Chapter 1 The Globalization of International Relations

Chapter 1 The Globalization of International Relations -...

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Chapter 1 The Globalization of International Relations International relations: concerns the relationship among the world’s government Connected by actors, other social structures and processes, geographical and historical influences Globalization: In last decade: September 11 – used internet to coordinate attacks Recession 2008-2009 – collapse US home mortgage market Two hallmarks of Globalization: 1) expanding communications technology 2) integrated markets Technology advances => world shrink year by year, expand contact with others Globalization is internationalizing us. Key Problem: How can a group serve its collective interests when doing so requires its members to forgo their individual interests? “collective action,” “free riding,” “burden sharing” Collective goods problem: how to provide something that benefits all members of a group regardless of what each member contributes Easier to deal with/enforce in smaller groups because of lack of world government to enforce Three principles to get individuals to cooperate: 1) Dominance: establishes a power hierarchy in which those at the top control those below “ status hierarchy” top = most adept at forming/maintaining alliances among group IR = underlies great power system Hegemon stands atop (UN security council) Minimizes open conflict; disadvantage: stability has cost of constant oppression/resentment Overall: can provide relative peace and stability but can break down into costly war 2) Reciprocity: rewards behavior that contributes to the group and punishing behavior that pursues self-interest at expense of group “enforced” without central authority => cooperate for common good Positive: “you scratch my back, ill scratch yours” Negative: “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth” Disadvantage => downward spiral as each punishes what perceives as negative acts IR takes habits/expectations and institutions World Trade Organization Agreements Positive: open markets Negative: open ability for arms race 3) Identity: does not rely on self-interest, identities as members of community, members
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