EE3750 Class Notes

EE3750 Class Notes - Historical Background Mechanical Age...

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Historical Background ± Mechanical Age ² Abacus – 500BC. ² Analytical Engine – 1823. ± Charles Babbage. ± Augusta Ada Byron. ± Electrical Age ² Colossus – 1943. ² ENIAC – Electronics Numerical Integrator and Calculator, 1946 University of Pennsylvania.
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Historical Background ± Programming Advancements ² Machine language. ± Von Neumann machine. ² Accepts instructions and stores them in memory. ² Assembly language. ² High level programming languages. ± Machine independent. ± FLOW-MATIC, FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, RPG. ± BASIC, C/C++, PASCAL, ADA. ± JAVA, PERL, Python, Tcl/Tk, Visual suites, C#.
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Historical Background ± The Microprocessor Age. ² Intel 4004 ± 4 bits microprocessor. ± 45 instructions. ± Fabricated with P-channel MOSFET. ± 50KIPs ± 1 ounce in weight. ² Intel 8008, 8080, 8085, Motorola MC6800, Zilog Z8, Z80, MOS Technology 6502. ± 8 bits microprocessors.
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Historical Background ± Intel 80X86 family of processors. ² 16, 32, 64 bits processors. ² CISC. ² 5MHz, 3.4GHz. ² Cache. ² Superscalar.
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Historical Background
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80X86 ± General purpose processors. ± Supports 16 and 32 bits address and data buses. ± 32 bit processors are capable of addressing 4 gigabytes of physical memory and 64 terabytes of virtual memory.
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Registers ± General purpose registers. ² There are eight 32 bits registers (EAX, EBX, ECX, EDX, EBP, EDI, ESI, and ESP). ² They are used to hold operands for logical and arithmetic operations and to hold addresses. ² Access may be done in 8, 16 or 32 bits.
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Registers ± There is no direct access to the upper 16 bits of the 32 bits registers. ± Some instructions incorporate dedicated registers in their operations which allows for decreased code size, but it also restricts the use of the register set.
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Registers ± EAX – Accumulator is used as a dedicated register by some arithmetic operation, and adjustment instructions. ± EBX – Base index. ± ECX – Count register used by the LOOP, REP, shift and rotate type instructions.
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Registers ± EDX – Data register used to hold results of multiplication and part of the dividend before for a division instruction. ± EBP – Base pointer. ± EDI – Destination index, used by string instructions. ± ESI – Source index used by string instructions.
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Registers ± EIP – Instruction pointer which holds the address of the next instruction to be executed. ± ESP – Stack pointer addresses the stack.
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Registers ± Segment registers. ² There are six 16 bits registers (CS, DS,ES,FS,GS, and SS). ² They are used to hold the segment selector. ² Each segment register is associated with a particular kind of memory access.
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Registers ± Other registers. ² EFLAGS controls certain operations and indicates the status of the 80836 (carry, sign, etc). ² Flags: ± C – Carry. ± P – Parity. Count of ones in a number expressed as even or odd.
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This note was uploaded on 01/25/2012 for the course EE 3750 taught by Professor Desouza during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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EE3750 Class Notes - Historical Background Mechanical Age...

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