Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Historical Background Mechanical Age Abacus...

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Historical Background ± Mechanical Age ² Abacus – 500BC. ² Analytical Engine – 1823. ± Charles Babbage. ± Augusta Ada Byron. ± Electrical Age ² Colossus – 1943. ² ENIAC – Electronics Numerical Integrator and Calculator, 1946 University of Pennsylvania.
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Historical Background ± Programming Advancements ² Machine language. ± Von Neumann machine. ² Accepts instructions and stores them in memory. ² Assembly language. ² High level programming languages. ± Machine independent. ± FLOW-MATIC, FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, RPG. ± BASIC, C/C++, PASCAL, ADA. ± JAVA, PERL, Python, Tcl/Tk, Visual suites, C#.
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Historical Background ± The Microprocessor Age. ² Intel 4004 ± 4 bits microprocessor. ± 45 instructions. ± Fabricated with P-channel MOSFET. ± 50KIPs ± 1 ounce in weight. ² Intel 8008, 8080, 8085, Motorola MC6800, Zilog Z8, Z80, MOS Technology 6502. ± 8 bits microprocessors.
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Historical Background ± Intel 80X86 family of processors. ² 16, 32, 64 bits processors. ² CISC. ² 5MHz, 3.4GHz. ² Cache. ² Superscalar.
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Historical Background CPU Coprocessor 8k L1 Cache 80486DX Pentium CPU 1 CPU 2 16K L1 Cache
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Historical Background Pentium Pro 16K L1 Cache 256K L2 Cache CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 3 Coprocessor
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Historical Background 32k L1 Cache 512K or 256K L2 Cache Pentium II, Pentium III, or Pentium 4 CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 3 Coprocessor
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Memory Organization ± Sequence of bytes each with a unique physical address. ± Data types: ² Byte. ² Word. ² Double word .
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Memory Organization
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Memory Organization
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Little Endian Notation ± The 80386 stores the least significant byte of a word or double word in the memory location with the lower address.
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Positional Number System ± A number is represented by a string of digits where each digit position has an associated weight. ± The weight is based on the radix of the number system. ± Some common radices: ² Decimal. ² Binary. ² Octal. ² Hexadecimal.
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Notation ± Decimal. ² W = 123 10 = 123d = 123 ± Binary. ² X = 10 2 = 10b ± Octal. ² Y = 45 8 = 45q = 45o ± Hexadecimal. ² Z = 0A3 16 = 0A3h = 0xA3
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Radix 10 Numbers ± Decimal. ² Here the base or radix is 10.
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Chapter 1 - Historical Background Mechanical Age Abacus...

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