapter XV Sampson reveals that he has been plotting with the priest and the barber to vanquish Don Quixote and to order him to go home for two years. Samson’s squire leaves him, but Samson vows revenge on Don Quixote. Chapter XVI Sancho is confused about the identity of the Squire of the Wood and the Knight of the Mirrors. Don Quixote tries to convince him that the Squire of the Wood is not Sancho’s neighbor but rather an enchantment, just as the Knight of the Wood is an enchantment that took the form of Sampson in an attempt to force Don Quixote’s mercy. Sancho, who knows that the supposed enchantment of Dulcinea was a deception, does not know what to think now. On the road, Don Quixote and Sancho meet Don Diego de Miranda, a gentleman dressed all in green. Don Quixote introduces himself to Don Diego and tells him about the history that was written about his first adventures. Don Diego marvels that knights-errant still roam the land and is glad to hear about the book, which he thinks might correct all the nonsense written in books of chivalry. Don Diego describes his life. Sancho begins to think the man is a saint and kisses his foot. Don Diego tells Don Quixote about his son, who abandoned the sciences in favor of poetry. Don Quixote responds with an eloquent speech about the value of poetry, which he compares to a delicate maiden. As they talk, Sancho wanders over to some shepherds to beg for milk. Chapter XVII Don Quixote sees a cart coming toward him hung with the king’s flags, and he senses another adventure. He summons Sancho, who puts the curds he just bought from the shepherds into Don Quixote’s helmet. When Don Quixote puts on the helmet, the curds run down his face, and he thinks that his brain is melting. When he recognizes the curds in the helmet, he accuses Sancho of foul play, but Sancho replies that an enchanter must have put them there.Don Quixote hails the cart. The mule driver tells him that the cart carries two lions for the king. Don Quixote challenges the lions, and despite everyone’s protests, he insists on having the cage opened. Cervantes interjects that Cide Hamete Benengeli extols Don Quixote’s bravery before continuing the narrative. The others run away and the lion tamer opens the cage. Don Quixote faces the lions with “childish bravado,” but the lion just stretches and lies down again. Don Quixote decides not to provoke the lions. He calls the others back, and the lion tamer recounts the story of Don Quixote’s valor. Don Quixote tells Sancho to give the mule driver and the lion tamer some money for their troubles and renames himself the A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 123 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Knight of the Lions. Don Quixote declares that he is not as insane as he may seem—that it is better for a knight to err on the side of courage than on the side of cowardice. Don Diego invites Don Quixote and Sancho to his home, and Don Quixote accepts. Chapter XVIII Don Quixote receives a warm welcome at Don Diego’s home, where he meets Don Diego’s son, Don Lorenzo, and asks him about his poetry. Don Lorenzo answers him, all the while wondering to himself whether Don Quixote is mad. After discussing the merits of poetry, Don Lorenzo decides that Don Quixote is indeed a madman, but a brave one with a keen intelligence. Don Lorenzo recites some poetry for Don Quixote, who says it is the best that he has ever heard. Don Lorenzo is flattered despite his belief that Don Quixote is insane. Don Quixote stays with Don Diego for four days and then sets out in search of more adventures. Chapter XIX Don Quixote and Sancho meet some students and peasants on their way to the wedding of Quiteria the fair and Camacho the rich. The students tell Don Quixote about Quiteria and a man named Basilio who is in love with her. They say Quiteria is marrying Camacho only because of his wealth. In the course of the discussion, two of the students quarrel about the merits of studying swordplay and challenge each other to a duel in which Don Quixote acts as umpire. The more advanced student prevails, proving, according to the narrator, that skill always prevails over strength. The group arrives at the village in the middle of the night, but Don Quixote insists on sleeping outside the village in the fields. Chapter XX Don Quixote and Sancho arrive at the wedding, which the narrator describes in great detail. Sancho praises Quiteria for marrying for wealth rather than love, but Don Quixote does not. Chapter XXI Quiteria and Camacho arrive at the wedding. Basilio shows up and throws himself on his dagger. With his dying breath, he refuses to confess himself to God unless Quiteria will marry him. Quiteria agrees. Basilio reveals that it is a trick—he has not stabbed himself at all. A brawl ensues. Don Quixote halts it, announcing that no one has the right to fight over wrongs committed in the name of love. Basilio and Quiteria remain married, and Camacho takes satisfaction in the idea that Quiteria would always have loved Basilio anyway. Don Quixote and Sancho leave the party to accompany the newlyweds. Chapter XXII Don Quixote and Sancho leave for Montesinos’s Cave with Basilio’s cousin, an author who writes parodies of great classical works, as a guide. When the three arrive at Montesinos’s Cave, Sancho and the guide lower Don Quixote into the cave by a rope. They wait for a half hour and then pull him up, only to find him asleep. Chapter XXIII Don Quixote tells Sancho and Basilio’s cousin that when he went into the cave he found a small nook and fell asleep there. When he woke up he was in a beautiful field. An old man approached him, saying that he was Montesinos under a terrible enchantment. Montesinos confirmed that he cut out the heart of Durandarte, his cousin, when Durandarte died. He took the heart to Belerma, Durandarte’s wife, at Durandarte’s request. But, he says, Merlin has now put all of them under a spell so that they cannot leave the cave. Durandarte lies on the ground but occasionally sighs and speaks as if he were alive. According to Montesinos, Merlin prophesied Don Quixote’s coming and foresaw that Don Quixote would lift their enchantments.Don Quixote says he was in the cave for three days and three nights and saw Dulcinea in her enchanted form there. Sancho, who knows the truth about Dulcinea’s enchantment, thinks Don Quixote is crazy. Don Quixote says he A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 124 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City understands that Sancho only speaks out against him because he loves him. Don Quixote says that Sancho will soon realize that the story is true though it may appear fantastical to him now. Chapter XXIV Cervantes says that the translator found a note from Cide Hamete Benengeli in the margin of the manuscript, warning that he believed that Don Quixote’s story was not true and that, in fact, Don Quixote himself renounced it as false on his deathbed.Basilio’s cousin is thrilled by all the adventures in the cave and promises to use them in his books. Back on the road he, Don Quixote, and Sancho meet a man with a load of weapons who promises to tell them his story if they meet him at the inn where he is staying. They then meet a youth on his way to war, and Don Quixote commends the boy’s bravery. Chapter XXV At the inn, Don Quixote meets the man with the weapons. The man tells him a story of two magistrates who lost a donkey on a mountain near his village. To recover the ass, the magistrates went around the mountain braying like asses themselves, and though they did not catch the donkey, they were very impressed with their own ability to imitate asses. Neighboring villages heard about their frivolous antics, and now each time a member of the man’s village passes a member of another village, the other villager brays at him. As a result, the two villages are going to war.Master Peter, a great and well-renowned puppeteer, arrives at the inn with an ape that whispers people’s fortunes into Master Peter’s ear. Sancho tries to pay Master Peter to tell what his wife is doing now, but Master Peter falls to his knees, and the ape praises Don Quixote profusely. Don Quixote is flattered but believes Master Peter has made a pact with the devil. He asks the ape whether the incident in the cave was true or false, and the ape replies that some parts were true and some false. Chapter XXVI Master Peter puts on a puppet show for Don Quixote. The puppet show depicts the travails of a knight who goes to rescue his wife from foreign lands. Don Quixote becomes so convinced that the show is real that he attacks and destroys the entire set. He explains that his enchanters bear responsibility for his actions because they made him believe that the puppets were real. Don Quixote pays Master Peter for his troubles nonetheless. He also treats the guests to a meal and pays the innkeeper. Chapter XXVII Cervantes says that Cide Hamete Benengeli swears that Master Peter is actually Gines de Pasamonte, the galley slave whom Don Quixote frees earlier near the Sierra Morena. Benengeli then returns to the narration. Don Quixote and Sancho meet up with the army from the village whose magistrates brayed like asses. Don Quixote tries to talk the men out of attacking the other village, saying that one man cannot possibly insult an entire village. He nearly persuades the villagers and then Sancho takes over. Sancho explains that braying is nothing to be ashamed of and begins to bray himself. Thinking that Sancho is mocking them, the villagers attack him and knock him unconscious. Don Quixote runs away. The other villagers never show up to battle, so the braying village goes home victorious and happy. Chapter XXVIII Don Quixote berates Sancho for stupidly braying to a group of villagers already sensitive to the subject of braying. He explains that he retreated because a knight should not act out of temerity. Sancho brings up the question of his wages again, and Don Quixote gets so angry that he tries to send Sancho away. Sancho, however, apologizes. Chapter XXIX Don Quixote and Sancho come to the river Ebro, where they find a fishing boat. Don Quixote takes the empty boat as a sign that he must use it to aid some imperiled knight. Much to Sancho’s dismay, they A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 125 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City tether Rocinante and Dapple to a tree and set off in the boat. They do not go very far, but Don Quixote believes they have traveled two thousand miles. The boat reaches some mills, where Don Quixote and Sancho nearly perish. Some of the millers save them despite the curses of Don Quixote, who believes that the millers hold a trapped knight-errant in their mill, which he calls a castle. The fisherman who owns the boat arrives, and Don Quixote pays him off. Chapter XXX In the woods, Don Quixote and Sancho encounter a Duchess hunting with a Duke. Don Quixote sends Sancho to speak with the Duchess, and she receives him favorably, since she has read the First Part of the novel. She and the Duke resolve to treat Don Quixote according to the customs in books of chivalry. After initially falling off their respective mounts, Don Quixote and Sancho ride with the Duchess and the Duke to their castle. Chapter XXXI Don Quixote, seeing that the Duke and Duchess are treating him according to chivalric traditions, feels certain that he is a true knight-errant. Sancho is also thrilled at their reception, but when he asks one of the maidservants, Doña Rodriguez, to care for Dapple, she refuses and they get into an argument. At dinner, the Duke forces Don Quixote to sit at the head of the table. Don Quixote and Sancho amuse the Duke and Duchess with their frivolity. The Duchess takes a particular liking to Sancho, who repeatedly embarrasses his master with his simplicity. Chapter XXXII Don Quixote defends knight-errantry to a clergyman who condemns it as frivolity. The Duke promises Sancho that he will make him governor of some isle, and the clergyman storms out in anger. The servants play a trick on Don Quixote by washing his head in a basin and pretending to run out of water in the middle so that he must sit at the table with a mound of suds on his head. The Duke forces them to wash his head in the same way to maintain the ruse.The Duchess asks Don Quixote to describe Dulcinea. He says he cannot remember what Dulcinea looks like, since her memory was blotted from his mind when he saw her transformed into an ugly peasant by enchantment. The Duchess challenges Don Quixote on the fine points of his love for Dulcinea and asks how he can compare Dulcinea to other princesses when he cannot even prove that she comes from noble lineage. Don Quixote answers that Dulcinea’s virtues raise her above her noble heritage. Meanwhile, Sancho goes off with the servants but comes running back in with several servants who want to clean him with dirty dishwater. Sancho implores the Duchess to intercede, which she does. Chapter XXXIII After dinner, the Duchess asks Sancho to accompany her to a cool place. Sancho agrees and, after making sure that the room contains no eavesdroppers, entertains her with stories of his adventures with Don Quixote. He tells her that he knows Don Quixote is crazy but that he stays with him out of loyalty. Sancho tells her how he deceived Don Quixote into believing in Dulcinea’s enchantment, but the Duchess convinces Sancho that he is the one who was actually deceived. She says that Dulcinea really was transformed into a peasant girl. Sancho tells the Duchess about his argument with her maidservant, Doña Rodriguez, and the Duchess vows to make sure that Dapple receives good care. Chapter XXXIV The Duke and Duchess go on a boar hunt with Sancho and Don Quixote. During the hunt, Sancho becomes afraid and attempts to climb a tree. The Duke tells Sancho that hunting helps to hone a governor’s skill for warfare, but Sancho maintains his distaste for the sport. Suddenly the woods fill with the sound of drumbeats and Moorish battle cries. The devil appears to announce the coming of Montesinos, who will give instructions to Don Quixote about how to disenchant Dulcinea. The noises continue and three wagons A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 126 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City drive by. The wagons, which carry demons, are drawn by oxen with torches on their horns. Each of the wagons contains an enchanter who announces himself and then drives on. Chapter XXXV An enormous wagon arrives carrying penitents dressed in white linen and a beautiful maiden with a golden veil. Merlin, bearing the face of death’s head, also rides on the wagon and addresses Don Quixote in verse, telling him that to disenchant Dulcinea, Sancho must whip himself 3,300 times on his bare buttocks and that he must do it willingly. This news distresses Sancho, who says that Dulcinea’s enchantment is not his problem. The maiden on the wagon, who pretends to be Dulcinea, chastises Sancho for his reluctance to come to her aid, and the Duke threatens to take away Sancho’s governorship if he does not comply. Sancho finally agrees but says that he will perform the whipping only when he feels like it. The scene pleases the Duke and the Duchess, who, it turns out, has arranged the whole trick in the first place. Chapter XXXVI Sancho shows the Duchess a letter he wrote to his wife to tell her about his governorship. The Duchess shows the letter to the Duke over lunch. After lunch, to the sound of beating drums, a man appears, announces himself as Trifaldin of the White Beard, and requests that the Duke hear the plight of his maidservant. The Duke says he has heard about her misfortunes before and encourages her to come in. Chapter XXXVII Given his difficult history with the maidservants, Sancho fears that they will interfere with his governorship. Doña Rodriguez defends her profession and derides squires like Sancho. The Duke tells them to listen to Trifaldin’s maidservant, who is hereafter referred to as the Countess. Chapter XXXVIII Cervantes says that Cide Hamete Benengeli briefly explains that the Countess Trifaldi’s name— which means “the countess with the three skirts”—derives from her dress. Benengeli tells how she arrives accompanied by a dozen maids, all wearing black opaque veils. The Countess throws herself down before Don Quixote and begs his assistance, which he promises her. The Countess says she helped a knight at her king’s court to gain access to the princess, whom she served as a maid. As a result, the princess got pregnant and had to marry the knight. Chapter XXXIX The Countess says that the princess’s indiscretion so shocked her mother, the queen, that her mother died three days later. To punish the princess and the knight, the giant Malambruno turned the princess into a brass monkey and the knight into a metal crocodile on the queen’s grave. Malambruno also posted a metal post between them with a note indicating that only Don Quixote can save them from their fate. Finally, in return for the Countess’s treachery, Malambruno gave her and all the other maids beards that cannot be removed. Chapter XL Don Quixote swears to avenge the Countess and the princess. The Countess tells him that the giant will send a flying wooden horse named Clavileño the Swift and that Don Quixote must fly on this horse to journey to her country that night to fight the giant. Sancho dislikes the idea of flying anywhere on a wooden horse, but the Duchess convinces him that he must go with his master. Chapter XLI Now that I’ve to be sitting on a bare board, does your worship want me to flay my bum? As the group waits in the garden, savages appear with a large wooden horse, which they deliver