Chap 40 notes

Chap 40 notes - Neural Signaling Neural Signaling: cell...

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Neural Signaling Neural Signaling: cell signaling by networks of nerve cells (neurons) Reception, transmission, integration, and action by effectors (muscles/glands) Reception : detecting a stimulus (eyes, ears, skins) Transmission : sending messages along a neuron, neuron to neuron | neuron to muscle/gland Neural message is transmitted from a receptor to the central nervous system Neurons that transmit info to the CNS are afferent or sensory neurons Afferent neurons transmit info to interneurons (99% of neurons) Interneurons : function is to integrate input and output Integration: sorting and interpreting sensory info, and determining response Efferent neurons (away from CNS) to effectors (muscles and glands) Efferent neurons that signal skeletal muscle are called motor neurons Action by effectors : actual response to the stimulus Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) : sensory receptors, afferent, and efferent neurons Reception by sensory receptor transmission by afferent neuron integration by interneurons in CNS transmission by efferent neuron action by effectors Neuron consists of a cell body, dendrites, and an axon Neurons are specialized to receive stimuli to transmit neural signals (electrical/chemical) Neurons produce and transmit electrical signals ( nerve impulses/action potentials ) Neuron is distinguished from all other cells by long processes (cytoplasmic extensions) Dendrites specialized to receive stimuli and signals to the cell body Cell body integrates incoming signals Axon conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body to another neuron/muscle/gland Axon divides, forms terminal branches that end in synaptic terminals Synaptic terminals release neurotransmitters (chemicals that transmit signals) Junction between a synaptic terminal and another neuron/effector = synapse Axons of many neurons outside the CNS are surrounded by Schwann cells (glial cells)
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2012 for the course 832 335 taught by Professor Abruzzi during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.

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Chap 40 notes - Neural Signaling Neural Signaling: cell...

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