Systems Microbiolo44

Systems Microbiolo44 - ° Surface area to volume rrrVSA...

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Systems Microbiology o Life’s history on Earth – Evidence ° Phylogenetic tree ° The same machinery for making proteins – with ribosomes – is used all over Earth. ° You can map how different the ribosomal RNA is in each species on Earth. • In this way we can compare microbes to eukaryotes. ° A lot of the Eukarya tree (our own tree) is dominated by microbes – Archaea. ° Chloroplast RNA falls right next to cyanobacteria on that tree • This supports the endosymbiont hypothesis – chloroplasts derive from cyanobacteria. ° Similarly, mitochondrial RNA falls by agrobacteria – α proteobacteria. o Life on Earth today: the foundation ° CO 2 /O 2 cycle • To be covered today: Structure, Function, Motility o The nature of being small o Cell membranes and cell walls o Flagella • Shape and Appearance – not where the interesting stuff is regarding microbes o They don’t bring in solid food – they bring in dissolved substrates.
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Unformatted text preview: ° Surface area to volume: rrrVSA 3344 32 ==ππ o “Prokaryote” vs. Eukaryote ° In eukaryotes, there are organelles and a nucleus – quite a lot of communication and transport is going on. ° In prokaryotes, transcription and translation all occur together in the cytoplasm ° However, “Prokaryote” is in quotes because it is only a negative definition – they are defined only by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus. ° One group of microbes – Archaea – are a lot more like eukaryotes than they are like bacteria. • Their informational machinery – RNA polymerase, promoters – are more similar to those of eukaryotes. ° Hence there are Three large branches of life: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (the two-branch representation of life as prokaryote vs. eukaryote is less accurate)....
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