Chapter 13 International Development

Chapter 13 International Development - Chapter 13...

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Chapter 13 International Development EXPERIENCES - Economic development: combined processes of capital accumulation, rising per capita incomes (with consequent falling birthrates), increasing skills in the population, adoption of new technological styles, and other social/economic changes - Capital accumulation = central aspect, whether a certain pattern of wealth creation and distribution is good for a state/population - Simple measure: per capita GDP * Trace success/failures of South * Possible lessons and strategies to build future - Growth in South outpaces North, but uneven * China and South Asia primarily * THE NEWLY INDUSTRIALIZING COUNTRIES - Newly industrializing countries (NICs) * Semi periphery states, self-sustaining capital accumulation - “Four Tigers” or “Four Dragons” of East Asia: South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore * Create enough capital accumulation to raise income levels across population - South Korea: iron/coal resources, competitive steel/automobile industries -> exports -> trade surplus - Taiwan: electronics/computer industries/light manufacturing - Hong Kong: electronics/light industries/banking/trade - Singapore: main trading city at tip of Malaysian peninsula - South Korea/Taiwan: international conflict when under US security during Cold War * Authoritarian states -> democratic - Hong Kong/Singapore: British colonies, cities are trading ports/financial centers * Hong Kong ruled by British governor * Singapore ruled by dominant individual * THE CHINESE EXPERIENCE - 1.3 billion people (size makes efforts to become self-sustaining accumulation worthy of study) - 1949-Cultural Revolution (1960s) Communistic Mao Zedong * National self-sufficiency/communist ideology * State controlled economic activity by central planning/state ownership * “Iron Rice Bowl” guaranteed basic good needs to all population - 1976: Deng Xiaoping * Free economic zones open to foreign investment, run on capitalist principles * Peasants worked own fields; entrepreneurs start companies -> profits * Foreign investment Bloomed; opened to capitalist principles * Required to turn profit, gave initiative to run companies/spend profit as see fit * -> -> Economic growth risen, standards of living increase * Class disparities, unemployment increase, prostitution, inflation increase, corruption - Beijing’s Tiananmen Square (1989): military violently suppress antigovernment protests killing hundreds -> government determination maintain tight political control - MNCs foreign investment skyrocketed $250 billion -> $1 trillion in 7 years * WTO member in 2001 - 2006: President Hu Jintao * Economic growth up with government infrastructure expenditures * Priority address inequality between rich and poverty - WTO membership -> questions of Chinese opening of economy can coexist with political authoritarianism under communist rule
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- Global perspective on international relations (dealings with Africa, Latin America) * Possible membership in G7 * Hosted Olympics in 2008 in Beijing
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This note was uploaded on 01/24/2012 for the course INTA 1110 taught by Professor Tba during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Chapter 13 International Development - Chapter 13...

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