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2nd_Midterm_Essays

2nd_Midterm_Essays - STUDY ESSAY QUESTIONS FOR MID-TERM...

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STUDY ESSAY QUESTIONS FOR MID-TERM EXAMINATION II 1) Jason (the brother of Onias III) secured the high priesthood for himself by paying off Antiochus IV Epiphanes. He also made several requests, which Antiochus granted. Exactly what requests did Jason make, and what were the immediate consequences and long-term significance of his actions? Intro o High priesthood position o Hereditary o Basic background on Onias and Jason Promises o Jason promised the king 360 talents of silver and eighty talents from another source of revenue. o In addition to this he promised to pay one hundred fifty more if permission were given to establish by his authority a gymnasium and a body of youth for it , and to enroll the people of Jerusalem as citizens of Antioch . Immediate consequences o First high priest not in direct hereditary line of high priests (brother of high priest but not technically qualified based on hereditary). o Highest-ranking official in Judaism became a direct appointee of the foreign overload. Long-term significance o Beginning of Hellenization of Jerusalem o Set up a school called the Ephebeion to educate young Judeans in the Greek o tradition o Became greek polis with greek law and replaced jewish law of the land o All were circumized so they jewish tried to reverse their circumsicism to look greek o Jewish law was not outlawed but began to be not observed by some o Led to rule of Menalaus and then eventually to Antiochus IV outlawing Jewish law o Led to the schism between the Jewish conservatives (Maccabees) and the Hellenized Jews Conclusion
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2) Describe the works of 1 and 2 Maccabees – their dates of composition, what we know about the authors, and their genre and contents. 1 Maccabees (deuterocanonical/apocryphal) o written in Hebrew o around 100 BC o receives name from fact that Judas Maccabeus is the protagonist o important historical source for events in Judea in the second century BCE, work of historiography o Story of Antiochus’s siege of Jerusalem o Antiochus’s proposal that “all should be one people, and that all should give up their particular customs” o First member of the family to lead the resistance was the father Mattathias o Mattathias died and was succeeded by his son and main character of the book Judas o Judas won victories over several Seleucid armies o He enters Jerusalem and cleansed and rebuild the sanctuary o Rededicated the temple and celebrated a festival with it (Hanukkah) o Judas is killed and his brother Jonathan takes over o Jonathan becomes high priest (appointed by Seleucid King) o Jonathan dies and Simon succeeds him o Simon acquires liberty and perpetual rule as high priest and leader of the nation 2 Maccabees o Not a continuation of the first o Written in Greek in Alexandria o Not completed before 124 BC o “pathetic” historiography – history that places emphasis on emotions and describes people and events in graphic, at times painful detail o Prefaced with two chapters containing
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