Lec18_11_drobny - Lecture 18: The Aufbau Principle! !...

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Lecture 18: The Aufbau Principle • Reading: Zumdahl 12.11-12.13 • Recommended Problems:12.63, 12.65, 12.67, 12.69, 12.75 • Outline: – Spin – The Aufbau Principle – Filling up orbitals and the Periodic Table
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Spin • Further experiments demonstrated the need for one more quantum number. • Speci±cally, some particles (electrons in particular) demonstrated inherent angular momentum.
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Spin (cont.) • The new quantum number is m s (analagous to m l ). • For the electron, m s has two values: +1/2 and -1/2 m s = 1/2 m s = -1/2
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Pauli Exclusion Principle Defn : No two electrons may occupy the same quantum state simultaneously . In other words: electrons are very territorial. They don’t like other electrons horning in. In practice, this means that only two electrons may occupy a given orbital, and they must have opposite spin.
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The Aufbau Principal • For polyelectronic atoms, a direct solution of the Schrodinger Eq. is not possible. • When we construct polyelectronic atoms, we use the hydrogen-atom orbital nomenclature to discuss in which orbitals the electrons reside. • This is an approximation (and it is surprising how well it actually works).
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The Aufbau Principal (cont.) • When placing electrons into orbitals in the construction of polyelectronic atoms, we use the Aufbau Principle. • This principle states that in addition to adding
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Lec18_11_drobny - Lecture 18: The Aufbau Principle! !...

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