to Don Quixote with instructions that he blindfold himself and Sancho for the journey. Don Quixote pulls A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 127 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Sancho aside and asks him to whip himself a few hundred times to get started on the disenchantment of Dulcinea. Sancho, who dislikes the idea of riding on the back of a wooden saddle, refuses to whip himself.The blindfolded Don Quixote and Sancho mount Clavileño the Swift and prepare to set off. At the last moment, Don Quixote, remembering the story of the Trojan horse, wants to check Clavileño’s belly, but the Countess persuades him not to. Don Quixote turns a peg in Clavileño’s forehead and they set off. The others blow wind in Don Quixote’s and Sancho’s blindfolded faces and bring fire near their heads to convince them that they are flying through the air and approaching the region of fire. The group then sets off firecrackers in Clavileño’s belly, and the horse blows up, dumping Don Quixote and Sancho on the ground. Upon waking, Don Quixote discovers that he and Sancho are still in the garden. Everyone else has fainted and lies on the ground nearby. They find a note on parchment paper saying that merely by attempting this feat, Don Quixote has accomplished it. The Countess has gone, and the Duchess and Duke tell them that she has embarked for home, happily beardless. Sancho tells the Duchess that he peeked as they flew and saw the earth no bigger than a mustard seed and that he played with the goats in heaven. Don Quixote says that since they could not have passed through the region of fire without being burned up, Sancho must be either lying about the goats or dreaming. But afterward, Don Quixote whispers in Sancho’s ear that he will believe his story about the goats of heaven if Sancho will believe his story about Montesinos’s Cave. Chapter XLII The Duke and Duchess, pleased with Don Quixote’s and Sancho’s reaction to the encounter with the Countess Trifaldi, send Sancho to his governorship right away. Sancho says he would rather have a piece of the sky than an isle, but the Duke says he can provide him only with an isle. The Duke and Duchess dress Sancho up and pack him off to a town, which he believes is an isle. Don Quixote gives Sancho advice on how to rule and reminds him never to be ashamed of his humble background. He also tells Sancho never to worry about injuring himself when confronting an enemy, to marry only a woman who will not take bribes, and to have pity and leniency on criminals. Chapter XLIII Don Quixote warns Sancho to refrain from eating garlic and onions, since only peasants eat such things; to walk slowly and speak deliberately; to eat little; not to drink too much; not to belch; and not to use so many proverbs. Don Quixote laments Sancho’s illiteracy, but Sancho says he will prevent anyone from discovering this deficiency by pretending that his writing hand has been paralyzed. Sancho asks if Don Quixote thinks he will make a good governor, since he would rather just be Sancho than imperil his soul as a bad governor. Don Quixote assures him that he will be an excellent governor precisely because of this attitude. Chapter XLIV Cervantes interjects that “the real original history” claims that Cide Hamete Benengeli wrote this chapter in the form of a complaint addressed to himself for having written such a dry story and for not including as many digressions as he did in the First Part.As he leaves for his governorship, Sancho mentions to Don Quixote that one of the stewards accompanying him looks and sounds exactly like the Countess Trifaldi, but Don Quixote dismisses Sancho’s implication. After a sorrowful good-bye, Sancho sets out. Seeing that Don Quixote misses Sancho, the Duchess remarks that she has many maids who would gladly help cure Don Quixote’s melancholy. Don Quixote refuses her offer and goes straight to bed after dinner, insisting on being alone to keep himself from temptation. Don Quixote hears two women under his window arguing about whether one of them, named Altisidora, should sing a ballad to the man she loves. Altisidora does sing the ballad, and Don Quixote concludes that she loves him. He laments his fate that no woman can see him and not fall in love. Meanwhile, Cervantes tells us that Sancho wishes to begin governing and awaits us. Chapter XLV The townspeople receive Sancho and set him up on the governor’s chair, where they have written a proclamation that Don Sancho Panza took governorship on a certain date. Sancho has the proclamation read to him and then requests that no one call him “Don,” since he is not a Don. He judges a series of cases, each A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 128 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City involving some form of trickery that the townspeople bring before him. Sancho resolves each case with wit and wisdom, impressing the town with his governing abilities. Chapter XLVI In the morning, Don Quixote passes Altisidora, who pretends to faint. He asks a servant to put a lute in his room that night so that he may disclose, in ballad form, his love for Dulcinea. Eager to play a trick on Don Quixote, Altisidora tells the Duke and Duchess about Don Quixote’s plan. They all listen to his ballad to Dulcinea that night. As Don Quixote sings, one of the servants lowers a rope with bells on it and a bag of cats with bells on their tails onto the balcony above Don Quixote’s window. The bells and the cats make a terrible noise, frightening Don Qui-xote and all those in the house. In the commotion, a couple of cats get into Don Quixote’s room, and one of them jumps onto his face, bites his nose, and claws him. The Duke, who has rushed up to the room to see what the matter is, removes the cat. Altisidora tries to woo Don Quixote as she bandages his face. Chapter XLVII Sancho goes to dinner hungry on the first day on his alleged isle, only to discover that a physician there will not let him eat anything for fear that it might be bad for him. In a fury, Sancho threatens the physician and sends him out of the room. A courier then arrives with a letter from the Duke telling Sancho that he has learned about a plan to attack the isle and to kill Sancho. Sancho becomes convinced that the physician is one of the men threatening his life. A businessman arrives to ask Sancho for a letter of recommendation for his “bewitched” son (who likely suffers from autism) to marry the maimed, hunchbacked daughter of his neighbor. When the businessman also asks Sancho for six hundred ducats, Sancho flies into a rage and threatens to kill him. Chapter XLVIII In the middle of the night, Doña Rodriguez creeps into Don Quixote’s room to ask him a favor. She tells Don Quixote the story of her daughter, who was wooed by a farmer’s son who now refuses to marry her. The Duke refuses to force the farmer’s son to marry Doña Rodriguez’s daughter, since the farmer is wealthy and the Duke does not want to risk losing the money he collects from the farmer. Don Quixote agrees to help Doña Rodriguez. She tells him that the Duchess has such a nice complexion because a physician drains the evil humors out of her legs. Doña Rodriguez’s announcement shocks Don Quixote because he considers the Duchess an upright woman, but he admits that if Doña Rodriguez says it is true it must be so. At this point, someone rushes in and slaps and pinches both Doña Rodriguez and Don Quixote. Chapter XLIX Sancho encounters two criminal incidents on his rounds and then comes across a young girl dressed as a boy. The girl begins to cry; telling Sancho that her father, a widower, keeps her locked up day and night and never lets her see the world. She has switched clothes with her brother, she says, and snuck out to see the town because she is curious. As she tells her story, a guard catches her brother. Sancho takes them both home and tells them to be more careful next time. Chapter L The Duchess and Altisidora, Cervantes tells us, were listening outside Don Quixote’s door to Doña Rodriguez’s story about the Duchess’s legs. It was the Duchess and Altisidora who ran in and pinched the two. The Duchess then sent a page to Teresa Panza to deliver Sancho’s letter, along with a letter and a necklace of coral from the Duchess. Teresa receives the page and is thrilled by the news that her husband has been made a governor. She runs off to tell Sampson and the priest, who do not believe her until they speak with the page. Sampson offers to take dictation for Teresa’s letter back to Sancho, but she does not trust him and goes to a friar to have him write it for her. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 129 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Chapter LI The morning after his rounds, Sancho hears the petition of some judges who cannot decide whether to hang a man. The judges sit by a bridge whose owner demands that anyone wishing to cross must disclose his or her destination. If the person crossing tells the truth, he or she may pass, but if the person lies, he or she must be hanged on the gallows on the other side. A man has come to the bridge saying that he is going to be hanged on the gallows, which has confused the judges. If they set him free, then the man will be condemned by law to hang on the gallows, but if they hang him, then they must subsequently free him. Sancho sets the man free on the grounds that it is better to be too lenient than too strict.Sancho receives a letter from Don Quixote that includes more advice about governing, along with the news that Don Quixote plans to do something that will anger the Duke and Duchess. Sancho replies with a long letter full of news, asking Don Quixote not to provoke the Duke and Duchess, since he does not want to lose his governorship. Sancho then makes the only laws he imposes during his governorship: a declaration that wine may be imported from anywhere as long as it clearly states its place of origin, along with a decree that he will lower the price of footwear, fix the wages of servants, and forbid the blind from singing about miracles unless the miracles are true. These laws please the populace so much, Cervantes says, that they still remain in effect and people call them “The Constitutions of the great Governor Sancho Panza.” Chapter LII His wounds from his fight with the cats are now healed, and Don Quixote resolves to leave for the jousting tournament at Saragossa. Before he can ask the Duke’s permission to leave, however, Doña Rodriguez and her daughter enter the great hall and throw themselves at Don Quixote’s feet, begging him to avenge the wrong the farmer’s son has done to them. Don Quixote promises to do so, and the Duke agrees to facilitate a duel.The page returns from Teresa Panza with a letter for the Duchess and one for Sancho. The group reads both letters. The letter to the Duchess tells of Teresa’s desire to go to court in a coach in order to do honor to her husband’s name. Teresa also includes some acorns that she has harvested at the Duchess’s request. Teresa’s letter to Sancho rejoices in his success and tells some news about the village. The group applauds, laughs, and marvels at the letters. Chapter LIII In the middle of the night after his seventh day in office, Sancho hears cries of an attack on his isle. Playing a joke on him, his people urge him, against his will, to fight off the supposed enemies. They wrap him tightly between two shields and force him to begin marching, but he cannot march and falls to the ground, where they trample him. They then tell Sancho that they have prevailed against the enemy and praise him. But Sancho says that he must now abdicate his governorship, since he was never meant to lead. He says he will go tell the Duke of his decision, and he leaves on the back of his faithful Dapple. Chapter LIV The dishonorable lover of Doña Rodriguez’s daughter, whom Don Quixote intends to fight, has fled the country. The Duke orders the lover’s footman, Tosilos, to take his place in the duel against Don Quixote. Meanwhile, as Sancho and Dapple head toward the castle, they encounter a group of German pilgrims along with Sancho’s old neighbor, Ricote the Moor, who left Spain when the king exiled the Moors. Ricote, who is on his way home to dig up some treasure he buried there, complains about his separation from his family during his exile. Sancho tells Ricote about his governorship, and Ricote asks what Sancho gained from his term in government. Sancho answers that he learned that he cannot govern anything but a herd of cattle. Chapter LV After leaving Ricote, Sancho and Dapple fall into a pit from which they cannot escape. Don Quixote finds them and gets others to help them out. Don Quixote and Sancho head back to the castle, where Sancho tells the Duke and Duchess about the end of his governorship. The Duke says he is grieved that Sancho A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 130 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City has left his post as governor so soon but says that he will find Sancho a better position at the castle. The Duchess says she will have someone care for Sancho’s badly bruised body. Chapter LVI On the day of the duel, the Duke removes the steel tips from the lances so neither of the combatants will be killed and takes several other measures to ensure a harmless fight. When Tosilos sees Doña Rodriguez’s daughter, however, he falls in love and refuses to charge Don Quixote. Instead, he proposes to the daughter. Thinking that he is the farmer’s son, she accepts but soon discovers the trick. Don Quixote assures the Duke that this transformation is nothing but the work of an evil enchanter, but the Duke, knowing the truth, locks up Tosilos. Chapter LVII Don Quixote and Sancho bid the Duke and Duchess farewell and Sancho happily receives Teresa’s letters from the Duchess. As the pair starts to leave, however, Altisidora, pretending to be crushed that Don Quixote does not love her, utters a curse, in sonnet form, against him. She berates his cruelty to her and accuses him of stealing three handkerchiefs and a garter. But when the Duke questions her, she admits that she has the garter. Chapter LVIII On the road, Don Quixote and Sancho encounter some workmen carrying icons of saints to a nearby church. Don Quixote greatly admires the icons. In a wood beside the road, Don Quixote becomes entangled in some bird snares, which he mistakes for an evil enchantment. The two shepherdesses who set the snares appear and invite Don Quixote and Sancho to the new pastoral paradise they and others from their village are trying to create. Don Quixote declines the invitation but is very impressed. He vows to stand in the middle of the highway for two days, forcing everyone who passes to admit that these two shepherdesses are the most beautiful maids in the world after Dulcinea. Shortly after Don Quixote takes up his position on the road, however, a herd of bulls comes down the road. The herdsmen warn Don Quixote to step aside, but Don Quixote, Sancho, Rocinante, and Dapple are crushed. Chapter LIX Don Quixote and Sancho stop at an inn, which Don Quixote, for once, does not mistake for a castle. Eating supper, they encounter two gentlemen who have read the counterfeit sequel to the First Part of Don Qui-xote. Don Quixote exposes the book as a fake and the men criticize the book vehemently. Don Quixote also refuses to read the book, not wanting to give its author cause to gloat that people are reading it. When the two men tell Don Quixote that the false Don Quixote also traveled to Saragossa for a jousting competition, Don Quixote determines that he will never set foot in that town but will go to Barcelona instead. Chapter LX Sick of waiting for Dulcinea’s disenchantment, Don Quixote tells Sancho he has decided to whip Sancho himself. The two argue. Sancho knocks Don Quixote down and, before letting him up again, makes Don Quixote swear he will not whip him. Don Quixote and Sancho then meet a band of thieves who robs them, although the thieves return the money at the command of their leader, Roque Guinart. Roque recognizes Don Quixote from the stories about him and says he never believed him to be real before now.After a brief encounter with a distressed young woman who has killed her lover out of mistaken jealousy, Roque allows a group of wealthy individuals to keep most of their money, even giving some to two poor pilgrims traveling with them. Roque then kills one of his thieves for grumbling about his generosity. Roque sends a letter to a friend in Barcelona to alert him to Don Quixote’s imminent arrival. