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Chapter 11 Environment and Population

Chapter 11 Environment and Population - Chapter 11...

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Chapter 11 Environment and Population INTERDEPENDENCE AND THE ENVIRONMENT - International environmental politics => difficult collective goods problems * Fisheries in international waters are not owned by specific state (collective good) - Tragedy of the Commons: collective goods dilemma created when common environmental assets are depleted/degraded through failure of states to cooperate effectively * Enclosure of the commons: splitting area into privately owned pieces on each of which a single owner would have incentive to manage resources responsibly - Global commons: shared parts of the earth (oceans, outer space) - Solution based on achieving shared benefits that depend on overcoming conflicting interests - Regimes: provide rules based on reciprocity principle to govern bargaining over who gets benefits and bears costs of environmental protection - Epistemic communities: knowledge based communities - Hard to manage bc large number of actors (easier in small groups) - First Earth Day in 1970. - 1972. 1 st UN conference on international environment * Principles: states actions should not cause environmental damage to another - 1992 Earth Summit (Brazil) * SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - Economic growth that does not deplete resources and destroys ecosystems so quickly that basis of economic growth is undermined - Commission on Sustainable Development: monitors states’ compliances with promises made at Earth Summit and hears evidence from environmental NGOs * Lacks power of enforcement over national governments * 53 member states, discourage cheating on Earth Summit plan MANAGING THE ENVIRONMENT * THE ATMOSPHERE - 2 problems: global warming and depletion of the ozone layer Global Warming - Global climate change, long-term rise in average world temperature * Caused by emission of carbon dioxide/gases * Ice shelf melting => flood coastal cities as oceans rise by few feet * Island states may disappear - Alter weather patterns: droughts, floods, freezes * But COULD help certain regions manage productivity - UN Environment Program (UNEP): monitor environmental conditions, measures changes in global climate each year - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: negotiating forum - Costly to reduce emissions of gases * By-product of burning fossil fuels to run machinery * Greenhouse gases: let energy in as short-wavelength solar radiation but reflect it back when tries to exit as longer-wavelength heat waves
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* Major political costs: increase unemployment, reduce profits, lower personal incomes * States must join together to reduce emissions, bc one state can’t do it all - Triple Dilemma: * Short-term costs to gain long-term (less predictable) benefits * Specific constituencies pay costs, where benefits are distributed internationally * Collect goods dilemma: benefits are shared globally but costs must be extracted from states individually - Problem in North-South divide - Gases produced in proportion to industrial activity - Framework Convention on Climate Change at Earth Summit (1992): nonbinding goal to limit greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels by 2000. Not met.
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Chapter 11 Environment and Population - Chapter 11...

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