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2ndpartchapter2 - Chapter 2 Realist Theories Realisms...

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Chapter 2 Realist Theories Realism’s foundation is the principle of dominance (political realism) in terms of power: exercise of power by state = realpolitik Realist Theory: idealism: emphasizes international law, morality, international organizations Human Nature: basically good / World = community states potentially work together Idealists look too much at how world ought to be, instead of how it really is *Sun tzu argued reasoning not useful to state rulers, use power to advance * Thucydides: “strong do what they have power to do, weak accept what they have to accept” * Machiavelli: concentrate expedient actions to stay in power * Hobbes: “law of the jungle” After WW2, IP governed by objective, universal laws, not psychological motives Neoconservatives: advocate energetic use of American power to accomplish goals Realists treat political power as separate from morality, ideology, social, economic aspects Power:: ability to get another actor to do what it would not otherwise have done, influence Problem: don’t know what the other actor would have done without 1 st powers absence Power explains influence and influence measures power Best single indicator of a state’s power may be total GDP Not only material: national will, diplomatic skill, popular support for govt Power of ideas: maximize influence and capabilities through psychological process Soft power: state’s own values become widely shared among other states Relative power: ratio of power that 2 states can bring to bear against each other Estimating power: most powerful economy likened to win conflict Elements of power: 1) long term: GDP, population, territory, geography, natural resources 2) short term: military forces, industrial capacity, support, legitimacy Geopolitics: use of geography as an element of power Logistical requirements of military forces = location International System Anarchy = lack of central government that can enforce rules Self-help: states supplement with allies and constraining power or international norms => one world government? Pay attention to capabilities of states, not intentions Norms of behavior: shared expectations about what behavior if considred proper Sovereignty – govt has right to do what ever it wants in its territory Respect for territorial sovereignty within recognized borders Security dilemma – situation in which state’s actions taken to ensure their own security threaten the security of other states Balance of power: general concept of one or more stats power being used to balance that of another state or group of states Bandwagonning – go along with higher power, not balancing Great Powers and Middle Powers
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2ndpartchapter2 - Chapter 2 Realist Theories Realisms...

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