February 15 Notes

February 15 Notes - Wars of the World Largest contemporary...

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Wars of the World * Largest contemporary wars - Iraq; Western Sudan, Afghanistan * All 13 wars are in the global South * Dozens of wars of recent decades have ended * Most peace agreements in the world’s postwar zones are holding up Five Types of War * Hegemonic Wars - War over control over the entire world order - Last hegemonic war was World War 2 - End of hegemonic war? * Nuclear peace? * Smarter leaders? * Total War - To conquer and occupy another country * Force the surrender of the government * Involving all of the societies * I.E. Napoleonic Wars * Last total war: World War 2 * Limited War - To gain some objective short of the surrender and occupation of the enemy * War to retake Kuwait from Iraq (1991) - Raids * Limited wars that consist of a single action – low intensity conflict * Civil War - Between factions within a state for a new government or for control over the entire state - Often among the most brutal wars * Guerrilla War - Certain types of civil wars, warfare without front lines - Irregular forces operate in the midst of civilian populations - Mainly to harass and punish as to gradually limit enemy’s operation and effectively liberate territory Causes of War * Levels of analysis; multi factors * Wars do not have a single or simple cause * Three or four levels: - Individual causes - Domestic factors - International/foreign factors - Global/systemic causes Causes of War: The Individual Level * The use of war and violence is normal and reflects decisions of national leaders * Or: conflicts often escalate to war because of deviations from rationality in the individual decision-making processes of national leaders * Insufficient to explain wars Causes of War: The Domestic Level
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* Characteristics of states or societies – more or less prone to use violence - Ethno-cultural - Political Characteristics *Maybe explanatory: hard to generalize - Cultural differences may be mute - Same society may change greatly over time. Ex. Japan Causes of War: The Interstate Level * Power Transition Theory: large wars happen when power is relatively equally distributed and a rising power is overtaking a hegemon * Deterrence and preemption wars * Arms race/security dilemma leads to “unnecessary” wars Causes of War: The Global Level * The permitting cause: The IPA – general tendencies toward war in IR system * Major warfare is cyclical – links with long economic waves in the world economy (~50 years) or a 100-year cycle based on the creation and decay of world orders * Theory of linear long-term change: the permitting cause may be changing – war less likely over time due to the worldwide development of both technology and international norms/regimes International Conflicts *Six types of international conflict - Ethnic Ideas - Religious Ideas - Ideological Ideas - Territorial Interests - Governmental Interests - Economic Interests * Most difficult types of conflict have intangible elements such as ethnic hatred, religious fervor, or ideology – all conflicts of ideas.
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February 15 Notes - Wars of the World Largest contemporary...

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