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 131 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Chapter LXI Don Quixote and Sancho enter Barcelona with a great following as the guests of Roque Guinart’s friends. A boy in town places burrs in Rocinante’s and Dapple’s tails, causing the two animals to throw their masters, much to the amusement of everyone but Don Quixote and Sancho. Chapter LXII Don Quixote and Sancho’s host, Don Antonio Moreno, confides in Don Quixote that he owns an enchanted brass head that answers any questions asked of it. The next day, Don Quixote and Sancho parade around Barcelona with thousands of people following them. Don Antonio’s men place a sign on Don Quixote’s back that identifies him, and all the people of the town call to him. Don Quixote interprets their calls as proof of his fame. At a ball that evening, Don Quixote dances until he drops, and Sancho is embarrassed for him. The next day, the brass head speaks to the guests via a hidden tube that allows a servant in the next room to hear and answer questions. Don Quixote asks the head whether the incident in Montesinos’s Cave was real, and the head says that the incident was partly true and partly false. Don Quixote then asks whether Sancho will be whipped in order to disenchant Dulcinea, and the head answers that though Sancho’s whipping will go slowly, Dulcinea’s disenchantment will eventually be accomplished. Don Quixote then goes to a publishing house, where he discusses the art of translation with a translator and expresses his preference for histories that can be proved to be authentic. Chapter LXIII Don Quixote, Sancho, and Don Antonio visit the galleys. As a prank, the men hoist Sancho onto their shoulders and pass him around the ship. The ship amazes Sancho, who concludes that he must be either in hell or in purgatory. The galley captain spies a pirate ship in the distance, which they approach and stop. A skirmish ensues, and two of the galley soldiers die. Upon questioning, the captain of the Moorish pirate ship turns out to be a Christian woman, Anna Felix, who is an exiled Moor returning to Spain for a treasure her father buried before he left. Sancho’s friend Ricote, a tourist on the ship, recognizes Anna, his daughter, and they embrace. Together, they invent a plan to save Anna’s lover, Don Gregorio, who remains stranded in Moorish lands. Chapter LXIV Riding around one morning, Don Quixote encounters the Knight of the White Moon, who challenges Don Quixote and makes him swear to go home and stay there for a year if he is defeated. Don Quixote agrees and the two fight. The Knight of the White Moon conquers Don Quixote but says that he will not defame Dulcinea’s beauty. Don Quixote accepts the condition that he return home for one year. Chapter LXV Don Antonio and others desperately want to know the true identity of the Knight of the White Moon, so they follow him to an inn and pester him until he admits that he is Sampson Carrasco. Don Antonio chides Sampson for trying to bring Don Quixote back to his senses when people are deriving so much pleasure from his madness. Meanwhile, Don Gregorio, rescued from Algiers, returns to Barcelona, where he is happily reunited with Anna Felix. Chapter LXVI Great hearts, my dear master, should be patient in misfortune as well as joyful in prosperity. A forlorn Don Quixote departs Barcelona with Sancho, who urges his master to cheer up, saying that a good man should be patient in all things. Sancho suggests that they hang Don Quixote’s armor in a tree, but he refuses, so Sancho places the armor on Dapple’s back and walks. On the road, they encounter a group caught up in an argument. The group seeks Don Quixote’s advice about a problem, but Sancho settles the problem with what the group considers a very wise decision. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 132 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Don Quixote and Sancho then encounter Tosilos. Tosilos says that just after they left the Duke’s castle, he was flogged for not fighting Don Quixote, the Duke sent Doña Rodriguez back to Castile, and Doña Rodriguez’s daughter became a nun. The news astonishes Don Quixote, who still believes that Tosilos is the farmer’s son under an enchantment. Italian Literature Italian literature is literature written in the Italian language, particularly within Italy. It may also refer to literature written by Italians or in Italy in other languages spoken in Italy, often languages that are closely related to modern Italian. The Divine Comedy The Divine Comedy is composed of over 14,000 lines that are divided into three canticas (Ital. pl. cantiche) — Inferno (Hell), Purgatorio (Purgatory), and Paradiso (Paradise) — each consisting of 33 cantos (Ital. pl. canti). An initial canto serves as an introduction to the poem and is generally considered to be part of the first cantica, bringing the total number of cantos to 100. The number 3 is prominent in the work, represented here by the length of each cantica. The verse scheme used, terza rima, is hendecasyllabic (lines of eleven syllables), with the lines composing tercets according to the rhyme scheme aba, bcb, cdc, ded, etc. The poem is written in the first person, and tells of Dante's journey through the three realms of the dead, lasting from the night before Good Friday to the Wednesday after Easter in the spring of 1300. The Roman poet Virgil guides him through Hell and Purgatory; Beatrice, Dante's ideal woman, guides him through Heaven. Beatrice was a Florentine woman whom he had met in childhood and admired from afar in the mode of the then-fashionable courtly love tradition which is highlighted in Dante's earlier work La Vita Nuova. In Northern Italy's political struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines, Dante was part of the Guelphs, who in general favored the Papacy over the Holy Roman Emperor. Florence's Guelphs split into factions around 1300, the White Guelphs, and the Black Guelphs. Dante was among the White Guelphs who were exiled in 1302 by the Lord-Mayor Cante de' Gabrielli di Gubbio, after troops under Charles of Valois entered the city, at the request of Pope Boniface VIII, who supported the Black Guelphs. This exile, which lasted the rest of Dante's life, shows its influence in many parts of the Comedy, from prophecies of Dante's exile to Dante's views of politics to the eternal damnation of some of his opponents. In Hell and Purgatory, Dante shares in the sin and the penitence respectively. The last word in each of the three parts of the Divine Comedy is stelle, "stars." The Forest of Error On Good Friday in 1300, the 35-year-old Dante enters the Forest of Error, a dark and ominous wood symbolizing his own sinful materialism and the materialism of the world in general. At the top of a hill in the distance, he sees a light representing the hope of the resurrected Christ. When he attempts to climb toward the light, a leopard, lion, and she-wolf–which symbolize human iniquity–block his way. The spirit of the Roman poet Vergil (also spelled Virgil), author of the epic The Aeneid, comes forth to rescue him. Vergil, the exemplar of human reason, offers to escort him out of the Forest of Error by another route, for there is no way to get by the she-wolf. This alternate route leads first through Hell, where Dante will recognize sin for what it is, then through Purgatory, where Dante will abjure sin and purge himself of it. Finally, it leads to Heaven, where Beatrice–a woman Dante had loved before her death in 1295–will become his guide while Vergil returns from whence he came, for human reason cannot mount the heights of paradise. Dante happily agrees to make the journey, and they depart. A. Hell (Inferno) A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 133 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City After passing into hell, Dante and Vergil hear the groans and wails of the damned in the outer reaches of the abyss and see persons who were lukewarm and halfhearted in their moral lives. They then cross the Acheron River and arrive at a cone-shaped cavern with nine circles. In the First Circle at the top, called Limbo, are the least offensive souls, such as unbaptized but well-meaning heathens. They suffer no torment. However, they cannot move on to Purgatory or Heaven because they died before Christ brought redemption. Vergil himself dwells in the First Circle. They then pass down through the other eight circles, seeing terrible sights of suffering experienced by those who died in mortal sin (in Catholicism, the worst kind of sin, such as willful murder and rape). Circles 2 through 6 contain those who could not control their desires for sex, food, money, or wayward religion (heresy). Among the personages they encounter are Queen Cleopatra of Egypt, the Greek warrior Achilles, Helen of Troy, and the man who carried her off, Paris.The Seventh Circle contains those who committed violence against themselves or others, or against God himself. The Eighth Circle contains hypocrites, thieves, forgers, alchemists, swindlers, flatterers and deceivers. The Ninth Circle, reserved for the worst evildoers, are traitors of every kind–those who were false to friends or relatives, or to their country or a noble cause. Dante sees two political leaders frozen together in a lake, head to head. He also encounters the most abominable of all traitors–Judas Iscariot, the betrayer of Christ, and Brutus and Cassius, the assassins of Julius Caesar. Satan himself, the arch fiend, is here frozen in the lake. B. Purgatory (Purgatorio) Dante and Vergil next arrive at the Mount of Purgatory, which is surrounded by an ocean. On ten terraces running up the side of the mountain are souls purging themselves of venial (less serious) sins involving negligence, pride, envy, sloth, political intrigue and other transgressions. Dante exults in the light and hope that greet him after leaving the horrid realm of darkness and death. At the entrance to Purgatory, Dante and Vergil meet Cato, an ancient Roman who, as censor in 184 B.C., attempted to root out immorality and corruption in Roman life. In Dante's poem, Cato symbolizes the four cardinal virtues of Roman Catholicism: prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance. On Cato's instructions, Vergil cleanses Dante's face of the grime of hell and girdles his waist with a reed, symbolizing humility. An angel writes seven P's across Dante's forehead, each representing one of the seven deadly sins. (The Italian word for sin begins with a P.) The angel then tells Dante he must wash away the P's–that is; purge himself of sin–while in Purgatory. Among the terrace dwellers are excommunicants who repented before they died, a lazy Florentine who postponed doing good works most of his life, and monarchs who neglected their duties. As Dante and Vergil continue upward, they also meet the proud, the envious, the avaricious, the wasteful and the lustful. Farther up the mountain, they can gaze across the River Lethe and see the Earthly Paradise, signaling it is time for Vergil to leave and return to his abode, the First Circle of the heathens. Still observing from the opposite bank of the river (and still in Purgatory) Dante sees a pageant in which the participants and sacred objects symbolize books of the Bible, virtues, the human and divine natures of Christ and Saints Peter, and Paul and other disciples of the Christian religion. Beatrice is there, too. Out of love for him, she rebukes him for the sins he has committed. After he confesses his guilt, she invites the purified Dante to come across the river and ascend to heaven. C. Heaven (Paradiso) Heaven, a place of perfect happiness, is a celestial region with planets, stars and other bodies. It resembles the earth-centered (geocentric) system of Ptolemy rather than the sun-centered (heliocentric) system of Copernicus and Galileo. The placement of an individual depends on the level of goodness he or she achieved in life, although everyone experiences the fulness of God's love. Dante and Beatrice then rise into heaven, where the poet discovers that even some pagans–persons born before the time of Christ–abide in the heavenly realm because they accepted revelations from God. At the lowest level of Heaven is the Moon. Next come Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the Stars (where St. Peter condemns corruption under Pope Boniface VIII) and the Primum Mobile (First Mover), the cause of time and of all movement in the universe. The highest level is the Empyrean, the abode of the Triune God, the Virgin Mary, other angels, and saints. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 134 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City When Dante and Beatrice reach the Empyrean, St. Bernard comes forth to prepare Dante to look upon the resplendent beings within. Dante realizes here that knowledge of heaven comes only through the grace of God and deep meditation, not through theology textbooks. After St. Bernard prays to Mary on Dante's behalf, she begs the light of God to welcome the prayer. When Dante glimpses that light, it overpowers him with a love so radiant that he cannot fathom its depth or even remember what he saw. Danish Literature Danish literature is, for the purposes of this article, the subset of Scandinavian literature composed in Denmark or by Danish people. Its history stretches from the Middle Ages into modern times and includes authors such as Saxo Grammaticus, Søren Kierkegaard, Hans Christian Andersen and Karen Blixen. The Emperor’s New Clothes Many years ago there lived an Emperor who was so exceedingly fond of fine new clothes that he spent vast sums of money on dress. To him clothes meant more than anything else in the world. He took no interest in his army, nor did he care to go to the theatre, or to drive about in his state coach, unless it was to display his new clothes. He had different robes for every single hour of the day. In the great city where he lived life was gay and strangers were always coming and going. Everyone knew about the Emperor's passion for clothes. Now one fine day two swindlers, calling themselves weavers, arrived. They declared that they could make the most magnificent cloth that one could imagine; cloth of most beautiful colours and elaborates patterns. Not only was the material so beautiful, but the clothes made from it had the special power of being invisible to everyone who was stupid or not fit for his post. "What a splendid idea," thought the Emperor. "What useful clothes to have. If I had such a suit of clothes I could know at once which of my people is stupid or unfit for his post." So the Emperor gave the swindlers large sums of money and the two weavers set up their looms in the palace. They demanded the finest thread of the best silk and the finest gold and they pretended to work at their looms. But they put nothing on the looms. The frames stood empty. The silk and gold thread they stuffed into their bags. So they sat pretending to weave, and continued to work at the empty loom till late into the night. Night after night they went home with their money and their bags full of the finest silk and gold thread. Day after day they pretended to work. Now the Emperor was eager to know how much of the cloth was finished, and would have loved to see for himself. He was, however, somewhat uneasy. "Suppose," he thought secretly, "suppose I am unable to see the cloth. That would mean I am either stupid or unfit for my post. That cannot be," he thought, but all the same he decided to send for his faithful old minister to go and see. "He will best be able to see how the cloth looks. He is far from stupid and splendid at his work." So the faithful old minister went into the hall where the two weavers sat beside the empty looms pretending to work with all their might. The Emperor's minister opened his eyes wide. "Upon my life!" he thought. "I see nothing at all, nothing." But he did not say so. The two swindlers begged him to come nearer and asked him how he liked it. "Are not the colors exquisite, and see how intricate are the patterns," they said. The poor old minister stared and stared. Still he could see nothing, for there was nothing. But he did not dare to say he saw nothing. "Nobody must find out,"' thought he. "I must never confess that I could not see the stuff." A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 135 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City "Well," said one of the rascals. "You do not say whether it pleases you." "Oh, it is beautiful-most excellent, to be sure. Such a beautiful design, such exquisite colors. I shall tell the Emperor how enchanted) I am with the cloth." "We are very glad to hear that," said the weavers, and they started to describe the colors and patterns in great detail. The old minister listened very carefully so that he could repeat the description to the Emperor. They also demanded more money and more gold thread, saying that they needed it to finish the cloth. But, of course, they put all they were given into their bags and pockets and kept on working at their empty looms. Soon after this the Emperor sent another official to see how the men were, getting on and to ask whether the cloth would soon be ready. Exactly the same happened with him as with the minister. He stood and stared, but as there was nothing to be seen, he could see nothing. "Is not the material beautiful?" said the swindlers, and again they talked of 'the patterns and the exquisite colors. "Stupid I certainly am not," thought the official. "Then I must be unfit for my post. But nobody shall know that I could not see the material." Then he praised the material he did not see and declared that he was delighted with the colors and the marvelous patterns. To the Emperor he said when he returned, "The cloth the weavers are preparing is truly magnificent." Everybody in the city had heard of the secret cloth and was talking about the splendid material. And now the Emperor was curious to see the costly stuff for himself while it was still upon the looms. Accompanied by a number of selected ministers, among who were the two poor ministers who had already been before, the Emperor went to the weavers. There they sat in front of the empty looms, weaving more diligently than ever, yet without a single thread upon the looms. "Is not the cloth magnificent?" said the two ministers. "See here, the splendid pattern, the glorious colors." Each pointed to the empty loom. Each thought that the other could see the material. "What can this mean?" said the Emperor to himself. "This is terrible. Am I so stupid? Am I not fit to be Emperor? This is disastrous," he thought. But aloud he said, "Oh, the cloth is perfectly wonderful. It has a splendid pattern and such charming colors." And he nodded his approval and smiled appreciatively and stared