military of china ch1 2-2 - 46 T’Al KUNG’S SIX SECRET...

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Unformatted text preview: 46 T’Al KUNG’S SIX SECRET TEJKCHINGS and see whether they are not afraid. Giye them the management of affairs and see whether they are not perplexed. ' “If you make them rich but they do not commit offenses, they are benevo- lent. If you give them rank and they do not grow arrogant, they are righ- teous. If you entrust them with office and they do not change, they are loyal. If you employ them and they do not coniceal anything, they are trustworthy. If you put them in danger and they are‘nolt afraid, they are courageous. If you give them the management of affairs andgthey are not perplexed, they are ca- pable of making plans. “The ruler must not loan the ‘three treasureS‘ to other men. If he loans them to other men the ruler will lose his awesomeness.” King Wen: “May I ask about the threegtreasures?” T’ai Kung: “Great agriculture, great industry, and great commerce are re- ferred to as the ‘three treasures.‘ If you have the farmers dwell solely in dis- tricts of farmers, then the five grains will be sufficient. If you have the arti- sans dwell solely in districts of artisans, then the implements will be adequate. If you have the merchants dwell solely in districts of merchants, then the material goods will be sufficienti.11 “If the three treasures are each settledéin their places, then the people will not scheme. Do not allow confusion among their districts, do not allow con- fusion among their clans. Ministers should not be more wealthy than the ruler. No other cities should be larger than the ruler’s state capital. When the six preservations are fully implemented, the ruler will flourish. When the three treasures are complete, the state will be secure." 7. Preserving the State’s Territory King Wen asked the T’ai Kung: “How does one preserve the state’s territo- ry?” ' ' T’ai Kung: “Do not estrange your relaitives. Do not neglect the masses. Be conciliatory and solicitous toward nearby states and control the four quar- ters. “Do not loan the handles of state to other men.12 If you loan the handles of state to other men, then you will lose your authority [ch’z‘c‘an]. Do not dig valleys deeper to increase hills. Do not abandon the foundation to govern the branches. When the sun is at midday you should dry things. If you grasp a knife you must cut. If you hold an ax you must attack. “If, at the height of the day, you do not dry things in the sun, this is termed losing the time. If you grasp a knife but do not cut anything, you will lose the T’iu Kuuo’s 51x sacnnr TEACHINGS moment for profits. If you hold an;ax but do not attack, then bandits will conic. E “If trickling streams are not blocked, they will become great rivers. If you do not extinguish the smallest flames, what will you do about a great confla- gration.3 If you do not eliminate theE-twodeaf sapling, how will you use your ax [when the tree has grown]? “For this reason the ruler must' Efocus on developing wealth within his state. Without material wealth he has nothing with which to be benevolent If he does not bespread beneficence he will have nothing with which to bring his relatives together.” If he estranges his relatives it will be harmful. If he loses the common people he will be Edefeated. “Do not loan sharp weapons to other men.” If you loan sharp weapons to other men, you will be hurt by therti and will not live out your allotted span of years.” l King Wen said. “What do you meEan by benevolence and righteousness?” The T’ai Kung: “Respect the common people, unite your relatives. If you respect the common people they will be at peace. And if you unite your rela» tives they will be happy. This is the iway to implement the essential cords of benevolence and righteousness. E “Do not allow other men to snatch away your awesomeness. Rely on your wisdom, follow the constant. Those that submit and accord with you, treat generously with Virtue. Those that Oppose you, break with force. If you re- spect the people and are decisive, then All under Heaven will be peaceful and submissive.” 8. PresenEring the State King Wen asked the T‘ai Kung: “How does one preserve the state?” T’ai Kung: “You should observe é vegetarian fast, for I am about to speak to you about the essential principlesiof Heaven and Earth, what the four sea- sons produce, the Tao of true humanity and sagacity, and the nature of the people’s impulses.” The King observed a vegetarian regime for seven days, then, facing north, bowed twice and requested instruction. The T’ai Kung said: “Heaven gives birth to the four seasons, Earth pro— duces the myriad things. Under Heaven there are the people, and the Sage acts as their shepherd. ' “Thus the Tao of spring is birth land the myriad things begin to flourish. The Tao of summer is growth, the myriad things mature. The Tao of autumn is gathering; the myriad things are full. The Tao of winter is storing away; 47 48 r’m Kuno’s 51x SECRET monmos the myriad things are still. When they are-full they are stored away; after they are stored away they again revive. No ;one knows where it ends, no one knows where it begins. The Sage accords with it and models himself on Heaven and Earth. Thus when the realm is well ordered, his