History of cognitive neuroscience

History of cognitive neuroscience - History of cognitive...

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History of cognitive neuroscience o “Cognitive Neuroscience” Named in a New York taxi by Gazzaniga and George Miller in late 1970s How the brain enables the mind o Needed a means to systematically explore mind (cognition) through experimentation Brain based account of cognitive processes (thinking, perceiving, remembering etc.) o Progressive advances in technology have provided such means o Do mental experiences arise in the heart (e.g. Aristotle) or brain (e.g. Plato)? o How can physical substance (brain) give rise to mental experiences: Mind- Body/Brain Problem Dualism : mind and body separate substances (e.g. Descartes) Double-aspect theory : mind and body are two levels of explanation of the same thing (e.g. Spinoza) Reductionism : mind eventually explained solely in terms of physical/biological theory o These issues still relevant to cognitive neuroscience (Churchland’s “Neurophilosophy”) o Historically central issues in development of brain science: Does the whole brain work in concert? Flourens (1794-1867) and “ aggregate field theory o Other parts of the brain would make up for damaged sections the whole brain works in harmony Do parts of the brain support individual functions? Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911) and “ localizationist view o Specific parts of the brain are responsible for specific cognitive abilities/tasks o When people seized, only certain parts of their bodies were
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History of cognitive neuroscience - History of cognitive...

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