at the empty looms. He would not, he could not, admit he saw nothing, when his two ministers had praised the material so highly. And all his men looked and looked at the empty looms. Not one of them saw anything there at all. Nevertheless, they all said, "Oh, the cloth is magnificent." They advised the Emperor to have some new clothes made from this splendid material to wear in the great procession the following day. "Magnificent." "Excellent." "Exquisite," went from mouth to mouth and everyone was pleased. Each of the swindlers was given a decoration to wear in his button-hole and the title of "Knight of the Loom". The rascals sat up all that night and worked, burning more than sixteen candles, so that everyone could see how busy they were making the suit of clothes ready for the procession. Each of them had a great big pair of scissors and they cut in the air, pretending to cut the cloth with them, and sewed with needles without any thread. There was great excitement in the palace and the Emperor's clothes were the talk of the town. At last the weavers declared that the clothes were ready. Then the Emperor, with the most distinguished gentlemen of the court, came to the weavers. Each of the swindlers lifted up an arm as if he were holding something. "Here are Your Majesty's trousers," said one. "This is Your Majesty's mantle," said the other. "The whole suit is as light as a spider's web. Why, you might almost feel as if you had nothing on, but that is just the beauty of it." A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 136 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City "Magnificent," cried the ministers, but they could see nothing at all. Indeed there was nothing to be seen. "Now if Your Imperial Majesty would graciously consent to take off your clothes," said the weavers, "we could fit on the new ones." So the Emperor laid aside his clothes and the swindlers pretended to help him piece by piece into the new ones they were supposed to have made. The Emperor turned from side to side in front of the long glass as if admiring himself. "How well they fit. How splendid Your Majesty's robes look: What gorgeous colors!" they all said. "The canopy which is to be held over Your Majesty in the procession is waiting," announced the Lord High Chamberlain. "I am quite ready," announced the Emperor, and he looked at himself again in the mirror, turning from side to side as if carefully examining his handsome attire. The courtiers who were to carry the train felt about on the ground pretending to lift it: they walked on solemnly pretending to be carrying it. Nothing would have persuaded them to admit they could not see the clothes, for fear they would be thought stupid or unfit for their posts. And so the Emperor set off under the high canopy, at the head of the great procession. It was a great success. All the people standing by and at the windows cheered and cried, "Oh, how splendid are the Emperor's new clothes. What a magnificent train! How well the clothes fit!" No one dared to admit that he couldn't see anything, for who would want it to be known that he was either stupid or unfit for his post? None of the Emperor's clothes had ever met with such success. But among the crowds a little child suddenly gasped out, "But he hasn't got anything on." And the people began to whisper to one another what the child had said. "He hasn't got anything on." "There's a little child saying he hasn't got anything on." Till everyone was saying, "But he hasn't got anything on." The Emperor himself had the uncomfortable feeling that what they were whispering was only too true. "But I will have to go through with the procession," he said to himself. So he drew himself up and walked boldly on holding his head higher than before, and the courtiers held on to the train that wasn't there at all. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 137 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Norse Mythology Norse or Scandinavian mythology comprises the myths of North Germanic pre-Christian religion. Most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled in medieval Iceland in Old Norse, notably as the Edda. It is the best-preserved version of wider Germanic paganism, which also includes the closely related Anglo-Saxon and Continental varieties. It has its roots in Proto-Norse Iron Age Scandinavian prehistory. Norse Gods and Goddesses Baldr - God of beauty, innocence, peace, and rebirth. Consort: Nanna Borr - Father of Óðinn, Vili and Ve. Consort: Bestla Bragi - God of poetry. Consort: Iðunn Búri - The first god and father of Borr. Dagr - God of the daytime, son of Delling and Nótt. Delling - God of dawn and father of Dagr by Nótt. Eir - Goddess of healing. Forseti - God of justice, peace and truth. Son of Baldr and Nanna. Freyja - Goddess of love, sexuality, fertility and battle. Consort: Óðr Freyr - God of fertility. Consort: Gerð Frigg - Goddess of marriage and motherhood. Consort: Óðinn Fulla - Frigg´s handmaid. Gmot - God of the moon. Brother of Re`es andWeth. Gefjun - Goddess of fertility and plough. Hel - Queen of Hel, the Norse underworld. Heimdallr (Rígr) - One of the Æsir and guardian of Ásgarð, their realm. Hermóðr - Óðinn´s son. Hlín - Goddess of consolation and protection. Höðr - God of winter. Hœnir - The silent god. Iðunn - Goddess of youth. Consort: Bragi. Jörð - Goddess of the Earth. Mother of Þórr by Óðinn. Kvasir - God of inspiration. Lofn - Goddess of love. Loki - Trickster and god of mischief and fire. Consort: Sigyn (also called Saeter) Máni - God of Moon. Mímir - Óðinn´s uncle. Nanna - An Ásynja married with Baldr and mother to Forseti. Nerþus - A goddess mentioned by Tacitus. Her name is connected to that of Njörðr. Njörðr - God of sea, wind, fish, and wealth. Nótt - Goddess of night, daughter of Narvi and mother of Auð, Jörð and Dagr by Naglfari, Annar and Delling, respectively. • Re`es-God of heat*Óðinn (Wodan) - Lord of the Æsir. God of both wisdom and war. Consort: Frigg. • Sága - An obscure goddess, possibly another name for Frigg. • Sif - Wife of Thor. • Sjöfn - Goddess of love. • Skaði - Goddess of winter Njörðr's wife. • Snotra - Goddess of prudence. • Sol (Sunna) - Goddess of Sun. • Thor (Donar) - God of thunder and battle. Consort: Sif. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 138 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City • Tiki- God of Stone • Tree-Goddess of life*Týr (Ziu, Saxnot) - God of war andjustice. • Ullr - God of skill, hunt, and duel. Son of Sif. • Váli - God of revenge. • Vár - Goddess of contract. • Vé - One of the three gods of creation. Brother of Óðinn and Vili. • Víðarr- Son of Odin and the giantess Gríðr. • Vör - Goddess of wisdom. • Weth-Goddess of anger The Stories of Signy and Sigurd A. Volsungs I. Beginning Sigi was a great hunter, yet a thrall of Skadi named Bredi, who had matched his prowess in hunting, bested him. In a jealous rage he killed Bredi hiding the body in a snowdrift. When Skadi found his thrall dead in a snowdrift, he declared Sigi an outlaw. Later, Sigi, became king of the Huns. Sigi made many enemies in his long reign; among the enemies were his brother-in-laws. In his old age, his enemies had him killed. His son, Rerir, succeeded Sigi. Rerir, who was an even greater king than his father, in bravery and combat, avenged his father, killing his uncles and other enemies. He built a great empire through his numerous victories in wars against his neighbours. However, he and his wife had problems with producing an heir. Desperately wanting a son, Rerir prayed to the gods. Frigg, wife and consort of Odin, asked for a golden apple from the giant, Hrimnir. The apple was delivered to Rerir by crow, which dropped the apple in his laps. Immediately realising the importance of this divine sign, Rerir shared the apple with his wife. Soon, Rerir's wife was pregnant. Rerir, who fought a war to fight, fell ill and died. Rerir's wife was pregnant for an impossible six winters! Dying, the queen asked them to cut the baby out of her womb. Volsung was born almost a man in size and strength. II. Signy and Sigurd Volsung was born an orphan, but unlike children, but he was huge in size and strength, succeeded his father, becoming king of Hunland. Volsung became even powerful than father. His palace was built, with the oak tree called Branstock, in the middle of his great hall. Hrimnir send his daughter Ljod (Hljod) to marry Volsung. Volsung became the father of ten mighty sons and a daughter, Signy. Signy was the twin sister of Sigmund and enjoyed a close relationship with her brother. One day, Siggeir, king of Gothland, came and asked for Volsung, his daughter's hand in marriage. Volsung agreed, though Signy did not want to marry Siggeir, knowing him to be treacherous and murderous king. During the feast, Odin disguised as old man, came to the hall and drove a great sword into Branstock. Odin told them it would be his gift to the person who could draw the sword out of great oak tree. It was said that Volund (or Wayland the Smith) made the sword, and the magic sword was later called Gram (Balmung or Mimung in German myth). The sword had the power to make the owner win all his battles. No one in the hall except Sigmund, Volsung's younger son, could extract the sword from Branstock. Siggeir, who could not draw the sword from Branstock, wanted the sword for himself, offered to buy the sword off Sigmund. Sigmund scornfully rejected Siggeir's offer of gold. Offended by the young man's reply, Siggeir was determined to destroy Volsung's family. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 139 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Signy unsuccessfully tried to persuade her father not to marry her to the king. She had forboding that Siggeir will betray them. Volsung refused to heel her warning. After Siggeir married the reluctant Signy, he invited Volsung to come to his home. Again, Signy warned her father, fearing her new husband would attack them, but again Volsung ignored her warning. The moment Volsung and his sons arrived in Siggeir's territory; they were ambushed in the woods. Volsung was killed in the fighting and all his sons were captured. Siggeir had Signy's entire brothers bound in the trees in chain. Helpless, a she-wolf would come each night to kill and devour them. One by one, the brother was killed by the she-wolf until only Sigmund was left. Signy secretly went to her brother and smeared honey all over his face and inside his mouth. When the she-wolf came, instead of biting Sigmund, she licked his face and inside of the youth's mouth. Sigmund bit hard on the wolf, until died. Somehow, Sigmund managed to get out of his chain and hid in a cave in the woods. Signy found her brother alive, and together they plotted to destroy Siggeir and his men. As Sigmund recovered in the cave, Signy had several children to the king. When Signy's eldest son reaches the age of eleven, she sent him to her brother. Sigmund was to train her son to destroy Siggeir. However, Sigmund found that Siggeir's son was too weak for such task. Signy told her brother to then kill her son. The following year, Signy sent her second son to her brother, but once again, Sigmund found him also to be weak; hence her second son was killed. Realising that none of her children by her husband would be strong enough to avenge her father and brothers' death against her husband Siggeir; Signy sought help from a beautiful witch. The witch helps Signy by transforming her to look exactly like the witch. In the form of the witch, Signy visited her Sigmund, making love with her brother for three nights. Returning to her husband she was changed back to her own form. Later she discovered she was pregnant by her brother. She gave birth to Sinfjotli. When Sinfjotli reach the age of eleven, Signy sends her son to Sigmund. Sigmund thought that Sinfjotli was Siggeir's son. Nor did Sinfjotli recognise his real father. Only Signy knew of the true relationship between Sigmund and Sinfjotli. Sinfjotli had already grown to man in size and strength. Sigmund discovered that Sinfjotli was suitable to help him avenge his family. When Sigmund told Sinfjotli about his family and Siggeir's betrayal, Sinfjotli agreed to help. Sigmund trained Sinfjotli, until it was time for vengeance. Sigmund and Sinfjotli tried to use stealth to reach the palace. However, Siggeir's two remaining children discovered them and told their father about armed strangers in the palace. Signy ordered her brother to kill her last two children to Siggeir, but he refused to kill any more of his sister's children. Sinfjotli had no such compunction and murdered his siblings. Siggeir's men captured Sigmund and Sinfjotli and had them entombed alive. Signy however managed to secretly give Sigmund's magic sword to him. Sigmund and Sinfjotli used the sword and dug their way out of the barrow. Together they set fire to Siggeir's palace, while he and his men slept. Signy came to them, revealing Sinfjotli was Sigmund's own son by her. Because she had ordered death of her own children, she returned to the burning palace to die with her hated husband. III. Death of Sigmund & Sinfjotli A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 140 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Sigmund returned to his home (Hunland) with Sinfjotli, where Sigmund had to drive out the king, who had set himself as ruler since Volsung's death. Once again, the Volsungs re-established a mighty kingdom. Sigmund married Borghild and became the father of Helgi and Hamund. At the age of fifteen, Helgi fought many wars and won his own kingdom. Helgi earned the named Helgi Hundingsbani, when he fought two battles and killed Hunding and his sons. Helgi then went on to defeat defeat Hodbrodd and Granmar, to win his marriage to Sigrun, daughter of King Hogni (this Hogni should not be confused with the Burgundian Hogni) Sigrun was probably a Valkyrie (shield-maiden). (See The Two Helgi for the full legend about Helgi and Sigrun.) Borghild was jealous of her stepson Sinfjotli's prowess, and plotted his death. Sigmund, who was immune to all poison, drank two of the mugs of wine that Borghild had offered to Sinfjotli. Sinfjotli however drank the third mug and died from the poison. Borghild was banished from Hunland, for poisoning her stepson. Sigmund carried Sinfjotli's body into the wood. Sigmund met a ferryman at the fjord. The ferryman offered to help him cross, but the boat was only large enough to take one passenger. So Sigmund allowed the ferryman to take his son's body to otherside of the fjord first. As the boat reached the middle of the fjord, the boat along with Sinfjotli's body disappeared. Apparently the ferryman was none other than Odin. It seemed that Odin was personally taking Sinfjotli to Valhalla. Sigmund sought another wife. He fell in love with Hjordis (Sisibe or Sieglind), the beautiful daughter of King Eylimi. Sigmund wooed Hjordis but he had to compete against other powerful and younger kings, including Lyngi (Lyngvi), the son of King Hunding. Sigmund won Hjordis' despite being a much older man than the other suitors were, and married Hjordis. War broke out between Sigmund and the Hundings, because Lyngi refused to give up Hjordis. Sigmund and Eylimi were winning the battle. Yet, according to the Norns, Sigmund was fated to die that day. Yet Sigmund could never be defeated, nor could he be wounded, while he wielded his magic sword (Gram or Balmung) in battle. To fulfil Sigmund's doom, Odin came into the battlefield with his invincible spear, Gungnir. When Sigmund saw Odin, he attacked the god, but when he struck the Gungnir, Sigmund shattered the sword into two. The tide of the battle turned against Sigmund's army and he was defeated. Sigmund and his father-in-law, King Eylimi, had fallen in battle. At night, Hjordis, who was still pregnant with Sigmund's child, found her husband mortally wounded in the battlefield. Sigmund advised his wife to gather the shards of his shattered sword, so that their son could make forge a new sword. Sigmund foretold that his unborn son would avenge him and Hjordis' father. Lyngi, who still wanted to marry Hjordis, but could not find her or her treasure, for she had fled to King Alf, whom she married. Hjordis gave birth to a son, whom she named Sigurd. Alf, the son of King Hjalprek of Denmark, brought up Sigmund's son as if he was his very own son. B. Sigurd and the Guikings I. Otter’s Ransom Sigurd had a tutor named Regin, who was his foster-father. