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Systems Microbiolo36 - sensory rhodopsins • We have...

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Systems Microbiology o Cyclic photophosphorylation – extracting energy via excited electrons and the electron transport chain 􀂃 The fundamentals of how you get to ATP is the same for phototrophs and autotrophs 􀂃 There is a lot of diversity in anoxygenic phototrophs o Using photon energy to strip electrons off of water 􀂃 You’re not going to use up your source of energy 􀂃 Waste product is oxygen – allows other, heterotrophic life o Rhodopsins – Haloarchaea – live in hypersaline habitats 􀂃 They can live in salt crystals if there’s water available 􀂃 They get energy from light via a simple protein – rhodopsin • Organic molecule absorbs a photon, changes shape, and then the whole protein changes, allowing the cell to transport an electron from inside the cell to outside 􀂃 concentration gradient • There are two types of microbial rhodopsins: light-driven ion pumps and
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Unformatted text preview: sensory rhodopsins • We have sensory rhodopsins in our eyes • There are different sorts of rhodopsins that exist in bacteria that live almost anywhere in the ocean • With retinal in bacteria you can produce proton pumping • Rhodopsin is a new kind of light-driven energy generation • There’s even evidence that it’s being laterally transferred • Rhodopsin-using hybrids could be likened to hybrid automobiles. o Rhodopsin allows them to charge a battery ° Where do organisms get their energy? o Chemolithotrophs: Oxidize inorganic compounds Chemoorganotrophs: Oxidize organic compounds ° Neither of these types needs to use oxygen to dump their electrons onto. Oxygen isn’t always available in many environments ° NADH from glycolysis can be used in energy pathways – donate electrons, forming chemi-osmotic gradient...
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