Chapter 1 - Chapter 1: Up to the Starting Line Starting...

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Chapter 1: Up to the Starting Line Starting point for historical development comparisons: 11,000 B.C. Closest living relatives: the gorilla, the common chimpanzee, and the pygmy chimpanzee *confinement to Africa (fossil evidence): earliest stages of human evolution in Africa * 7 million years ago: population of apes broke into population (one proceeded to evolve into modern gorillas, second into 2 modern chimps, third into humans) * 4 million years ago: achieved upright posture * 2.5 million years ago: increase in relative brain size Protohumans: Australopithecus africanus => Homo habilis => Homo erectus (size similar, brain size ½) 5-6 million years: confined to Africa. Homo erectus in southeast asia Earliest unquestioned evidence: ½ million yrs ago. * Colonization of Asia -> simultaneous colonization of Europe (Eurasia single landmass) ½ million years ago: African and European skulls similar to modern -> Homo Sapiens * Not in Americas/Australia bc no boat building skills * populations in Africa, Western Eurasia, Eastern Eurasia diverged in skeletal details Neanderthals: brains slightly larger than ours, left evidence of burying dead, caring for sick
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Chapter 1 - Chapter 1: Up to the Starting Line Starting...

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