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 141 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Regin was the son of Hreidmar, and brother of Otter and Fafnir. Regin hoping to use Sigurd to gain the famous treasure from his brother, told the youth of his family history. Otter was able to shift-change into an otter. Loki, who was travelling with Odin and Hoenir, saw Otter by the river, killed him and skinned the otter. Loki wore the pelt over his shoulder. When Odin, Loki and Hoenir came to Hreidmar's estate and imposed upon the owner for hospitality, Hreidmar discovered that Loki had killed his son. Hreidmar captured three strangers and chained the three gods. Hreidmar will release the gods, on the condition that one of them pays a ransom. Loki agreed to perform the task and was released. Loki knew that the only ransom that would be able to release Odin and Hoenir, was the treasure of Andvari. Andvari was a dwarf who not only owned a treasure hoard, but also a magic gold ring called Andvaranaut. Andvaranaut could help him find or make more gold. Loki managed to steal the treasure but Andvari escaped with the ring by changing himself into a salmon. Loki managed to capture the dwarf and forced Andvari to give up the Andvaranaut. As Loki left the dwarf, Andvari hurled a curse upon the Andvaranaut, causing tragedy to fall on any mortal who wore the ring. Loki returned with the ransom, now known as the Ottergild (meaning Otter's Ransom, which was later called Rhinegold), and the other gods were released. Hreidmar forgot about his grief over his son at the sight of the treasure. Hreidmar's two sons wanted a share in the treasure, but in his greed, Hreidmar refused to share with Fafnir and Regin. Fafnir, wanting the treasure for himself murdered his own father and drove Regin away. The greed of Fafnir transformed the son of Hreidmar into a great dragon. Fafnir lived with his treasure on what was called Gnitaheath or "Glittering Heath". II. Sigurd, Fafnir’s Bane After Regin's story, Sigurd agreed to help his foster-father to gain the Ottergild. To face the dragon, Sigurd needed a great sword. Twice, Regin made Sigurd a sword, and each time the sword broke on the anvil. Finally Hjordis gave her son the shard of Sigmund's broken sword. Regin forge a new with the shard, Sigurd called the sword Gram. With Gram, Sigurd cleaved the anvil in two. Before Sigurd sought out Fafnir, he gathered an army, to avenge his death of his father (Sigmund) and grandfather (Eylimi). Sigurd killed all the sons of Hunding, including Lyngi (Lyngvi) and Hjorward. Sigurd and Regin then went to Gnitaheath or "Glittering Heath". Sigurd dug a pit to hide in and wait for Fafnir. When Fafnir went to drink from the stream, Sigurd attacked and killed the dragon. Regin wanting the treasure for himself, told Sigurd that he would not seek revenge for killing his brother if Sigurd would cut out Fafnir's heart and roast it for him. The dragon's heart would give any man who devours the heart, with power over other men. Sigurd agreed. As Sigurd cooks the heart over a fire, he tested the heart to see if it was cooked, but burned his fingers from the juice (heart-blood). Sigurd instinctively put his fingers in his mouth and immediately understood the language of the bird and some other animal. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 142 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City The birds told Sigurd that Regin would betray him once he ate the heart, and take the whole treasure for himself. The bird also told him about Brynhild, a Valkyrie, slept within a Ring of Fire at Hindfell. Sigurd killed Regin by striking off his head. Sigurd ate Fafnir's heart himself. Among the treasure he found the magic ring Andvaranaut, the sword Rotti (Hrotti), the Aegishjálmr (Helm of Awe, Aegishjalmr) and the Golden Byrnie (cuirass). Sigurd then left Glittering Heath and journeyed north to Hindfell. III. Sigurd & Brynhild Brynhild was the daughter of Budli. She was a Valkyrie punished by Odin for disobedience. Her punishment was that she was to wed a mortal. She would sleep, surrounded by a circle of fire, at the mountaintop, at the place known as Hindfell. She would sleep until a mortal warrior was brave enough to ride through the flame. Sigurd sought out Brynhild and went to Hindfell. Sigurd rode Grani through the flame and wakened the beautiful battle-maiden. They fell in love with one another. Sigurd stayed with her, until he decided it was time to leave. It was obviously that they had made love in the mountain, since Brynhild had a daughter named Aslaug. Sigurd told Brynhild, that he had duties to perform, but he would come back for her. Brynhild agreed and told the hero she would sleep in the Ring of Fire and wait for his return. Sigurd gave the magic ring (Andvaranaut) to Brynhild as a token of his love. But the token was cursed. As Sigurd journey north, he reached the kingdom, south of the Rhine (Burgundy), ruled by Giuki. Giuki had married Grimhild, a wise-woman or witch, and had three sons - Gunnar, Hogni and Guttorm. They also had beautiful daughter named Gudrun. Gudrun had a dream of the Sigurd, symbolised as a falcon and later a hart or stag, a hero she would marry and love, but who would be kill by her own family and Brynhild. Gudrun also dreamed of her second husband whom she loathed, Atli, brother of Brynhild. Atli was symbolised as a wolf, which would in the end, kills her brothers. When Sigurd arrived at the home of the Giukungs, Gudrun had fallen in love with the hero, but Sigurd was still in love with Brynhild. Gudrun's mother, Grimhild, had a magic potion to make Sigurd forget Brynhild. Because he had no memory of Brynhild, Sigurd fell in love with Gudrun and married her. They had a son named Sigmund, named after Sigurd's father. A couple years later they would have a daughter named Svanhild. As a brother-in-law, Sigurd swore an oath to Gunnar, and helped the Burgundian king win many wars. Shortly after Sigurd and Gudrun's first child, Grimhild told Gunnar that he must marry a woman who was worthy to be his wife. Gunnar wanted Brynhild for his wife. Gunnar went to Hindfell with Sigurd to woo Brynhild. The problem with Gunnar was that the king was no great hero. Gunnar could not ride his horse through the flame. Even when the king sat on Grani, Sigurd's horse refused to move at Gunnar direction. The king asked Sigurd to help him win Brynhild for him. With the magic potion of Grimhild, Sigurd and Gunnar exchange appearance with one another. Gunnar returned home. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 143 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Sigurd, disguised as Gunnar, again rode Grani through the flame and awakened Brynhild. Brynhild was disappointed that it was not Sigurd who woke him but she agreed to marry Gunnar. Brynhild left her daughter to Sigurd, named Aslaug, with Heimir, a chieftain and husband of her sister Bekkhild. For three day they rode toward Gunnar's home. Each night as the disguised Sigurd slept with Brynhild, Sigurd placed the sword between them. Sigurd exchanged the ring from Gunnar with the magic ring (Andvaranaut), which the hero had given to Brynhild in their first meeting. When they reached the palace, Sigurd resumed his own appearance. Gunnar happily married Brynhild. It was only after the wedding of Gunnar and Brynhild, that the drug worn off, and Sigurd was able to recalled that he had promised to marry Brynhild in the mountain, and realised that he had broken his vow with her. Yet Sigurd could do nothing. Returning to his own wife, Sigurd told Gudrun everything that happened. Sigurd then gave the magic ring (Andvaranaut) to Gudrun. The ring would take a tragic consequence several years later. One day when Sigurd and Gudrun came to visit, Gudrun and Brynhild had a quarrel of whose husband was better. Brynhild told Gudrun, that Sigurd was nothing but a vassal. Gudrun foolishly revealed that it was Sigurd, who rode through the flame twice, not her husband, and that Sigurd changed his form to ressembled Brynhild's husband. Brynhild did not believe her, until Gudrun showed her the Andvaranaut, which Brynhild had once received from Sigurd. Brynhild, who had never stopped loving Sigurd, was enraged to learn that her husband and Sigurd had tricked her. No one could comfort Brynhild. When Sigurd visit her, he revealed that he had been deceived by the magic of Grimhild, causing him to forget her and married Gudrun, yet it was too late for him to correct matters after Brynhild married Gunnar. Brynhild kept insisting that she wanted to kill Sigurd for his betrayal. Not even when Sigurd offered her his treasure could he reconcile with her. When Sigurd offered to leave Gudrun and make her as his wife, Brynhild flatly rejected the offer. Brynhild sought vengeance upon Sigurd and the Giukings (Niflungs). That night, Brynhild falsely accused Sigurd that he had taken advantage of her when the two had travelled to Giukungs' home from the mountain; therefore Sigurd had dishonoured his oath of brotherhood to Gunnar. She told Gunnar to kill his brother-in-law or else she would leave him. Gunnar, who had always envied the hero's prowess, decided to plot for Sigurd's death. But since Gunnar and Hogni were bound by oath to Sigurd, the king could not kill his brother-in-law. Gunnar called upon his younger brother to slay Sigurd. After two unsuccessful attempted to kill Sigurd, Guttorm decided to wait for Sigurd to sleep. With his sword Guttorm mortally wounded Sigurd. Sigurd woke and speared his sword into Guttorm's back as the killer tried to flee. Gudrun woke, to find her husband dying. Sigurd tried to comfort Gudrun, who was pregnant with their son, before he died. When Gudrun weeps for husband, Brynhild laughed and mocked at her sister-in-law's wretched state. In the Poetic Edda poem called the First Lay of Gudrun, Gudrun sat beside Sigurd's body. Gudrun was so numb and overwhelmed by her grief that she could not weep that her friends thought she would die from sorrow. Each lady tried to convince her to weep by relating to their own experience, but Gudrun was unmoved. Finally on wise woman, uncovered Sigurd's body and told her to kiss her husband as if he was alive. Gudrun finally broke down and wept. At the funeral of Sigurd, however, Brynhild suffering from her own grief over the hero. Then Brynhild told her husband, the truth, that Sigurd had never broken his oath to Gunnar, nor had the hero ever taken advantage of her. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 144 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Brynhild foretold the tragedy that would befall upon the Guikings. Gunnar and Hogni would be captured and killed by her brother Atli. Brynhild also revealed Atli's own death by Gudrun, as well as the death of Gudrun's daughter and sons. At the pyre, Brynhild ordered Sigmund's death, the son of Sigurd and Gudrun (this Sigmund should not be confused with Sigurd's father, who was already dead before Sigurd was born). Brynhild then killed herself, asking her husband, that she would be laid in the pyre beside Sigurd, whom she never ceased to love. IV. Gudrun and the Fall of the Niflungs Gunnar tried to console his sister for his part in Sigurd's death, as well as the death of her son Sigmund. Gudrun could not be comforted. One day, finding that she could no longer live with her family. She took her daughter and fled to Denmark, and sought refuge in King Alf's court. Alf was Sigurd's stepfather and when Sigurd's mother (Hjordis) had died, the king had remarried to Thora. Both Alf and Thora had welcomed Gudrun. Here, Gudrun stayed for many years, finally finding comfort. Gudrun would have happily stayed in Denmark, but Atli, king of the Huns, went to Gunnar's court, to ask for her hand in marriage. Gunnar and his mother Grimhild agreed, mainly because they feared that Atli would invade their land, for not preventing the death of Brynhild, who was Atli's sister. They went to Denmark, and tried to persuade her with gift of gold at first. Gudrun refused to marry Atli and ignored the conciliating pleas from her mother and brothers. Gudrun also warned them if she was to marry Atli, her new husband would one day destroy their family. They ignored her warning. Again Gudrun's mother (Grimhild) used her potion, this time to make Gudrun forget about her grief for Sigurd. Without her memory of Sigurd, Gudrun agreed to marry Atli. It was only after they were married, that her memory had also returned to her. Gudrun bore two sons to the king of Hunland. Atli had learned of the treasure of Sigurd that should have belonged to Gudrun at his death. Atli wanted to gain possession of Sigurd's cursed treasure from Gunnar. Atli invited Gunnar to come to a feast in Hunland. Unlike the German tradition (ie. the Nibelungenlied), Gudrun was more loyal to her brothers than her second husband (Atli). Gudrun did not seek to avenge Sigurd upon her brothers. Gudrun immediately discovered her husband's intention and tried to warn her brothers of the betrayal. When Atli sent a message to lure his brother-in-laws to Hunland, Gudrun carved runes to her message and also wrapped wolf's hair from the cursed ring, Andvaranaut. But the message was distorted by Atli's messenger, Vingi, who could read runes. So Vingi changed the runes so that urged Gunnar and Hogni to come to visit her. Vingi came to Gunnar's court, inviting the brothers to visit their sister and her husband. They received gold from Atli, and Vingi told the Gunnar that there would be more gold if he and Hogni would visit their sister. Gunnar and Hogni were suspicious of Atli's generosity. Both Gunnar and Hogni were puzzled that the wolf hair on Gudrun's ring (Andvaranaut), despite the altered message on the ring. The wolf hair must signify danger, so that Gudrun was advising her brothers not visit Atli. Gunnar's new wife, named Glaumvor, also warned the king not to go. Gunnar and Hogni, however, decided to go, but they sank Sigurd's treasures in the Rhine, before each of them swore an oath, never to reveal the location of Sigurd's treasure, which now became known as Rhinegold. The Giukings, with their followers then set out for Atli's court. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 145 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City When they arrived, Atli immeditately demanded the treasure of Sigurd. Gunnar flatly refused, so Atli had the guests ambushed. Fierce battle broke out, and though the Burgundians proved to be great warriors, they were helplessly outnumbered. Gudrun seeing her brothers' plight, so she went to them and greeted both her brothers with kisses, before asking if it was possible them to have peace with husband. They said peace was not possible, so she donned a mail coat and took up the sword, where she joined the Burgundians, and fought as bravely as her brothers. However her aid wasn't enough to save her brothers. Eventually, all the Burgundian warriors were killed in the fighting, except Gunnar and Atli, who bravely fought on, until Atli's warriors managed to capture Gunnar and Hogni alive. Neither brother would reveal the location of the treasure. When threatened with tortures, Gunnar told Atli, he would reveal the location, on the condition that the king cut out his brother's heart. Gunnar told the king, he did not want his brother learning of his betrayal. Atli had the heart of the thrall, named Hjalli, cut out and brought to Gunnar, pretending this was the heart of Hogni. Gunnar took one look at the heart, and was not deceived by Atli's trickery. Gunnar told the king that this was the heart of the coward Hjalli, because it quaked tremendously. So Atli had Hogni murdered and cut out his heart. Gunnar then knew his brother was dead, because Hogni's heart does not tremble in his hand, because Hogni was brave. Then Gunnar laughed at Atli, telling the treacherous king that he would never tell them the secret of treasure's location. For while Hogni was alive, Gunnar wavered, but now that his brother was dead, he is the only person who could reveal its location. Gudrun came to her husband and cursed him for betraying her and her brothers. Realising that Gunnar would not reveal the treasure whereabouts, the enraged king ordered Gunnar to be thrown into a pit full of adders. Gudrun learning of his brother's fate threw a harp to Gunnar. Since his hand was tied tightly to his body, Gunnar played the harp with his toes so well that all but one adder fell to sleep by his sweet music. But that one adder was enough to kill him. According to Snorri's Prose Edda, the adder had struck the bottom of Gunnar's breastbone, burying its head into Gunnar's liver. Atli boasted over the death of Gudrun's brothers, but tried to reconcile with his wife with gift of gold. Gudrun was satified to live with Atli as his wife, while Hogni lived. With Hogni's death, Gudrun sought to avenge her brothers. Gudrun had a huge funeral feast prepared in honour of her brothers and those of Atli's kins who had died. While Atli and his guests became intoxicated with wine, Gudrun went into her sons' room. Gudrun, who could not rest after the death of her brothers, cut the throats of her two sons, Erp and Eitil; her sons that she bore to Atli. Gudrun had mixed their blood with the wine and roasted their hearts in the spits before serving them to the drunken king and his guests. When Atli asked his wife where their sons were, (rather sweetly) Gudrun told him he had eaten their flesh. Gudrun then took up a sword and stabbed Atli to death. Gudrun bitterly told her dying husband that she still loved Sigurd, and though she could live with being a widow to Sigurd, she could not bear it with her being married to him (Atli). With the help of her nephew, Niflung, son of Hogni, they set the entire hall in flame, killing her husband's drunken guests. V. Fate of Svanhild With the death of her sons and husband, whom she had murdered, Gudrun sought to end her life, by throwing herself into the sea. She was however saved by King Jonakr, who made her his wife. Gudrun A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 146 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City bore three sons: Hamdir, Sorli, and Erp. Gudrun had her daughter Svanhild brought here to live with their new family. Years later, King Jormunrek wanted to marry Svanhild, daughter of Sigurd and Gudrun, and sent his son Randver, to help him woo her. Before Jormunrek was to marry Svanhild, Jormunrek's treacherous counsellor named Bikki, told Randver it would be better if he was to marry Svanhild, rather than his father. Randver told Svanhild that he was in love with her, which she seemed to readily return. Bikki then told the king of his son's betrayal and Svanhild's unfaithfulness. Jormunrek had his own son hanged. Before Randver's execution, he had plucked all the feathers of his father's favourite hawk, so that his father could not produce a new heir for his kingdom. Jormunrek ordered wild horses to trampled Svanhild to death, but the horses refused to harm the maiden, because her eyes so captivated the horses. So Bikki had a bag covered Svanhild's head, and only then would the horses trample her to death. Snorri's version in the Prose Edda was slightly different. Svanhild was bleaching her hair in the forest, when Jormunrek and his men were hunting; they came upon her on their horses as she sat there and trampled her to death. Gudrun having heard of her daughter's execution, she asked her sons to avenge her Svanhild death. Erp made a comment that his brother misunderstood. They thought that Erp refused to help them with the vengeance, so they killed Erp. Accoridng to Snorri, Erp was Gudrun's favourite of the 3 sons, and Hamdir and Sorli killed their brother to cause their mother more pain. Anyway, Hamdir and Sorli attacked Jormunrek, cutting off the king's hands and feet. Before they could behead the king, Jormunrek's men attack the brothers, but were driven back. The armours that Hamdir and Sorli worn, made then invulnerable to swords, spears and arrows. Then Odin appeared suddenly and advised the king to have them stoned. Jormunrek's men then stoned Hamdir and Sorli to death. Here ended the last of the Giukings. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 147 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Selected Literatures of the World I. The Necklace- Guy de Maupassant She was one of those pretty and charming girls born, as though fate had blundered over her, into a family of artisans. She had no marriage portion, no expectations, no means of getting known, understood, loved, and wedded by a man of wealth and distinction; and she let herself be married off to a little clerk in the Ministry of Education. Her tastes were simple because she had never been able to afford any other, but she was as unhappy as though she had married beneath her; for women have no caste or class, their beauty, grace, and charm serving them for birth or family. Their natural delicacy, their instinctive elegance, their nimbleness of wit, is their only mark of rank, and put the slum girl on a level with the highest lady in the land. She suffered endlessly, feeling herself born for every delicacy and luxury. She suffered from the poorness of her house, from its mean walls, worn chairs, and ugly curtains. All these things, of which other women of her class would not even have been aware, tormented and insulted her. The sight of the little Breton girl who came to do the work in her little house aroused heart-broken regrets and hopeless dreams in her mind. She imagined silent antechambers, heavy with Oriental tapestries, lit by torches in lofty bronze sockets, with two tall footmen in knee-breeches sleeping in large arm-chairs, overcome by the heavy warmth of the stove. She imagined vast saloons hung with antique silks, exquisite pieces of furniture supporting priceless ornaments, and small, charming, perfumed rooms, created just for little parties of intimate friends, men who were famous and sought after, whose homage roused every other woman's envious longings. When she sat down for dinner at the round table covered with a three-days-old cloth, opposite her husband, who took the cover off the soup-tureen, exclaiming delightedly: "Aha! Scotch broth! What could be better?" she imagined delicate meals, gleaming silver, tapestries peopling the walls with folk of a past age and strange birds in faery forests; she imagined delicate food served in marvellous dishes, murmured gallantries, listened to with an inscrutable smile as one trifled with the rosy flesh of trout or wings of asparagus chicken. She had no clothes, no jewels, nothing. And these were the only things she loved; she felt that she was made for them. She had longed so eagerly to charm, to be desired, to be wildly attractive and sought after. She had a rich friend, an old school friend whom she refused to visit, because she suffered so keenly when she returned home. She would weep whole days, with grief, regret, despair, and misery. *** One evening her husband came home with an exultant air, holding a large envelope in his hand. “Here’s something for you," he said. Swiftly she tore the paper and drew out a printed card on which were these words: A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 148 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City "The Minister of Education and Madame Ramponneau request the pleasure of the company of Monsieur and Madame Loisel at the Ministry on the evening of Monday, January the 18th." Instead of being delighted, as her-husband hoped, she flung the invitation petulantly across the table, murmuring: "What do you want me to do with this?" "Why, darling, I thought you'd be pleased. You never go out, and this is a great occasion. I had tremendous trouble to get it. Every one wants one; it's very select, and very few go to the clerks. You'll see all the really big people there." She looked at him out of furious eyes, and said impatiently: "And what do you suppose I am to wear at such an affair?" He had not thought about it; he stammered: "Why, the dress you go to the theatre in. It looks very nice, to me...." He stopped, stupefied and utterly at a loss when he saw that his wife was beginning to cry. Two large tears ran slowly down from the corners of her eyes towards the corners of her mouth. "What's the matter with you? What's the matter with you?" he faltered. But with a violent effort she overcame her grief and replied in a calm voice, wiping her wet cheeks: "Nothing. Only I haven't a dress and so I can't go to this party. Give your invitation to some friend of yours whose wife will be turned out better than I shall." He was heart-broken. "Look here, Mathilde," he persisted. :What would be the cost of a suitable dress, which you could use on other occasions as well, something very simple?" She thought for several seconds, reckoning up prices and also wondering for how large a sum she could ask without bringing upon herself an immediate refusal and an exclamation of horror from the careful-minded clerk. At last she replied with some hesitation: "I don't know exactly, but I think I could do it on four hundred francs." He grew slightly pale, for this was exactly the amount he had been saving for a gun, intending to get a little shooting next summer on the plain of Nanterre with some friends who went lark-shooting there on Sundays. Nevertheless he said: "Very well. I'll give you four hundred francs. But try and get a really nice dress with the money." The day of the party drew near, and Madame Loisel seemed sad, uneasy and anxious. Her dress was ready, however. One evening her husband said to her: "What's the matter with you? You've been very odd for the last three days." "I'm utterly miserable at not having any jewels, not a single stone, to wear," she replied. "I shall look absolutely no one. I would almost rather not go to the A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 149 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City party." "Wear flowers," he said. "They're very smart at this time of the year. For ten francs you could get two or three gorgeous roses." She was not convinced. "No . . . there's nothing so humiliating as looking poor in the middle of a lot of rich women." "How stupid you are!" exclaimed her husband. "Go and see Madame Forestier and ask her to lend you some jewels. You know her quite well enough for that." She uttered a cry of delight. "That's true. I never thought of it." Next day she went to see her friend and told her her trouble. Madame Forestier went to her dressing-table, took up a large box, brought it to Madame Loisel, opened it, and said: "Choose, my dear." First she saw some bracelets, then a pearl necklace, then a Venetian cross in gold and gems, of exquisite workmanship. She tried the effect of the jewels before the mirror, hesitating, unable to make up her mind to leave them, to give them up. She kept on asking: "Haven't you anything else?" "Yes. Look for yourself. I don't know what you would like best." Suddenly she discovered, in a black satin case, a superb diamond necklace; her heart began to beat covetousIy. Her hands trembled as she lifted it. She fastened it round her neck, upon her high dress, and remained in ecstasy at sight of herself. Then, with hesitation, she asked in anguish: "Could you lend me this, just this alone?" "Yes, of course." She flung herself on her friend's breast, embraced her frenziedly, and went away with her treasure. The day of the party arrived. Madame Loisel was a success. She was the prettiest woman present, elegant, graceful, smiling, and quite above herself with happiness. All the men stared at her, inquired her name, and asked to be introduced to her. All the Under-Secretaries of State were eager to waltz with her. The Minister noticed her. She danced madly, ecstatically, drunk with pleasure, with no thought for anything, in the triumph of her beauty, in the pride of her success, in a cloud of happiness made up of this universal homage and admiration, of the desires she had aroused, of the completeness of a victory so dear to her feminine heart. She left about four o'clock in the morning. Since midnight her husband had been dozing in a deserted little room, in company with three other men A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 150 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City whose wives were having a good time. He threw over her shoulders the garments he had brought for them to go home in, modest everyday clothes, whose poverty clashed with the beauty of the ball-dress. She was conscious of this and was anxious to hurry away, so that she should not be noticed by the other women putting on their costly furs. Loisel restrained her. "Wait a little. You'll catch cold in the open. I'm going to fetch a cab." But she did not listen to him and rapidly descended-the staircase. When they were out in the street they could not find a cab; they began to look for one, shouting at the drivers whom they saw passing in the distance. They walked down towards the Seine, desperate and shivering. At last they found on the quay one of those old nightprowling carriages which are only to be seen in Paris after dark, as though they were ashamed of their shabbiness in the daylight. It brought them to their door in the Rue des Martyrs, and sadly they walked up to their own apartment. It was the end, for her. As for him, he was thinking that he must be at the office at ten. She took off the garments in which she had wrapped her shoulders, so as to see herself in all her glory before the mirror. But suddenly she uttered a cry. The necklace was no longer round her neck! "What's the matter with you?" asked her husband, already half undressed. She turned towards him in the utmost distress. "I . . . I . . . I've no longer got Madame Forestier's necklace. . . ." He started with astonishment. "What! . . . Impossible!" They searched in the folds of her dress, in the folds of the coat, in the pockets, everywhere. They could not find it. "Are you sure that you still had it on when you came away from the ball?" he asked. "Yes, I touched it in the hall at the Ministry." "But if you had lost it in the street, we should have heard it fall." "Yes. Probably we should. Did you take the number of the cab?" "No. You didn't notice it, did you?" "No." They stared at one another, dumbfounded. At last Loisel put on his clothes again. "I'll go over all the ground we walked," he said, "and see if I can't find it." And he went out. She remained in her evening clothes, lacking strength to get into bed, huddled on a chair, without volition or power of thought. Her husband returned about seven. He had found nothing. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 151 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City He went to the police station, to the newspapers, to offer a reward, to the cab companies, everywhere that a ray of hope impelled him. She waited all day long, in the same state of bewilderment at this fearful catastrophe. Loisel came home at night, his face lined and pale; he had discovered nothing. "You must write to your friend," he said, "and tell her that you've broken the clasp of her necklace and are getting it mended. That will give us time to look about us." She wrote at his dictation. *** By the end of a week they had lost all hope. Loisel, who had aged five years, declared: "We must see about replacing the diamonds." Next day they took the box which had held the necklace and went to the jewellers whose name was inside. He consulted his books. "It was not I who sold this necklace, Madame; I must have merely supplied the clasp." Then they went from jeweller to jeweller, searching for another necklace like the first, consulting their memories, both ill with remorse and anguish of mind. In a shop at the Palais-Royal they found a string of diamonds which seemed to them exactly like the one they were looking for. It was worth forty thousand francs. They were allowed to have it for thirty-six thousand. They begged the jeweller not tO sell it for three days. And they arranged matters on the understanding that it would be taken back for thirty-four thousand francs, if the first one were found before the end of February. Loisel possessed eighteen thousand francs left to him by his father. He intended to borrow the rest. He did borrow it, getting a thousand from one man, five hundred from another, five louis here, three louis there. He gave notes of hand, entered into ruinous agreements, did business with usurers and the whole tribe of money-lenders. He mortgaged the whole remaining years of his existence, risked his signature without even knowing it he could honour it, and, appalled at the agonising face of the future, at the black misery about to fall upon him, at the prospect of every possible physical privation and moral torture, he went to get the new necklace and put down upon the jeweller's counter thirty-six thousand francs. When Madame Loisel took back the necklace to Madame Forestier, the latter said to her in a chilly voice: "You ought to have brought it back sooner; I might have needed it." She did not, as her friend had feared, open the case. If she had noticed the substitution, what would she have thought? What would she have said? Would she not have taken her for a thief? *** Madame Loisel came to know the ghastly life of abject poverty. From the very first she played her part heroically. This fearful debt must be paid off. She would pay it. The servant was dismissed. They changed their flat; they took a garret under the roof. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 152 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City She came to know the heavy work of the house, the hateful duties of the kitchen. She washed the plates, wearing out her pink nails on the coarse pottery and the bottoms of pans. She washed the dirty linen, the shirts and dish-cloths, and hung them out to dry on a string; every morning she took the dustbin down into the street and carried up the water, stopping on each landing to get her breath. And, clad like a poor woman, she went to the fruiterer, to the grocer, to the butcher, a basket on her arm, haggling, insulted, fighting for every wretched halfpenny of her money. Every month notes had to be paid off, others renewed, time gained. Her husband worked in the evenings at putting straight a merchant's accounts, and often at night he did copying at twopence-halfpenny a page. And this life lasted ten years. At the end of ten years everything was paid off, everything, the usurer's charges and the accumulation of superimposed interest. Madame Loisel looked old now. She had become like all the other strong, hard, coarse women of poor households. Her hair was badly done, her skirts were awry, her hands were red. She spoke in a shrill voice, and the water slopped all over the floor when she scrubbed it. But sometimes, when her husband was at the office, she sat down by the window and thought of that evening long ago, of the ball at which she had been so beautiful and so much admired. What would have happened if she had never lost those jewels. Who knows? Who knows? How strange life is, how fickle! How little is needed to ruin or to save! One Sunday, as she had gone for a walk along the Champs-Elysees to freshen herself after the labours of the week, she caught sight suddenly of a woman who was taking a child out for a walk. It was Madame Forestier, still young, still beautiful, still attractive. Madame Loisel was conscious of some emotion. Should she speak to her? Yes, certainly. And now that she had paid, she would tell her all. Why not? She went up to her. "Good morning, Jeanne." The other did not recognise her, and was surprised at being thus familiarly addressed by a poor woman. "But . . . Madame . . ." she stammered. "I don't know . . . you must be making a mistake." "No . . . I am Mathilde Loisel." Her friend uttered a cry. "Oh! . . . My poor Mathilde, how you have changed! . . ." "Yes, I've had some hard times since I saw you last; and many sorrows . . . and all on your account." "On my account! . . . How was that?" "You remember the diamond necklace you lent me for the ball at the Ministry?" "Yes. Well?" "Well, I lost it." A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 153 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City "How could you? Why, you brought it back." "I brought you another one just like it. And for the last ten years we have been paying for it. You realise it wasn't easy for us; we had no money. . . . Well, it's paid for at last, and I'm glad indeed." Madame Forestier had halted. "You say you bought a diamond necklace to replace mine?" "Yes. You