{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

military of china ch2 - n MARTIAL SECRET TEACHING 1 3...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–8. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 8
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: n MARTIAL SECRET TEACHING 1 3. Opening Instructions King Wen, in the capital of Feng,l_. summoned the T’ai Kung. “Alas! The Shang king is extremely perverse, ljudging the innocent guilty and having them executed. If you assist me in my concern for these people, how might we proceed?” The T’ai Kung replied: “You should cultivate your Virtue, submit to the guidance of Worthy men, extend beneficence to the people, and observe the Tao of Heaven. If there are no ill omens in the Tao of Heaven, you cannot initiate the movement [to revolt}. If there are no misfortunes in the Tao of Man, your planning cannot precede them. You must first see Heavenly signs and moreover witness human misfortune, and only then can you make plans. You must look at the Shang king’s yang aspects [his government], and moreover his yin side [personal deportment], and only then will you know his mind. You must look at his external activities, and moreover his internal ones, and only then will you know his thoughts. Yen must observe those dis- tant from him and also observe thbse close to him, and only then will you know his emotions. _ “If you implement the Tao, the Who can be attained. If you enter by the gate, the gate can be entered. If you set up the proper forms of etiquette [if], the li can be perfected. If you fight with the strong, the strong can be con- quered. If you can attain complete victory without fighting, without the great army suffering any losses, you will have penetrated even the realm of ghosts and spirits. How marvelous! How Subtle! “If yOu suffer the same illness as other people and you all aid each other; if you have the same emotions and complete each other; the same hatreds and assist each other; and the same likes and seek them together—then withOut any armored soldiers you will win; ivithout any battering rams you will have attacked; and without moats and ditches you will have defended. '53 54 T’iu KUNG’s 51x SECRET TEACHINGS “The greatest wisdom is not wise; the greatest plans not planned; the greatest courage not courageous; the greatest gain not profitable. If you profit All under Heaven, All under Heaven will be open to you. If you harm All under Heaven, All under Heaven willg be closed. All under Heaven is not the property of one man but of All under Heaven. If you take All under Heaven as if pursuing some wild animal, then All under Heaven will want to carve {the realm] up like a piece of meati If you all ride in the same boat to cross over the water, after completing thegcrossing you will all have profited. However, if you fail to make the crossing; then you will all suffer the harm.24 [If you act as if you’re all on the same vessel], the empire will be open to your aim, and none will be closed to you. “He who does not take from the people takes the peeple. He who does not take [from]25 the people, the people will profit. He who does not take [from] the states, the states will profit. He who does not take from All under Heaven, All under Heaven will profit. Thus the Tao lies in what cannot be seen; affairs lie in what cannot be heard; and victory lies in what cannot be known. How marvelous! How subtle! 5 “When an eagle is about the attack, it will fly low and draw in its wings.26 When a fierce wild cat is about to strike, git will lay back its ears and crouch down low. When the Sage is about to move, he will certainly display a stupid countenance. “Now there is the case of Shang, whefre the people muddle and confuse each other. Mixed up and extravagant, their love of pleasure and sex is end- less. This is a sign of a doomed state. I have observed their fields—weeds and grass overwhelm the crops. 1 have observed their people—the perverse and crooked overcome the straight and upright. I have observed their officials-- they are violent, perverse, inhumane, and evil. They overthrow the laws and make chaos of the punishments. Neither the upper nor lower ranks have awakened to this state of affairs. It is time for their state to perish. “When the sun appears the myriad things are all illuminated. When great righteousness appears the myriad things all profit. When the great army ap- pears the myriad things all submit. Great is the Virtue of the Sage! Listening by himself, seeing by himself, this is his pleasure!” 14. Civil Instructions King Wen asked the T’ai Kung: “What dpes the Sage preserve?” The T’ai Kung said: “What worries does he have? What constraints? The myriad things all naturally realize their Epositions. What constraints, what T’AI KUNG’S SIX SECRET TEACHINGS worries? The myriad things all floul'ish. No one realizes the transforming 1n~ fluence of government; moreover, no one realizes the effects of the passing of time. 27 The Sage preserves [the Tao of actionless action], and the myriad things are transformed. What" is exhausted? When things reach the end they return again to the beginning. Relaxed and complacent he turns about, seek» ing it. Seeking it he gains it and cannot but store it. Having already stored it he cannot but implement it. Having already implemented it he does not turn about and make it clear [that he did so]. Now because Heaven and Earth do not illuminate themselves, they are forever able to give birth {to the myriad things]. 23 The Sage does not cast light upon himself so he is able to attain a glorious name. = “The Sages of antiquity assembled people to comprise families, assembled families to compose states, and assaimbled states to constitute the realm of All under Heaven. They divided the reahn and enfeoffed Worthy men to admin- ister the states. They officially designated [this order] the ‘Great Outline.’ “They promulgated the governniient’ s instructions and accorded with the people’s customs. They transformed the multitude of crooked into the straight, changing their form and appearance. Although the customs of the various states were not the same, they all took pleasure in their respective places The people loved their rulers, so they termed [this transformation] the ‘Great Settlement. . “Ah, the Sage concentrates on tranquilizing them, the Worthy focuses on rectifying them. The stupid man cannot be upright, therefore he contends with other men. When the ruler labors, punishments become numerous. When punishments are numerous, ithe people are troubled. When the people are troubled, they leave and wander off. No one, of whatever position, can be settled in his life, and generations on end have no test. This they termed the ‘Great Loss.’ “The people of the world are like flowing water. If you obstruct it, it will stop. If you open a way, it will flow. If you keep it quiet, it will be clear. How Spiritual! When the Sage sees the bieginning, he knows the end.” King Wen said: “How does one tiranquilize them?” The T’ai Kung: “Heaven has its constant forms, the pe0ple have their nor- mal lives. If you share life with All under Heaven, then All under Heaven will be tranquil. The pinnacle accordsi with them, the next- -highest transforms them. When the people are transfoirmed and follow their government, then Heaven takes no action but affairs are complete. The people do not give any- thing [to the ruler] Iso] are enriched of themselves.” This is the Virtue of the Sage.” ' 55 56 Till KUNG’s SIX SECRET TEACHINGS King Wen: “What my lord has said accords with what I embrace. From dawn to night I will think about it, never forgetting it, employing it as our constant principle.” ' 15. Civil Ofifensive King Wen asked the T’ai Kung: “Whati are the methods for civil” offen- sivesP” The T’ai Kung replied: “There are melve measures for civil offensives. “Fir-5t, accord with what he likes in order to accommodate his wishes. He will eventually grow arrogant and invariably mount some perverse affair. [f you can appear to follow along, you will certainly be able to eliminate him. “Second, become familiar with thoseihe loves in order to fragment his awesomeness. When men have two different inclinations, their loyalty in- variably declines. When his court no longer has any loyal ministers, the state altars will inevitably be endangered. : “Third, covertly bribe his assistants, fostering a deep relationship with them. While they will bodily stand in his court, their emotions will be di- rected outSide it. The state will certainly suffer harm. “Fourth, assist him in his licentiousness and indulgence in music in order to dissipate his will. Make him generous gifts of pearls and jade, and ply him with beautiful women. Speak dcferentially, listen respectfully, follow his conunands, and accord with him in evei'ything. He will never imagine you might be in conflict with him. Our treaclierous measures will then be settled. “Fifth, treat his loyal officials very generOusly, but reduce the gifts you provide [to the ruler]. Delay his emissafiies; do not listen to their missions. When he eventually dispatches other men, treat them with sincerity, embrace and trust them. The ruler will then again feel you are in harmony with him. If you manage to treat [his formerly loyal; officials} very generously, his state can then be plotted against.31 ' “Sixth, make secret alliances with his'favored ministers, but visibly keep his less-favored outside officials at a distance. His talented people will then be under external influence, while enemy states encroach upon his territory. Few states in such a situation have survived. “Seventh, if you want to bind his heart to you, you must offer generous presents. To gather in his assistants, loyal associates, and loved ones, you must secretly show them the gains theyf can realize by colluding with you. Have them slight their work, and then their preparations will be futile. “Eighth, gift him with great treasures, and make plans with him. When the plans are successful and profit him, he will have faith in you because of the T’AI KUNG'S 51x SECRET mCHINGs profits. This is what is termed ‘beirlg closely embraced.’ The result of being closely embraced is that he will inevitably be used by us. When someone rules a state but is externally [controlled], his territory will inevitably be de- feared. “Ninth, honor him with praise. Do nothing that will cause him personal discomfort. Display the proper respect accruing to a great power, and your obedience will certainly be trusted. Magnify his honor; be the first to glori- ously praise him, humbly embellishing him as a Sage. Then his state will suf- fer great loss! - “Tenth, be submissive so that he will trust you, and thereby learn about his true situation. Accept his ideas and respond to his affairs as if you were twins. Once you have learned everything, subtly gather 1n [his power]. Thus when the ultimate day arrives, it will seem as if Heaven itself destroyed him. “Eleventh, block up his access by means of the Tao. Among subordinates there is no one who does not value rank and wealth nor hate danger and mis- fortune. Secretly express great respect toward them, and gradually bestow valuable gifts in order to gather in the more outstanding talents. Accumulate your own resources until they become very substantial, but manifest an ex- ternal appearance of shortage. Covertly bring in wise knights, and entrust them with planning great strategy. Attract courageous knights, and augment their spirit. Even when they are more than sufficiently rich and honored, constantly add to their riches. When your faction has been fully established [yOu will have attained the objective] referred to as ‘blocking his access ’If someone has a state but his access 'is blocked, how can he be considered as having the state? ' “Twelfth, support his dissolute officials' in order to confuse him Introduce beautiful women and licentious sounds 1n order to befuddle him. Send him outstanding dogs and horses in order to tire him. From time to time allow him great power in order to entice him [to greater arrogance]. Then investi- gate Heaven’s signs, and plot with the world against him “When these twelve measures are fully employed, they will become a mili— tary weapon. Thus when, as it is said, one looks at Heaven above and 1nves- tigates Earth below’ and