benevolence and sagacity are hidden. When All under Heaven are in turbulence, his benevo- lence and sagacity flourish. This is the true Tao. “In his position between Heaven and Earth, what the Sage treasures is substantial and vast. Relying on the constant to view it, the people are at peace. But when the people are agitated it creates impulses. When impulses stir, conflict over gain and loss arises. Thus it is initiated in yin, 'but coalesces in yang. If someone ventures to be the .first leader, All under Heaven will unite with him.” At the extreme, when things return to normal, do not con- tinue to advance and contend, do not withdraw and yield. If you can pre- serve the state in this fashion, you will share the splendor of Heaven and Earth. ” 9. Honoring the Worthy King Wen asked the T'ai Kung: “Among those I rule,“ who should be ele- vated, who should be placed in inferioripositions? Who should be selected for employment, who cast aside? Hoiv should they be restricted, how stopped?” : The T’ai Kung said: “Elevate the Worthy, and place the unworthy 1n infe- rior positions. Choose the sincere and trustworthy, eliminate the deceptive and artful. Prohibit violence and turbulence, stop extravagance and ease. Accordingly, one who exercises kingship over the people recognizes ‘six thieves” and‘ seven harms.’ King Wen said: “I would like to know about 1ts Tao.” T_’ai Kung: “As for the six thieves: : “First, if your subordinates build largie palaces and mansions, pools and terraces, and arable about enjoying the pleasures of scenery and female musi- cians, it will injure the king’ s Virtue. _ “Second, when the people are not engaged in agriculture and sericulture but instead give rein to their tempers and travel about as bravados, disdain- ing and transgressing the laws and prohibitions, not following the instruc- tions of the officials, it harms the king’s transforming influence.” “Third, when officials form cliques and parties—obfuscating the worthy and wise, obstructing the ruler’ s clarity—it injures the king’s authority [ch ’u'an]. I’m KUNG'S SIX SECRET TEACHING?» “Fourth, when the knights are cpntrary«minded and conspicuously dis- play ‘high moral standards’—taking such behavior to be powerful expres- sion of their cb’im—and have private relationships with other feudal lords— slighting their own rulerw—it injures? the king’s awesomeness. “Fifth, when subordinates disdain titles and positions, are contemptuous of the administrators, and are ashamed to face hardship for their ruler, it in- jures the efforts of the meritorious subordinates. “Sixth, when the strong clans encroach on others—seizing what they want, insulting and ridiculing the ppor and weak—it injures the work of the common people. : “The ‘seven harms’: “First, rnen without knowledge oi- strategic planning ability are generously rewarded and honored with tankl Therefore, the strong and courageous who regard war lightly take their cliances in the field. The king must be care— ful not to employ them as generalsl “Second, they have reputation hint lack substance. What they say is con- stantly shifting. They conceal the gdod and point out deficiencies. They view advancement and dismissal as a question of skill. The king should be careful not to make plans with them. “Third, they make their appeai'ance simple, wear ugly clothes, speak about actionless action in order tolseek fame, and talk about non-desire in order to gain profit. They are artificial men, and the king should be careful not to bring them near. 3 “FOurth, they wear strange caps and belts, and their clothes are overflow- ing. They listen widely to the disputationsof others and speak speciously abOut unrealistic ideas, displayingi them as a sort of personal adornment. They dwell in poverty and live in tranquility, deprecating the customs of the world. They are cunning people, and the king should be careful not to favor them. _ , “Fifth, with slander, obsequiousness, and pandering, they seek office and rank. They are courageOus and daring, treating death lightly, out of their greed for salary and position. Theyé are not concerned with major affairs but move solely out of avarice. With lofty talk and specious discussions, they please the ruler. The king should be careful not to employ them. “Sixth, they have buildings elaborately carved and inlaid. They promote artifice and flowery adornment toithe injury of agriculture. You must pro- hibit them. “Seventh, they create magical forimulas and weird techniques, practice sor- cery and witchcraft, advance unorthodox ways, and circulate inauspicious sayings, confusing and befuddling the good people. The king must stop them. 4-9 50 T’Ai KUNG’s 51x SECRET TEACHINGS “Now when the people do not exhaujst their strength, they are not our people. if the officers are not sincere and; trustworthy, they are not our offi~ cers. If the ministers do not offer loyal remonstrance, they are not our minis— ters. If the officials are not evenhanded, pure, not love the people, they are not our officials. If the chancellor cannotienrich the state and strengthen the army, harmonize yin and yang, and ensure security for the ruler of a state of ten thousand chariots—and moreover proper-1y control the ministers, set Barnes and realities, rnake clear rewards and punishments, and give pleasure to the people—he is not our chancellor. “Now the Tao of the king is like that of a dragon’s head. He dwells in the heights and looks Out far. He sees deeply and listens carefully. He displays his form but canceals his nature. He is like the heights of Heaven, which cannot be perceived. He is like the depths of aniabyss, which cannot be fathomed. Thus if he should get angry but does not, evil subordinates will arise. If he should execute but does not, great thievias will appear. If strategic military power is not exercised, enemy states will grow strong. King Wen said: “Excellent!” 