Chapter_02IM_001 - Rocks Materials of the Solid Earth 2...

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Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth 2 Rocks: Materials of the Solid Earth opens with a discussion of the rock cycle as part of the Earth system. The origins and processes involved in forming the three major rock groups – igneous rock, sedimentary rock, and metamorphic rock – are also reviewed. A discussion of the crystallization of magma precedes an examination of the classification, textures, and compositions of igneous rocks. Following an investigation of the origin of sediment, the classification of sedimentary rocks, as well as some of their common features, is discussed. The chapter also examines the agents of metamorphism, the textural and mineralogical changes that take place during metamorphism, and some common metamorphic rocks. In conclusion, resources from rocks and minerals are investigated. Learning Objectives After reading, studying, and discussing the chapter, students should be able to: Diagram and discuss the rock cycle List the geologic processes involved in the formation of each rock group. Briefly explain crystallization of magma. List the criteria used to classify igneous rocks. List the names, textures, and environments of formation for the most common igneous rocks. Discuss the origin of materials that accumulate as sediment. List the criteria used to classify sedimentary rocks. Explain the difference between detrital and chemical sedimentary rocks. List the names, textures, and environments of formation for the most common sedimentary rocks. List the common features of sedimentary rocks. Describe the agents of metamorphism. List the criteria used to classify metamorphic rocks. List the names, textures, and environments of formation for the most common metamorphic rocks. Discuss metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources Chapter Summary Igneous rock forms from magma that cools and solidifies in a process called crystallization . Sedimentary rock forms from the lithification of sediment . Metamorphic rock forms from rock that has been subjected to great pressure and heat in a process called metamorphism . The rate of cooling of magma greatly influences the size of mineral crystals in igneous rock – the faster the rate of cooling, the smaller the crystals. The four basic igneous rock textures are 1) fine-grained , 2) coarse- grained , 3) porphyritic , and 4) glassy . The mineral makeup of an igneous rock is ultimately determined by the chemical composition of the magma from which it crystallized. N.L. Bowen showed that as magma cools, minerals crystallize in an orderly fashion. Crystal settling can change the composition of magma and cause more than one rock type to form from a common parent magma. 15
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16 CHAPTER 2 Igneous rocks are classified by their texture and mineral composition . Igneous rocks are divided into broad compositional groups based on the percentage of dark and light silicate minerals they contain. Felsic rocks (e.g. granite and rhyolite) are composed mostly of the light-colored silicate minerals potassium feldspar and
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