Chap 42 notes

Chap 42 notes - Chapter 42 Insulin and Glucagon 1 *...

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Chapter 42 Insulin and Glucagon 1 * Secreted by islets of Langerhans in the pancreas * regulated directly by glucose concentration * One million islet cells in the pancreas * Insulin secreted by beta cells * Glucagon secreted by alpha cells Islets of Langerhans (Fig 48-12) Insulin and Glucagon 2 * Insulin * stimulates cells to take up glucose from blood * lowers blood glucose concentration * Regulates fat and protein metabolism * Anabolic – promotes storage; synthesis * Glucagon * raises blood glucose concentration * stimulates conversion of glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis) in liver cells * stimulates production of glucose from other nutrients (gluconeogenesis) Regulation of Glucose (Fig 48-13) Diabetes Mellitus * Diabetes Type II : * receptor refractoriness can lead to lack of action even in the presence of correct amounts of hormone (hyperinsulinemia with hyperglycemia) * Diabetes Type I: * beta islet cells are destroyed (autoimmune) and therefore no insulin secreted (hypoinsulinemia, hyperglycemia)
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Chap 42 notes - Chapter 42 Insulin and Glucagon 1 *...

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