hadn't noticed it? They were very much alike." And she smiled in proud and innocent happiness. Madame Forestier, deeply moved, took her two hands. "Oh, my poor Mathilde! But mine was imitation. It was worth at the very most five hundred francs! . . . " II. How my Brother Leon brought Home a Wife- Manuel Arguelles She stepped down from the carretela of Ca Celin with a quick, delicate grace. She was lovely. SHe was tall. She looked up to my brother with a smile, and her forehead was on a level with his mouth. "You are Baldo," she said and placed her hand lightly on my shoulder. Her nails were long, but they were not painted. She was fragrant like a morning when papayas are in bloom. And a small dimple appeared momently high on her right cheek. "And this is Labang of whom I have heard so much." She held the wrist of one hand with the other and looked at Labang, and Labang never stopped chewing his cud. He swallowed and brought up to his mouth more cud and the sound of his insides was like a drum. I laid a hand on Labang's massive neck and said to her: "You may scratch his forehead now." She hesitated and I saw that her eyes were on the long, curving horns. But she came and touched Labang's forehead with her long fingers, and Labang never stopped chewing his cud except that his big eyes half closed. And by and by she was scratching his forehead very daintily. My brother Leon put down the two trunks on the grassy side of the road. He paid Ca Celin twice the usual fare from the station to the edge of Nagrebcan. Then he was standing beside us, and she turned to him eagerly. I watched Ca Celin, where he stood in front of his horse, and he ran his fingers through its forelock and could not keep his eyes away from her. "Maria---" my brother Leon said. He did not say Maring. He did not say Mayang. I knew then that he had always called her Maria and that to us all she would be Maria; and in my mind I said 'Maria' and it was a beautiful name. "Yes, Noel." Now where did she get that name? I pondered the matter quietly to myself, thinking Father might not like it. But it was only the name of my brother Leon said backward and it sounded much better that way. "There is Nagrebcan, Maria," my brother Leon said, gesturing widely toward the west. She moved close to him and slipped her arm through his. And after a while she said quietly. "You love Nagrebcan, don't you, Noel?" A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 154 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Ca Celin drove away hi-yi-ing to his horse loudly. At the bend of the camino real where the big duhat tree grew, he rattled the handle of his braided rattan whip against the spokes of the wheel. We stood alone on the roadside. The sun was in our eyes, for it was dipping into the bright sea. The sky was wide and deep and very blue above us: but along the saw-tooth rim of the Katayaghan hills to the southwest flamed huge masses of clouds. Before us the fields swam in a golden haze through which floated big purple and red and yellow bubbles when I looked at the sinking sun. Labang's white coat, which I had wshed and brushed that morning with coconut husk, glistened like beaten cotton under the lamplight and his horns appeared tipped with fire. He faced the sun and from his mouth came a call so loud and vibrant that the earth seemed to tremble underfoot. And far away in the middle of the field a cow lowed softly in answer. "Hitch him to the cart, Baldo," my brother Leon said, laughing, and she laughed with him a big uncertainly, and I saw that he had put his arm around her shoulders. "Why does he make that sound?" she asked. "I have never heard the like of it." "There is not another like it," my brother Leon said. "I have yet to hear another bull call like Labang. In all the world there is no other bull like him." She was smiling at him, and I stopped in the act of tying the sinta across Labang's neck to the opposite end of the yoke, because her teeth were very white, her eyes were so full of laughter, and there was the small dimple high up on her right cheek. "If you continue to talk about him like that, either I shall fall in love with him or become greatly jealous." My brother Leon laughed and she laughed and they looked at each other and it seemed to me there was a world of laughter between them and in them. I climbed into the cart over the wheel and Labang would have bolted, for he was always like that, but I kept a firm hold on his rope. He was restless and would not stand still, so that my brother Leon had to say "Labang" several times. When he was quiet again, my brother Leon lifted the trunks into the cart, placing the smaller on top. She looked down once at her high-heeled shoes, then she gave her left hand to my brother Leon, placed a foot on the hub of the wheel, and in one breath she had swung up into the cart. Oh, the fragrance of her. But Labang was fairly dancing with impatience and it was all I could do to keep him from running away. "Give me the rope, Baldo," my brother Leon said. "Maria, sit down on the hay and hold on to anything." Then he put a foot on the left shaft and that instand labang leaped forward. My brother Leon laughed as he drew himself up to the top of the side of the cart and made the slack of the rope hiss above the back of labang. The wind whistled against my cheeks and the rattling of the wheels on the pebbly road echoed in my ears. She sat up straight on the bottom of the cart, legs bent togther to one side, her skirts spread over them so that only the toes and heels of her shoes were visible. her eyes were on my brother Leon's back; I saw the wind on her hair. When Labang slowed down, my brother Leon handed to me the rope. I knelt on the straw inside the cart and pulled on the rope until Labang was merely shuffling along, then I made him turn around. "What is it you have forgotten now, Baldo?" my brother Leon said. I did not say anything but tickled with my fingers the rump of Labang; and away we went---back to where I had unhitched and waited for them. The sun had sunk and down from the wooded sides of the Katayaghan hills shadows were stealing into the fields. High up overhead the sky burned with many slow fires. When I sent Labang down the deep cut that would take us to the dry bed of the Waig which could be used as a A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 155 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City path to our place during the dry season, my brother Leon laid a hand on my shoulder and said sternly: "Who told you to drive through the fields tonight?" His hand was heavy on my shoulder, but I did not look at him or utter a word until we were on the rocky bottom of the Waig. "Baldo, you fool, answer me before I lay the rope of Labang on you. Why do you follow the Wait instead of the camino real?" His fingers bit into my shoulder. "Father, he told me to follow the Waig tonight, Manong." Swiftly, his hand fell away from my shoulder and he reached for the rope of Labang. Then my brother Leon laughed, and he sat back, and laughing still, he said: "And I suppose Father also told you to hitch Labang to the cart and meet us with him instead of with Castano and the calesa." Without waiting for me to answer, he turned to her and said, "Maria, why do you think Father should do that, now?" He laughed and added, "Have you ever seen so many stars before?" I looked back and they were sitting side by side, leaning against the trunks, hands clasped across knees. Seemingly, but a man's height above the tops of the steep banks of the Wait, hung the stars. But in the deep gorge the shadows had fallen heavily, and even the white of Labang's coat was merely a dim, grayish blur. Crickets chirped from their homes in the cracks in the banks. The thick, unpleasant smell of dangla bushes and cooling sun-heated earth mingled with the clean, sharp scent of arrais roots exposed to the night air and of the hay inside the cart. "Look, Noel, yonder is our star!" Deep surprise and gladness were in her voice. Very low in the west, almost touching the ragged edge of the bank, was the star, the biggest and brightest in the sky. "I have been looking at it," my brother Leon said. "Do you remember how I would tell you that when you want to see stars you must come to Nagrebcan?" "Yes, Noel," she said. "Look at it," she murmured, half to herself. "It is so many times bigger and brighter than it was at Ermita beach." "The air here is clean, free of dust and smoke." "So it is, Noel," she said, drawing a long breath. "Making fun of me, Maria?" She laughed then and they laughed together and she took my brother Leon's hand and put it against her face. I stopped Labang, climbed down, and lighted the lantern that hung from the cart between the wheels. "Good boy, Baldo," my brother Leon said as I climbed back into the cart, and my heart sant. Now the shadows took fright and did not crowd so near. Clumps of andadasi and arrais flashed into view and quickly disappeared as we passed by. Ahead, the elongated shadow of Labang bobbled up and down and swayed drunkenly from side to side, for the lantern rocked jerkily with the cart. "Have we far to go yet, Noel?" she asked. "Ask Baldo," my brother Leon said, "we have been neglecting him." A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 156 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City "I am asking you, Baldo," she said. Without looking back, I answered, picking my words slowly: "Soon we will get out of the Wait and pass into the fields. After the fields is home---Manong." "So near already." I did not say anything more because I did not know what to make of the tone of her voice as she said her last words. All the laughter seemed to have gone out of her. I waited for my brother Leon to say something, but he was not saying anything. Suddenly he broke out into song and the song was 'Sky Sown with Stars'---the same that he and Father sang when we cut hay in the fields at night before he went away to study. He must have taught her the song because she joined him, and her voice flowed into his like a gentle stream meeting a stronger one. And each time the wheels encountered a big rock, her voice would catch in her throat, but my brother Leon would sing on, until, laughing softly, she would join him again. Then we were climbing out into the fields, and through the spokes of the wheels the light of the lantern mocked the shadows. Labang quickened his steps. The jolting became more frequent and painful as we crossed the low dikes. "But it is so very wide here," she said. The light of the stars broke and scattered the darkness so that one could see far on every side, though indistinctly. "You miss the houses, and the cars, and the people and the noise, don't you?" My brother Leon stopped singing. "Yes, but in a different way. I am glad they are not here." With difficulty I turned Labang to the left, for he wanted to go straight on. He was breathing hard, but I knew he was more thirsty than tired. In a little while we drope up the grassy side onto the camino real. "---you see," my brother Leon was explaining, "the camino real curves around the foot of the Katayaghan hills and passes by our house. We drove through the fields because---but I'll be asking Father as soon as we get home." "Noel," she said. "Yes, Maria." "I am afraid. He may not like me." "Does that worry you still, Maria?" my brother Leon said. "From the way you talk, he might be an ogre, for all the world. Except when his leg that was wounded in the Revolution is troubling him, Father is the mildesttempered, gentlest man I know." We came to the house of Lacay Julian and I spoke to Labang loudly, but Moning did not come to the window, so I surmised she must be eating with the rest of her family. And I thought of the food being made ready at home and my mouth watered. We met the twins, Urong and Celin, and I said "Hoy!" calling them by name. And they shouted back and asked if my brother Leon and his wife were with me. And my brother Leon shouted to them and then told me to make Labang run; their answers were lost in the noise of the wheels. I stopped labang on the road before our house and would have gotten down but my brother Leon took the rope and told me to stay in the cart. He turned Labang into the open gate and we dashed into our yard. I thought we would crash into the camachile tree, but my brother Leon reined in Labang in time. There was light downstairs in the kitchen, and Mother stood in the doorway, and I could see her smiling shyly. My brother Leon was helping Maria over the wheel. The first words that fell from his lips after he had kissed Mother's hand were: "Father... where is he?" A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 157 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City "He is in his room upstairs," Mother said, her face becoming serious. "His leg is bothering him again." I did not hear anything more because I had to go back to the cart to unhitch Labang. But I hardly tied him under the barn when I heard Father calling me. I met my brother Leon going to bring up the trunks. As I passed through the kitchen, there were Mother and my sister Aurelia and Maria and it seemed to me they were crying, all of them. There was no light in Father's room. There was no movement. He sat in the big armchair by the western window, and a star shone directly through it. He was smoking, but he removed the roll of tobacco from his mouth when he saw me. He laid it carefully on the windowsill before speaking. "Did you meet anybody on the way?" he asked. "No, Father," I said. "Nobody passes through the Waig at night." He reached for his roll of tobacco and hithced himself up in the chair. "She is very beautiful, Father." "Was she afraid of Labang?" My father had not raised his voice, but the room seemed to resound with it. And again I saw her eyes on the long curving horns and the arm of my brother Leon around her shoulders. "No, Father, she was not afraid." "On the way---" "She looked at the stars, Father. And Manong Leon sang." "What did he sing?" "---Sky Sown with Stars... She sang with him." He was silent again. I could hear the low voices of Mother and my sister Aurelia downstairs. There was also the voice of my brother Leon, and I thought that Father's voice must have been like it when Father was young. He had laid the roll of tobacco on the windowsill once more. I watched the smoke waver faintly upward from the lighted end and vanish slowly into the night outside. The door opened and my brother Leon and Maria came in. "Have you watered Labang?" Father spoke to me. I told him that Labang was resting yet under the barn. "It is time you watered him, my son," my father said. I looked at Maria and she was lovely. She was tall. Beside my brother Leon, she was tall and very still. Then I went out, and in the darkened hall the fragrance of her was like a morning when papayas are in bloom. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 158 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City III. The Lottery Ticket- Anton Chekhov Ivan Dmitritch, a middle-class man who lived with his family on an income of twelve hundred a year and was very well satisfied with his lot, sat down on the sofa after supper and began reading the newspaper. "I forgot to look at the newspaper today," his wife said to him as she cleared the table. "Look and see whether the list of drawings is there." "Yes, it is," said Ivan Dmitritch; "but hasn't your ticket lapsed?" "No; I took the interest on Tuesday." "What is the number?" "Series 9,499, number 26." "All right . . . we will look . . . 