LO-08 AFP War-Interwar1914-39

LO-08 AFP War-Interwar1914-39 - The War and Interwar Years...

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The War and Interwar Years 1914 – 1939 (LO-08)
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The War and Interwar Years 1914 - 1939 General Aug 4, 1914 Pres Wilson declares neutrality But Amer sentiments were split From outset: propaganda war favored the Allies, particularly Br Also US closely tied to Allies commercially 1915 = $1.28B - $29m 1916 = $2.75B - $2m But war at sea was biggest issue Late 1914 US asserted neutral rights Br was a naval power. Could command the seas Could strangle commerce Mined the N. Sea Expanded contraband list Inspected US ships Seized contraband from neutral vessels Halted Amer trade w/Ger To offset Br advantage at sea, Germany had U-boats Result, America, caught up in a war among European states America issued protests to England Britain paid some deference to America Compensated America businesses Purchasing goods from America at inflated prices As Paterson notes: Britain managed brilliantly to sever American econ ties w/ the Central powers w/o rupturing Anglo-American relations.” Germany protested against American acquiescence 2
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But Ger had to curb trade with Allied Powers, particularly Britain Feb 1915 Berlin announced it would retaliate against Br No body of international law to guide Amer responses to Ger U-boats warfare Between Feb & May 1915 – U-boats sank 90 ships in the “war Zone.” Then came the Falaba (Br passenger ship), Mar 1915 – 1 Amer dead Lusitania (Br passenger ship), May 1915 – 128 Amer died Arabic (Br passenger ship), Aug 1915 – 2 Amer die Berlin disavowed attack Responded w/ ”Arabic Pledge” Germany would warn passengers ships 30 minutes before sinking to allow passengers and crew to get off safely Amer prepares for war Pres seeks naval expansion Then came the Sussex (Fr passenger ship) – Mar 1916 A clear violation of Arabic Pledge US warns Ger again Ger responds w/ “Sussex Pledge” Germany to stop sinking non-military ships indiscriminately, sink merchant ships if carrying contraband, after passenger + crew safely removed US takes additional measure to prepare for War May 1916 - Natl Defense Act Increases size of Army from 130,000 offers & men to 211,000 Increases national guard from 180,000 to 457,000 Pres. Wilson seeks to mediate between belligerents Efforts failed 3
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Jan 22, 1917 Wilson: “Peace w/o victory” There must be: Not a balance of power but a community power; not organized rivalries but a organized common peace. A new covenant of cooperative peace that includes the new world A force greater than the force of any nation or alliance heretofore engaged if peace is to endure Freedom of the seas Peace cannot last that does not recognize the principle that govts derive all their just powers from the consent of the governed
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LO-08 AFP War-Interwar1914-39 - The War and Interwar Years...

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