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Unformatted text preview: World War I- Allied Powers o Great Britain o France o Russia (until March 1918 – dropped out) o Italy (joined Spring 1915; should have been a Central power) o USA (1917-1918) – joined in the “7 th inning”- Central Powers o Germany o Austria-Hungary o Ottoman Empire (smashed to pieces after the war – Turkey, Balkan, etc.)- Backdrop goes back half a century to 1871 when Germany became a country- Franco-German relations have been bad from the start- Germany becomes very aggressive, Imperialistic- British were very Imperialistic (felt most threatened by Germany), France felt threatened too- Britain, France, Russia start forming secret treaties in response to feeling threatened (going to defend each other)- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire do the same thing and start forming their own treaties- Arms race- 1914 – Germany had 2M men army- Others have about 1 M men- US (90,000 men)- Trying to get good battleships too – building up their navies- Countries are ready for war (standing armies, navies, and secret treaties)- US diplomat visiting Europe says that it is a power keg waiting to go off- “Goes off” when the Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife are assassinated in 1914 in Serbia- He was in line to be king of Austria-Hungary- Sarajevo, Serbia – assassinated him as a sign of wanting their independence from Austria-Hungary- Russia felt they had a claim to Serbia too- Russian army mobilizes and gets close to Germany’s borders and Germany declares war on Russia- France and Britain declare war on Germany then Austria-Hungary/Ottoman declare war because of all the secret treaties- Italy did not have to join Germany under their treaty because Germany was the aggressor- Once Austria gets involved, then Italy starts considering war- US reaction: European war, don’t need to get involved- Wilson-Proclamation of Neutrality- US exports to Allied Powers (nothing really to Central Powers) o 1914: $24M o 1917: $3.2B (this pulled us out of depression)- By law, US should have been able to ship to any country, but British had an illegal blockade on Germany- Financing: US loans to Allied Powers: o 1914-1917: $2B- Financing: US loans to Central Powers o 1914-17: $20M- if Allies were to lose, the Allies would default on the loans which would be terrible for US economy (the US were getting economically pulled in and Germany saw this)- Central Powers try to stop US shipments to Allies U-Boat warfare- Warning: any US ship going into Britain carrying war supplies would be taken down by submarines...
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2012 for the course HIST 2112 taught by Professor Flemming during the Summer '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.
- Summer '08
- World War I