9,499 and 26." Ivan Dmitritch had no faith in lottery luck, and would not, as a rule, have consented to look at the lists of winning numbers, but now, as he had nothing else to do and as the newspaper was before his eyes, he passed his finger downwards along the column of numbers. And immediately, as though in mockery of his scepticism, no further than the second line from the top, his eye was caught by the figure 9,499! Unable to believe his eyes, he hurriedly dropped the paper on his knees without looking to see the number of the ticket, and, just as though some one had given him a douche of cold water, he felt an agreeable chill in the pit of the stomach; tingling and terrible and sweet! "Masha, 9,499 is there!" he said in a hollow voice. His wife looked at his astonished and panic-stricken face, and realized that he was not joking. "9,499?" she asked, turning pale and dropping the folded tablecloth on the table. "Yes, yes . . . it really is there!" "And the number of the ticket?" "Oh yes! There's the number of the ticket too. But stay . . . wait! No, I say! Anyway, the number of our series is there! Anyway, you understand...." Looking at his wife, Ivan Dmitritch gave a broad, senseless smile, like a baby when a bright object is shown it. His wife smiled too; it was as pleasant to her as to him that he only mentioned the series, and did not try to find out the number of the winning ticket. To torment and tantalize oneself with hopes of possible fortune is so sweet, so thrilling! "It is our series," said Ivan Dmitritch, after a long silence. "So there is a probability that we have won. It's only a probability, but there it is!" "Well, now look!" A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 159 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City "Wait a little. We have plenty of time to be disappointed. It's on the second line from the top, so the prize is seventy-five thousand. That's not money, but power, capital! And in a minute I shall look at the list, and there-26! Eh? I say, what if we really have won?" The husband and wife began laughing and staring at one another in silence. The possibility of winning bewildered them; they could not have said, could not have dreamed, what they both needed that seventy-five thousand for, what they would buy, where they would go. They thought only of the figures 9,499 and 75,000 and pictured them in their imagination, while somehow they could not think of the happiness itself which was so possible. Ivan Dmitritch, holding the paper in his hand, walked several times from corner to corner, and only when he had recovered from the first impression began dreaming a little. "And if we have won," he said--"why, it will be a new life, it will be a transformation! The ticket is yours, but if it were mine I should, first of all, of course, spend twenty-five thousand on real property in the shape of an estate; ten thousand on immediate expenses, new furnishing . . . travelling . . . paying debts, and so on. . . . The other forty thousand I would put in the bank and get interest on it." "Yes, an estate, that would be nice," said his wife, sitting down and dropping her hands in her lap. "Somewhere in the Tula or Oryol provinces. . . . In the first place we shouldn't need a summer villa, and besides, it would always bring in an income." And pictures came crowding on his imagination, each more gracious and poetical than the last. And in all these pictures he saw himself well-fed, serene, healthy, felt warm, even hot! Here, after eating a summer soup, cold as ice, he lay on his back on the burning sand close to a stream or in the garden under a lime-tree. . . . It is hot. . . . His little boy and girl are crawling about near him, digging in the sand or catching ladybirds in the grass. He dozes sweetly, thinking of nothing, and feeling all over that he need not go to the office today, tomorrow, or the day after. Or, tired of lying still, he goes to the hayfield, or to the forest for mushrooms, or watches the peasants catching fish with a net. When the sun sets he takes a towel and soap and saunters to the bathing shed, where he undresses at his leisure, slowly rubs his bare chest with his hands, and goes into the water. And in the water, near the opaque soapy circles, little fish flit to and fro and green water-weeds nod their heads. After bathing there is tea with cream and milk rolls. . . . In the evening a walk or vint with the neighbors. "Yes, it would be nice to buy an estate," said his wife, also dreaming, and from her face it was evident that she was enchanted by her thoughts. Ivan Dmitritch pictured to himself autumn with its rains, its cold evenings, and its St. Martin's summer. At that season he would have to take longer walks about the garden and beside the river, so as to get thoroughly chilled, and then drink a big glass of vodka and eat a salted mushroom or a soused cucumber, and then--drink another. . . . The children would come running from the kitchen-garden, bringing a carrot and a radish smelling of fresh earth. . . . And then, he would lie stretched full length on the sofa, and in leisurely fashion turn over the pages of some illustrated magazine, or, covering his face with it and unbuttoning his waistcoat, give himself up to slumber. The St. Martin's summer is followed by cloudy, gloomy weather. It rains day and night, the bare trees weep, the wind is damp and cold. The dogs, the horses, the fowls--all are wet, depressed, downcast. There is nowhere to walk; one can't go out for days together; one has to pace up and down the room, looking despondently at the grey window. It is dreary! Ivan Dmitritch stopped and looked at his wife. "I should go abroad, you know, Masha," he said. And he began thinking how nice it would be in late autumn to go abroad somewhere to the South of France . . . to Italy . . . to India! "I should certainly go abroad too," his wife said. "But look at the number of the ticket!" "Wait, wait! . . ." A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 160 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City He walked about the room and went on thinking. It occurred to him: what if his wife really did go abroad? It is pleasant to travel alone, or in the society of light, careless women who live in the present, and not such as think and talk all the journey about nothing but their children, sigh, and tremble with dismay over every farthing. Ivan Dmitritch imagined his wife in the train with a multitude of parcels, baskets, and bags; she would be sighing over something, complaining that the trains made her head ache, that she had spent so much money. . . . At the stations he would continually have to run for boiling water, bread and butter. . . . She wouldn't have dinner because of its being too dear. . . . "She would begrudge me every farthing," he thought, with a glance at his wife. "The lottery ticket is hers, not mine! Besides, what is the use of her going abroad? What does she want there? She would shut herself up in the hotel, and not let me out of her sight. . . . I know!" And for the first time in his life his mind dwelt on the fact that his wife had grown elderly and plain, and that she was saturated through and through with the smell of cooking, while he was still young, fresh, and healthy, and might well have got married again. "Of course, all that is silly nonsense," he thought; "but . . . why should she go abroad? What would she make of it? And yet she would go, of course. . . . I can fancy. . . . In reality it is all one to her, whether it is Naples or Klin. She would only be in my way. I should be dependent upon her. I can fancy how, like a regular woman, she will lock the money up as soon as she gets it. . . . She will look after her relations and grudge me every farthing." Ivan Dmitritch thought of her relations. All those wretched brothers and sisters and aunts and uncles would come crawling about as soon as they heard of the winning ticket, would begin whining like beggars, and fawning upon them with oily, hypocritical smiles. Wretched, detestable people! If they were given anything, they would ask for more; while if they were refused, they would swear at them, slander them, and wish them every kind of misfortune. Ivan Dmitritch remembered his own relations, and their faces, at which he had looked impartially in the past, struck him now as repulsive and hateful. "They are such reptiles!" he thought. And his wife's face, too, struck him as repulsive and hateful. Anger surged up in his heart against her, and he thought malignantly: "She knows nothing about money, and so she is stingy. If she won it she would give me a hundred roubles, and put the rest away under lock and key." And he looked at his wife, not with a smile now, but with hatred. She glanced at him too, and also with hatred and anger. She had her own daydreams, her own plans, her own reflections; she understood perfectly well what her husband's dreams were. She knew who would be the first to try to grab her winnings. "It's very nice making daydreams at other people's expense!" is what her eyes expressed. "No, don't you dare!" Her husband understood her look; hatred began stirring again in his breast, and in order to annoy his wife he glanced quickly, to spite her at the fourth page on the newspaper and read out triumphantly: "Series 9,499, number 46! Not 26!" Hatred and hope both disappeared at once, and it began immediately to seem to Ivan Dmitritch and his wife that their rooms were dark and small and low-pitched, that the supper they had been eating was not doing them good, but Lying heavy on their stomachs, that the evenings were long and wearisome. . . . "What the devil's the meaning of it?" said Ivan Dmitritch, beginning to be ill-humored. 'Wherever one steps there are bits of paper under one's feet, crumbs, husks. The rooms are never swept! One is simply forced to go out. Damnation takes my soul entirely! I shall go and hang myself on the first aspen-tree!" A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 161 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City IV. Invictus- William Ernest Henley Out of the night that covers me, Black as the Pit from pole to pole, I thank whatever gods may be For my unconquerable soul. In the fell clutch of circumstance I have not winced nor cried aloud. Under the bludgeonings of chance My head is bloody, but unbowed. Beyond this place of wrath and tears Looms but the Horror of the shade, And yet the menace of the years Finds, and shall find, me unafraid. It matters not how strait the gate, How charged with punishments the scroll, I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul. V. The Clod and the Pebble- William Blake "Love seeketh not itself to please, Nor for itself hath any care, But for another gives its ease, And builds a heaven in hell's despair." So sung a little clod of clay, Trodden with the cattle's feet; But a pebble of the brook Warbled out these meters meet: "Love seeketh only Self to please, To bind another to its delight, Joys in another's loss of ease, And builds a hell in heaven's despite." A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 162 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City VI. The Road not Taken- Robert Frost Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that, the passing there Had worn them really about the same, And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: two roads diverged in a wood, and I -I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. VII. Desiderata- Max Erhman Go placidly amid the noise and the haste, and remember what peace there may be in silence. As far as possible, without surrender, be on good terms with all persons. Speak your truth quietly and clearly, and listen to others, even to the dull and ignorant; they too have their story. Avoid loud and aggressive persons; they are vexatious to the spirit. If you compare yourself with others, you may become vain or bitter, for always there will be greater and lesser persons than yourself. Enjoy your achievements as well as your plans. Keep interested in your own career however humble; it is a real possession in the changing fortunes of time. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 163 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Exercise caution in your business affairs, for the world is full of trickery. But let this not blind you to what virtue there is; many persons strive for high ideals, and everywhere life is full of heroism. Be yourself. Especially do not feign affection. Neither be cynical about love, for in the face of all aridity and disenchantment, it is as perennial as the grass. Take kindly the counsel of the years, gracefully surrendering the things of youth. Nurture strength of spirit to shield you in sudden misfortune. But do not distress yourself with dark imaginings. Many fears are born of fatigue and loneliness. Beyond a wholesome discipline, be gentle with yourself. You are a child of the universe no less than the trees and the stars; you have a right to be here. And whether or not it is clear to you, no doubt the universe is unfolding as it should. Therefore, be at peace with God, whatever you conceive Him to be. And whatever your labors and aspirations, in the noisy confusion of life, keep peace in your soul. With all its sham, drudgery, and broken dreams, it is still a beautiful world. Be cheerful. Strive to be happy. VIII. The World is an Apple- Alberto Florentino This is a story of how wrong decisions become greater burdens to a family. Mario’s family happens to bein the lower bracket of society. He cannot even provide for his family’s basic needs. Albeit all this hardships, his wife Gloria, still manages to keep her good virtuous. She insists that the way they are living is a much better than the one they will have if they do wrong acts. But Gloria’s entire constant reminder to Mario did not prosper. Mario decided to come back to his old life of crime when he lost his job when he tried to steal an apple for his daughter. He keeps on insisting that his priority is to provide what his wife and daughter needs. He left with Pablo, his old crime buddy, even if Gloria pleaded very hard for him not to go with the man. This is a sad representation of what is happening in the society today. Due to lack of better opportunities to heighten one’s standard of living, some become entangled with the wrong crowd. By doing so, these individuals do not help their family at all; instead, they end up worsening their family’s problem. It is A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: 164 RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City man’s basic instinct that drives him towards his survival. But, no matter what, he should not forget that society expects him to conform to its norms. One’s action is weighed right or wrong and thus should be kept towards the proper action. IX. Crossing the Bar- Alfred Lord Tennyson Sunset and evening star, And one clear call for me! And may there be no moaning of the bar, When I put out to sea, But such a tide as moving seems asleep, Too full for sound and foam, When that which drew from out the boundless deep Turns again home. Twilight and evening bell, And after that the dark! And may there be no sadness of farewell, When I embark; For tho' from out our bourne of Time and Place The flood may bear me far, I hope to see my Pilot face to face When I have crossed the bar. X. Song- Christina Georgina Rossetti When I am dead, my dearest, Sing no sad songs for me; Plant thou no roses at my head, Nor shady cypress tree: Be the green grass above me With showers and dewdrops wet; And if thou wilt, remember, And if thou wilt, forget. I shall not see the shadows, I shall not feel the rain; I shall not hear the nightingale Sing on, as if in pain: And dreaming through the twilight That doth not rise nor set, Haply I may remember, And haply may forget. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 165 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City XI. Courage- Bienvenido Santos A story that portrays how easy it is to pass judgment about other people without first trying to understand them; while some find strength in their courage to endure all. The class of Section A did not like their new adviser, Mr. Arsenio L. Torres. He was quiet, distant and he never smiled. When he said that the students ‘looked intelligent but that remains to be proved' they took it as a challenge. Their excellent performance, however, went unacknowledged. Much the students did not understand about Mr. Torres. He had to be different from the more pleasant teachers. He knew his lessons by heart, mastered them yet he showed no passion. It was like reading a great story or reciting a lovely poem detachedly, lacking vivacity. He was ‘too impersonal, too aloof, like a proud god forced to walk among the mortals'. There were days that Mr. Torres was absent but the students never bothered to ask why. They even wished he would stay away a little longer. Unpopular as he was, no one noted any change in his appearance that was out of the ordinary. Section A was in-charge with the morning program. The theme was ‘Courage'. Mr. Torres decided a common song for the duet that was not about courage. He wanted them also to wear white because he liked white. They voiced their protests, which he ignored. The girls for the duet wanted another song. Mr. Torres relented but they would never forget his strange voice and the look on his face. For Mr. Torres' death came shockingly unexpected. Apparently, he had been sick but had kept it a secret. At the program, Section A's class president gave a speech. He spoke in a broken voice about how Mr. Torres was misunderstood and misjudged because of his seeming indifference and his inability to laugh or smile. Courage drove him to teach, to live each day through pain as if nothing was wrong. With courage, he chose to be ‘misunderstood rather than admit defeat'. If only they knew or made an effort to know... but it was painfully too late for regrets. The two girls sang Mr. Torres' song but they could not finish it. The students in white were quiet as they proceeded to their empty classroom. A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 166 ILOILO CENTRAL COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL Communication Arts Department Iznart Street, Iloilo City Reflection It gave me a deep understanding of what English literature is. It made reading literature easier and made it feel like reading from a pocketbook. I now realize that literature is not just a story; it is a magic realm where humanity has expressed its hopes and fears, its joys and tears; it considers man as its sources in which it developed man to sympathize with his nature and society; it is a language in use and is therefore not separable but it involves more than a language; it is a product of a particular culture and is more culture bound than language; it is a record of a nation’s hopes, ideals and aspirations. It has also strengthened my critical analysis skills. It has improved my understanding of old English poems. It has made me think more analytically about a certain topic. It made me realize the different kinds of literature and helped differentiate one from another. These literatures have given me an idea on what the culture of a particular country is. It also helped me understand the thoughts going through the minds of the writers. This has really helped me as a student of Iloilo Central Commercial High School. References www.wikipedia.com www.classicsunveiled.com www.timelessmyths.com www.sparknotes.com www.poemhunter.com A Compilation of Literary Pieces by: RJ Lawrence C. Tiu 05-0616M 167 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/23/2012 for the course ENGLISH 11 taught by Professor Santos during the Spring '11 term at Mapúa Institute of Technology.

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