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Systems Microbiolo28 - o The genetic code has been inferred...

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Systems Microbiology 􀂃 Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic transcription o Archaea are very different from bacteria – they do it more like eukaryotes. o Eukaryotes do not have classical operons o Eukaryotic mRNAs are usually sliced, capped, and tailed, in the nucleus o RNA polymerase structure/function differ o Initiation complexes differ o These differences make good targets for antibiotics o Translation – prokaryotes are better in terms of rapid response – transcription and translation happen next to each other – they are coupled. In eukaryotes, one is in the nucleus, the other in the cytoplasm. 􀂃 Overview of Prokaryotic Translation o Slide: simple structure of a prokaryotic gene o Maintaining high enough fidelity for translation is really remarkable o Shine-Dalgarno sequence
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Unformatted text preview: o The genetic code has been inferred from lots of different experiments – which codons code for which amino acids ° How this code could have occurred is really remarkable ° Originally it was assumed to be random, in the 1960s, but this doesn’t seem to be the case, because it seems like there is some order to the groupings. ° Nobody really knows how it developed yet though. o Transfer RNAs o The early experiments that discovered how this works were really remarkable o The Genetic code is degenerate (meaning that multiple codons can code for the same amino acid). ° Sometimes there is a bias (in once cell, for example, UUU might be used for phenylalanine more often than UUC is used) ° Codon families exist. ° Also codon pairs. o Staying in the correct frame is critical....
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