Lecture11mcb160L+f11

Lecture11mcb160L+f11 - Model Systems for Genetics 19th...

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Model Systems for Genetics 19th century: Peas (Mendel) 1910s: Maize 1920s: Drosophila melanogaster 1940s-50s: Bacteria and phages; E. coli 1960s: Yeast 1970s: C. elegans 1980s: Mouse 1990s: Arabidopsis thaliana
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The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana Features of Arabidopsis 1. Small size 2. Large # progeny (1000s seeds per plant) 3. Short generation time (2-3 months) 4. Smallest plant genome (~120 Mbp). Completely sequenced; 30,000 genes 5. Easy transformation with Agrobacterium
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Why Study Plants? A. Discovery of Fundamental Biological principles e.g. Cell cycle, Transposable elements, RNAi Imprinting (fowering plants and mammals) Epigenetics, DNA methylation (not present in fies and worms) B. Applications Pharmaceutical discovery (aspirin, anticancer drugs, antimalarial drugs) Bio-Fuels Agriculture
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makes Haploid gametes Diploid Diploid Haploid 1N multicellular Gametophytes produce haploid gametes Diploid 2N Sporophyte Diploid embryo 2N Triploid endosperm 3N (fowering plants) Plants embryo sac Animals Walbot & Evans 2003 Life Cycle: Alternation of Generations
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From J.G. Johnson, Oklahoma Alternation of generations in flowering plants Sporophyte (2N) Gametophyte (1N) ± Embryo Sac ²
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antipodals synergids ovule Mitosis Plant Reproduction: Seeds arise from the Female Gametophyte (Embryo sac) within the Ovules
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Lecture11mcb160L+f11 - Model Systems for Genetics 19th...

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