1 0. Advancing the Worthy King Wen asked the T'ai Kung: “How ddes it happen that a ruler may exert himself to advance the Worthy but is unable to obtain any results from such efforts, and in fact the world grows increhsingly turbulent, even to the point that he is endangered or perishes?” T’ai Kung: “If one advances the Worthy but doesn t employ them, this is attaining the name of ‘advancing the worthy’ but lacking the substance of ‘using the Worthy.’ ” : Ki'ng Wen asked: “Whence comes the error?” T’ai Kung: “The error lies in wanting to employ men who are popularly praised rather than obtaining true Worthies.” King Wen: “How is that?” The T’ai Kung said: “If the ruler takes those that the world commonly praises as being Worthies and those thatgthey condemn as being worthless, then the larger cliques will advance and the smaller ones will retreat. In this situation groups of evil individuals will: associate together to obscure the Worthy. Loyal subordinates will die even though innocent. And perverse subordinates will obtain rank and position through empty fame. In this way, as turbulence continues to grow in the world, the state cannot avoid danger and destruction.” King Wen asked: “How does one advance the Worthy?” T’AI KUNG’S SIX SECRET TEACHINGS T‘ai Ku-ng replied: “Your general land chancellor should divide the respon- sibility, each of them selecting mené based on the names of the positions. In accord with the name of the position, they will assess the substance required. In selecting men, they will evaluate itheir abilities, making the reality of their talents match the name of the position. When the name matches the reality, you will have realized the Tao for advancing the Worthy.”19 1 1 Rewards and Punishments King Wen asked the T’ai Kung: “Rewards are the means to preserve the en- couragement [of the good], punishments the means to display the rectifica- tion of evil. By rewarding one man I want to stimulate .a hundred, by punish- ing one man rectify the multitude. l-Iow can I do it?” The T’ai Kung said: “In general, ill] employing rewards one values credibil- ity; in employing punishments one values certainty. When rewards are trusted and punishments inevitablei wherever the eye sees and the ear hears, then even where they do not see or hear there is no one 'who will not be trans- formed in their secrecy. Since the iruler’s sincerity extends to Heaven and Earth and penetrates to the spirits, how much the more so to men?" 1 2. The Tao of the Military King Wu asked the T‘ai Kung: “What' 1s the Tao of the military?”210 The T’ai Kung said: “In general as for the Tao of the military, nothing surpasses unity. The unified can come alone, can depart alone. The Yellow Emperor said: ‘Unification approaches the Tao and touches on the spiritual.’ Its empIOyment lies in the subtle?“ its conspicuous manifestation lies in the strategic configuration of power; its completion lies with the ruler. Thus the Sage Kings termed weapons evil implements, but when they had no alterna~ tive, they employed them “Today the Shang king knows about existence, but not about perishing. He knows pleasure, but not disaStei'. Now existence does not lie in existence, but in thinking about perishing. Pleasure does not lie in pleasure, but in con- templating disaster. Now that you have already pondered the source of such changes, why do you trouble yoursielf about the future flow of events?” King Wu said: “Suppose two arn'iies encounter each other. The enemy can- not come forward, and we cannotigo forward. Each side goes about estab- lishing fortifications and defenses without daring to be the first to attack. If I want to launch a sudden attack but lack any tactical advantage, what should I do?” 5! 52 l 1"!“ KUNG’S SIX SECRET TEACHINGS | The T’ai Kung said: “Make an outwaiid display of confusion while actu~ ally being well ordered. Show an appearance of hunger while actually being well fed. Keep your sharp weapons within and show only dull and poor weapons outside. Have some troops come together, others split up; some as- semble, others scatter.22 Make secret plans, keep your intentions secret. Raise the height of fortifications, and conceal your elite troops. If the officers are silent, not making any sounds, the enemy will not know our prep- arations. Then if you want to take his western flank, attack the eastern one.” King Wu said: “If the enemy knows my true situation and has penetrated my plans, what should I do?” _ The T’ai Kung said: “The technique for military conquest is to carefully investigate the enemy’s intentions and :quickly take advantage of them, launching a sudden attack where unexpected?” ...
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