Chapter 12 The North-South Gap

Chapter 12 The North-South Gap - Chapter 12: The...

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Chapter 12: The North-South Gap THE STATE OF THE SOUTH - States in Global South (majority of poor) called: * Third world countries * Less-developed countries * Underdeveloped countries * Developing countries - Gap in WEALTH between industrialized (North) and rest of world (South) - IR do not agree on causes nor solutions of poverty - 1 billion live in abject poverty, w/o basic nutrition or health care * Mainly in Africa, South Asia - Every 6 seconds, child dies of malnutrition (5 million per year) * State/family can’t afford nourishment => die from “poverty” - Lack: shelter, water, health care, other necessities - Millennium Development Goals (2000): targets for 2015 for basic needs * 1 st : cut in half proportion of population living in “extreme poverty” (income less than $1 per day) * BASIC HUMAN NEEDS - Basic human needs: food, shelter, and necessities of daily life to feel secure * Without BHN => revolution, terrorism, anti-Western sentiments - Children: education with literacy as key component * Can read and write => obtain wealth of information (farming, health care, birth control, etc. * 90% primary school, in Africa 64% * Secondary school and college rare for Global South - 2008 UNICEF: * 1 in 4 suffered from malnutrition * 1 in 7 lack access to health care * 1 in 5 have no safe drinking water * AIDS increasing child mortality and decreasing education - Health Care: effective plan in poor countries = $5 per person per year * Methods to save lives of children - 1 st : growth monitoring: regular weighing/advice can prevent malnutrition - 2 nd : Oral rehydration therapy (ORT): stop diarrhea before die from malnutrition - 3 rd : Immunizations against 6 deadly diseases * Measles * Polio * Tuberculosis * Tetanus * Whooping Cough * Diphtheria - 4 th : promotion of breast-feeding instead of formula - Despite HIV/AIDS epidemic important gains * Infant tetanus deaths decrease * Polio almost eliminated * Child deaths all time low (10 million) * Measles death decreased by 60% - Disparities: * 75% population has only 30% doctors/nurses * Less than 5% medical research directed towards developing countries
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* 600 million infected with AIDS, diarrhea, malaria, and TB * Drugs are extremely expensive - Safe water * Often must walk for miles to fetch water * Lack safe drinking water, sanitation facilities - Shelter * 1 in 6 live in substandard housing or homeless - Contribute to extreme poverty: civil war, corruption, “resource curse,” and landlocked locations w/o access to trade - Basic needs => hope of progress => political stability * Not always the case: Sri Lanka, policy to address issues, then ethnic conflict, consumed progress of policies - War = deaths, economic infrastructure destroyed, government services, transportation * Reduce confidence in economic/political stability, which investment and trade depend on - Natural disasters also contribute to “never-ending” poverty * WORLD HUNGER - Food is most basic human need - Malnutrition: lack of needed foods including protein and vitamins
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2012 for the course INTA 1110 taught by Professor Tba during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Chapter 12 The North-South Gap - Chapter 12: The...

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