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Systems Microbiolo18 - within a cell so that one form can...

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Systems Microbiology 􀂃 Mechanisms and consequences of lateral gene transfer o Three methods: 􀂃 DNA transfer by phage 􀂃 DNA transfer by conjugation (uses pili) 􀂃 DNA transfer by transformation o These methods of transfer can all speed up the rate of mutation enormously o Thus huge genetic variation exists among these organisms 􀂃 Remember, only around 40% of E. coli DNA is shared among all three major E. coli strains o Map of genetic differences between Uropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli 􀂃 Transfer RNAs are a place of frequent insertions o Molecular phylogenetics 􀂃 Making Phylogenetic trees – simply based on the number of sequence differences 􀂃 Requires certain conditions: • You must be comparing homologous sites and homologous sequences • Watch for paralogous genes – the result of a gene duplication
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Unformatted text preview: within a cell, so that one form can develop a different function, inside the same organism • Homologous, on the other hand, implies the same gene function in different species ° These gene phylogies can be misleading if lateral gene transfer has occurred ° Phylogenic diagram showing lateral gene transfer o We can’t just think about the genes that are inherited from parent cells – the genes that microbes pick up from other microbes by lateral transfer is also prominent – it’s a way of rapidly acquiring new traits ° It has big implications for the evolution of these organisms, particularly with antibiotic resistance. o Detecting horizontal transfers ° Not all genes are easily transferred...
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