Epidemiology Review

Epidemiology Review - Epidemiology Review: -Case-control...

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Epidemiology Review: -Case-control Studies: observational analytic designused to identify cause by studying risk factor in diseased and non-diseased LECTURE 8 PAT I: -Cohort Studies: observational analytic design, seek to identify cause through exposed and unexposed comparison -good for rare exposures and diseases with short latency -3 types: 1. Prospective: (present to future) follow forward in time to track disease progress 2. Retrospective: (past to present) follow-up for disease development from time of exposure 3. Historical prospective: (past to present to future) follow-up for disease from past to present and then to future -Famous Cohort Study examples: -Iowa Woman-s Study: looked at mortality and cancer occurrence in older women (hypothesis tested if distribution of body fat associated with increase cancer risk) - Nurses Health Study: test long term effects or oral contraceptives -Women’s Health initiative: test known risk factors of various diseases like coronary heart disease, breast and colorectal cancer, and osteoporotic fractures -exposure: important to define via self report, diagnostic test, environmental test, lab test -measure disease status via endpoints -comparison group= unexposed -internal: from same population as exposed -external: from different population than exposed -population incidence rates: unexposed group not readily available so incidence rate used -Risk Ratio / Rate Ratio = incidence in exposed or I e = a / (a + b) Incidence in unexpected or I n c / (c + d ) -generally called relative risk -RR > 1 increased risk of disease in exposed -RR = 1.0 risk of disease same; exposure not risk factor -RR < 1 decreased risk of disease; exposure protective for disease
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Epidemiology Review - Epidemiology Review: -Case-control...

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