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lec14_drobny_11 - Lecture 14 Electromagnetic Radiation...

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Lecture 14: Electromagnetic Radiation Light and the Quantum Mechanical Nature of Molecules. The energy in molecules that drives chemical reactions. • Reading: Zumdahl 12.1, 12.2 • Outline – Classical and Quantum Mechanics – The nature of electromagnetic radiation. – Light has energy (Photons vs. Waves) – The work-function of metals. (Photoelectric Effect) Problems: 12.21, 12.23, 12.25, 12.27
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Classical & Quantum Mechanics Mechanics: branch of the physical sciences that deals with the motion of objects. It is divided into two major sub-disciplines: – Classical Mechanics: A mathematical theory of motion developed by Galileo, Kepler, Newton. It describes the motions of macroscopic objects subjected to a system of forces (F=Ma). Velocities must be much less than the speed of light (3x10 8 ms -1 ).
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Classical & Quantum Mechanics In Newtonian Mechanics, the laws of motion (i.e. Second Law of Motion: F=Ma) are used to predict the trajectories of objects under the influence of forces. The velocity and position of a mass can be predicted for all time to arbitrary accuracy.
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Classical & Quantum Mechanics Newton and Leibniz invented a branch of mathematics called calculus to treat mechanical problems. Position is described as a function of time x(t), velocity v(t) is the change of x(t) with time …called a derivative with respect to time: Acceleration is the derivative with respect to time of velocity
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Classical & Quantum Mechanics In the early 20 th century, classical mechanics failed to explain correctly a number of experimental results and measured quantities: The heat capacities C v of atomic solids and diatomic gases (3R and 7R/2, vs. 0 and 5R/2 at low temperatures). The frequencies of radiation emitted by a metallic object when heated to incandescence (black body radiation) Photoelectric Effect Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen
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