the propel: signs are already visible, attack him.” 16. Instructions on According with the People King Wen asked the T’ai Kung: “What should one do so that he can govern All under Heaven?” f The T’ai Kung said: “When youré greatness overspreads All under Heaven, only then will you be able to encompass it. When your trustworthiness has 57 58 T’iu KUNG’S 51x sacaer Tencnmos overspread All under Heaven, only then iWill you be able to make covenants with it. When your benevolence has overspread All under Heaven, only then will you be able to embrace it. When your grace has overspread All under Heaven, only then can you preserve iti When your authority covers the world, only then will you be able not to lpse it. If you govern without doubt, then the revolutions of Heaven will notlbe able to shift [your rule] nor the changes of the seasons be able to affect it. Only when these six are complete will you be able to establish a government for All under Heaven. “Accordingly, one who profits All under Heaven will find All under Heaven open to him. One who harms All under Heaven will find All under Heaven closed to him. If one gives life to All under Heaven, All under Heaven will regard him as Virtuous. If one kills All under Heaven, All under Heaven will regard him as a brigand. If one penetrates to All under Heaven, All under Heaven will be accessible to him; if one impoverishes All under Heaven, All under Heaven will regard him as their enemy. One who gives peace to All under Heaven, All under Hieaven will rely on; one who endan» gers All under Heaven, All under Heaven will view as a disaster. All under Heaven is not the realm of one man. Only one who possesses the Tao can dwell [in the position of authority]." 1 7. Three Doubts King Wu inquired of the T’ai Kung: “I want to attain our aim [of overthrow- ing the Shang], but I have three doubts. I am afraid that our strength will be inadequate to attack the strong, to estrange his close supporters within the court, and disperse his people. What should I do?” The T’ai Kung replied: “Accord with the situation, be very cautious in making plans, and employ your material resources. Now in order to attack the strong, you must nurture them to make them even stronger, and increase them to make them even more extensive. What is too strong will certainly break; what is too extended must have deficiencies.32 Attack the strong through his strength. Cause the estrangernent of his favored officials by us- ing his favorites, and disperse his people by means of the people.33 “Now in the Tao of planning, thoroughness and secrecy are treasured. You should become involved with him in numerous affairs and ply him with temptations of profit. Conflict will then isurely arise. “If you want to cause his close supporters to become estranged from him, you must do it by using what they love—making gifts to those he favors, giv- ing them what they want. Tempt them with what they find profitable, thereby making them disaffected, and cause them to be unable to attain their T’AI KUNG’S SIX SECRET TEACHINGS ambitions. Those who covet profits will be extremely happy at the prospects, and their remaining doubts will beiended. “Now without doubt the Tao for attacking is to first obfuscate the king’s clarity and then attack his strength, destroying his greatness and eliminating the misfortune of the people. Debauch him with beautiful women, entice him with profit. Nurture him with flavors, and provide him with the com- pany of female musicians. Then after you have caused his subordinates to become estranged from him, you must cause the people to grow distant from him while never letting him know; your plans. Appear to support him and draw him into your trap. Do not let him become aware of what is happening, for only then can your plan be successful. “When bestowing your beneficence on the people, you cannot begrudge the expense. The people are like cows and horses. Frequently make gifts of food and clothing and followup by leving them.“ “The mind is the means to open up knowledge; knowledge the means 'to open up the source of wealth; and Ewealth the means to open up the people. Gaining the allegiance of the people is the way to attract Worthy men. When one is enlightened by Sagely advisers, he can become king of all the world." 59 60 at a 111 DRAGON SECRET TEACHING l 8. The King’s ‘Wings King Wu asked the T’ai Kong: “When the king commands the army he must have ‘legs and arms’ [top assistants] and ‘feathers and wings’ [aides] to bring about his awesomeness and spiritualnessi How should this be done?” The T’ai Kong said: “Whenever one mobilizes the army it takes the com- manding general as its fate. Its fate lies in a penetrating understanding of all aspects, nor clinging to one technique. In accord with their abilities assign duties—each one taking charge of what they are good at, constantly chang- ing and transforming with the times, to create the essential principles and or- der. Thus the general has seventy-two i‘legs and arms’ and ‘feathers and wings’ in order to respond to the Tao of; Heaven. Prepare their number ac- cording to method, being careful that they know its orders and principles. When you have'all the different abilities and various skills, then the myriad affairs will be complete.” King Wu asked: “May I ask about the various categories?” The T’ai Kung said: “Fu-bsin [Chief of Planning] ,35 one: in charge of ad- vising about secret plans for responding to sudden events; investigating Heaven so as to eliminate sudden change; exercising general supervision over all planning; and protecting and preserving the lives of the people. “Planning officers, five: responsible for planning security and danger; an- ticipating the unforeseen; discussing performance and ability; making clear rewards and punishments; appointing dfficers; deciding the doubtful; and determining what is advisable and what is not. “Astrologers, three: undertaking respdnsibility for the stars and calendar; observing the wind and ch’i; predicting auspicious days and times; investi- gating signs and phenomena; verifying disasters and abnormalities; and ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern