Hybrid2011_Pres - Plug- In Hybrid Vehicles ì༎ ...

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Unformatted text preview: Plug- In Hybrid Vehicles ì༎ Nicole Stoff, Zach Fer1g, John Majors, Mariya Kossover Final Presenta1on l December 13, 2011 Agenda ì༎  Introduc1on ì༎  Charging Systems ì༎  Power Storage ì༎  Modes of Opera1on ì༎  Conversion of Standard Hybrids ì༎  Commercializa1on & Future ì༎  Conclusion Introduction ì༎  Feasible hybrid technology ini1alized in 17th century, focusing on electric vehicles in 20th century ì༎  Early 2000s: Toyota releases Prius, revolu1onizing the automo1ve landscape ì༎  Currently working to mass produce plug- in hybrids ì༎  Amplify the benefits of tradi1onal hybrids ì༎  Sustainability ì༎  Efficiency Charging Systems Plug- In Hybrid Vehicles ì༎ Charging Systems ì༎  ‘Plugged- in’ to the electric grid ì༎  PHEV baZery charger components ì༎  Transformer ì༎  Control circuit unit/so\ware ì༎  Bidirec1onal AC/DC Converter Components ì༎  Transformer ì༎  Transfers energy through induc1vely coupled conductors ì༎  Steps down AC voltage to the appropriate load amount ì༎  Control circuit unit/so\ware ì༎  Helps control connec1on to the grid ì༎  Meter Components: AC/DC Converter ì༎  Rec1fier (rec1fica1on) ì༎  Converts AC to DC ì༎  Converts waveform to a constant polarity (Direct Current) ì༎  Two different AC types available ì༎  Single- phase ì༎  Plug in to a normal outlet ì༎  Three- phase ì༎  Found only in specific loca1ons Single Phase ì༎  Single- phase bridge rec1fier ì༎  Requires 2 diodes ì༎  One AC wave form converted to DC ì༎  Plugged in at most home outlets ì༎  Requires standard 120 V and 5 amp outlet ì༎  Charges car overnight Three Phase ì༎  Three Phase bridge rec1fier ì༎  Requires 6 diodes ì༎  Double diodes in a series ì༎  Differ by 120 electrical degrees ì༎  Benefits ì༎  Current never drops ì༎  Deliver 3x more current ì༎  Medium or fast charging Components: AC/DC Converter ì༎  Filter ì༎  Smooth out wave form to produce a constant DC voltage ì༎  Smoothing capacitor on the rec1fier’s DC output Components: DC/AC Converter ì༎  Bi- direc1onal Converter Charging system can convert AC to DC or DC to AC ì༎  Can put excess power back on the grid ì༎  ì༎  Inverter ì༎  ì༎  Converts DC to AC Can be integrated with the motor system ì༎  Regenera1ve braking ì༎  Takes power from motor and stores in baZeries or puts back on the grid Charging Systems ì༎  Loca1ons ì༎  Mounted inside car ì༎  Can charge anywhere a power connec1on is found ì༎  Adds weight, takes up space, low power capacity ì༎  Fixed loca1on (e.g. garage) ì༎  Charge baZeries quickly (more power available) ì༎  Different baZery systems require different outputs ì༎  Use electric motor’s inverter already in the car ì༎  No addi1onal weight, already in car Power Storage Plug- In Hybrid Vehicles ì༎ Batteries ì༎  Plug- In Hybrids require deeper charging and discharging cycles than hybrids ì༎  Balance between baZery life, capacity, heat dissipa1on, weight, costs, and safety ì༎  Primary obstacle is cost ì༎  Average of size and usage of Plug- Ins Hybrid ì༎  Consumes 340 waZ- hour per mile ì༎  Stores 240 kWh energy ì༎  Types of BaZeries ì༎  Lead- Acid, NiMH, and Li- Ion Battery Technology: Lead- Acid ì༎  Stores the least amount of energy ì༎  Used in the Toyota Prius and as car baZery ì༎  More Affordable and Heavier Lead- Acid Charger (with Full- Wave Rec1fier) Half- Wave Rec1fier Diagram of Lead- Acid BaZery Components Battery Technology: Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) ì༎  Stores more energy than Lead- Acid ì༎  More Costly and Lighter than Lead- Acid ì༎  Previously used by Civic Hybrid ì༎  Switching over to Li- ion for 2012 Civic Hybrid Voltage Stays Steady as Addi1onal Capacity is used Battery Technology: Li- Ion ì༎  Stores the most amount of energy ì༎  BaZery pack may cost over $10,000 ì༎  All electric for 25- 30 miles ì༎  Concerns are safety and baZery life over 1me ì༎  U1lized in Chevy Volt Li- Ion Battery (continued) Capacity A\er Addi1onal Cycles Capacity decreases slightly but levels off a\er many cycles hZp://www.electronics- lab.com/ar1cles/Li_Ion_reconstruct/ Li- Ion Battery (continued) Safety Circuits Inside Li- ion Charging Characteris1cs of Li- ion hZp://www.electronics- lab.com/ar1cles/Li_Ion_reconstruct/ Low Voltage Fuel Cell & High Voltage Battery CellSih- sheng Lai and Douglas J. Nelson, Energy Management in Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles, Proceedings of the IEEE,April, 2007. Modes of Operation Plug- In Hybrid Vehicles ì༎ Series Hybrid ì༎  Gas engine generates electricity to charge the baZery; does not directly move the wheels ì༎  Engine is not connected to the drivetrain ì༎  BaZery powers an electric motor that powers the car ì༎  Currently used in Chevrolet Volt Parallel Hybrid ì༎  Both gas engine and electric motor are connected to drivetrain ì༎  Possess ability to work simultaneously to power the car ì༎  Simple technology; currently the most common model ì༎  Currently used in Honda Civic Series/Parallel Hybrid ì༎  Flexibility to perform in either series mode or parallel mode ì༎  Series mode: more efficient at lower speeds, lower accelera1on ì༎  Parallel mode: more efficient at higher speeds, higher accelera1on ì༎  Currently used in F3DM by Chinese manufacturer BYD Charge- Depleting Mode ì༎  U1lizes electric power for propulsive energy un1l the baZery state of charge has fully or par1ally depleted to a predetermined level ì༎  Once depleted, engine or fuel cell will engage ì༎  Unique trait of plug- in hybrids, providing the opportunity to drive solely with electric power Charge- Sustaining Mode ì༎  Operates using a combina1on of the vehicle’s power sources, including both tradi1onal and electric, so as to achieve maximal efficiency ì༎  BaZery state of charge must remain within an aZenuated band ì༎  Mode currently used in tradi1onal hybrid vehicles CD/CS Modes in Combination Regenerative Braking ì༎  Converts kine1c energy into electric energy ì༎  Conven1onal cars dissipate kine1c energy as heat when a car brakes; PHEVs generate electricity ì༎  Considered an “energy recovery mechanism” since energy is recaptured and stored in the baZery Measuring Operational Efficiency ì༎  Rela1vity Analysis ì༎  Norma1ve U1lity Factor ì༎  Sta1s1cal probability that an average vehicle will be driven within its charge- deple1ng range ì༎  Communicates performance of opera1onal modes Conversion of Standard Hybrids Plug- In Hybrid Vehicles ì༎ HEV to PHEV ì༎  HEV ì༎  2.36M Toyota Prius worldwide ì༎  Es1mated over 3M total HEVs ì༎  PHEV ì༎  Chevrolet Volt ì༎  YTD Sales (Dec 2010 – Oct 2011) ì༎  5,003 cars ì༎  Market for HEV to PHEV conversion is large ì༎  82% of consumers interested in PHEVs ì༎  Cheaper to convert HEV into PHEV Conversion Process ì༎  Replacing exis1ng baZery pack of HEV ì༎  New, larger baZery pack ì༎  Extend the all- electric range ì༎  Adding a high- energy baZery pack ì༎  Focus on this method for conver1ng a HEV into PHEV PHEV Conversion Diagram PHEV to HEV Conversion Circuit Integrated DC/DC Converter ì༎  Converter ì༎  1 inductor ì༎  2 switches ì༎  5 diodes ì༎  1 current feedback ì༎  3 voltage feedbacks ì༎  AC outlet ì༎  BaZery ì༎  High- voltage bus of HEV Pulse Width Modulation Overview ì༎  Most common control method ì༎  Power ì༎  Iner1al electrical devices (ie. cars) ì༎  Main advantage ì༎  Low power loss ì༎  ON: no voltage drop across switch ì༎  OFF: essen1ally no current Key Components ì༎  Bipolar Junc1on Transistor ì༎  Switch turns ON or OFF ì༎  Oscillator ì༎  Generates triangular sine wave ì༎  Comparator ì༎  Compares two analog inputs ì༎  Produces a binary output of higher input value ì༎  Inductor and capacitor ì༎  Filters switching noise PWM Circuit Operation of PWM ì༎  When output voltage changes ì༎  Causes VERROR to change ì༎  Causes comparator threshold to change ì༎  Output pulse width changes ì༎  When VOUT matches VREF then VERROR = 0 ì༎  Control loop is complete! Duty Cycle ì༎  Describes propor1on of “on” 1me of switch ì༎  High duty cycle represents high power Commercialization & Future Plug- In Hybrid Vehicles ì༎ Future of Plug- In Hybrids ì༎  Most companies have plug- in vehicles in development ì༎  Technology is improving due to R&D ì༎  “Go Green” movement and increasing gas prices have resulted in increased investment in PHEVs Marketplace ì༎  Chevrolet Volt on the market ì༎  S1ll issues with design ì༎  NHTSA tests, overhea1ng ì༎  Heavy consumer interest in PHEVs ì༎  Major car companies have vehicles in development ì༎  Chevrolet ì༎  Ford ì༎  Toyota Conclusion ì༎  Charging Systems ì༎  Power Storage ì༎  Modes of Opera1on ì༎  Conversion of Standard Hybrids ì༎  Commercializa1on & Future ì༎  Thank you! Ques/ons? ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2012 for the course ECE 317 taught by Professor Peck,t during the Spring '08 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.

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