Terms and Concepts to Know from the Lectures 8 Global Energy Balance & Temperature Distribution 8.1 Insolation in the Atmosphere Solar constant- how fast the energy reaches Earth’s surface from the sun. Can be 1,388 watts per square meter. Energy balance : based on the amount of calories you intake, that’s your energy input. But the energy out it is the number of calories you burn each day. Calories in and out equation, Insolation: a term that refers to a population of animals. Or other genetic material with other organisms of the same specie’s . It also is often the result of an accident Absorption: when solar radiation is caught and held by a substance it converts into heat energy. Usually in earth’s atmosphere temperatures get no higher than 1800 degrees Celsius Scattering the process of scattering, when small particles of gas diffuse part of the incoming radiation. The move randomly but don’t move the wavelength of the electromagnetic energy (Selective and Non-selective scattering Reflection): nonselective is scattering when the particles diameter in the atmosphere is bigger than the wavelength of the radiation. Nonselective scattering is when all the radiation is even throughout the visible and infrared portion of the spectrum. Transmission : The ability of a medium to allow electromagnetic waves to pass through it . Direct & diffused radiation Albedo: direct is solar radiation received by the earths atmosphere. Only one that has not been alters by atmospheric scattering. Diffused is one that has been modified Shortwave/longwave radiation Counter radiation: shortwave radiation contains a lot of energy. Longwave radiation contains less energy than a shortwave. Infrared rays form when long waves emit energy 8.2 Net Radiation Energy balance: the process of redistributing energy int eh Earths system Net radiation : occurring at the top of the atmosphere, this is the balance between incoming and outgoing energy Conduction : when heat moves from areas of more heat to areas of less heart and distributes to make molecules vibrate rabidly and collide transferring energy Convection: convection produces wind and ocean current. This is the heating of earths surface and atmosphere. Latent heat: when water evaporate from land or water. Heat moves from the surface to the atmosphere. When condensation leaves Sensible heat: moves heat from warm to cold objects by conduction when they are in direct contact. Can also carry heat energy away from a surface 8.3 The Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse effect: whe n radiation from the sun reflection enters suns earth’s atmosphere remission is absorbed by the land and water. Some of its reflected back into the air. This causes heating of the earth 9. Winds: Global & Local 9.1 Global Pattern of Net Radiation Global variation in net radiation called net flux, a the tip of the atm. The balance of outgoing as well as incoming energy.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 7 pages?
- Fall '08
- Precipitation, Atmospheric thermodynamics, Water vapor