military of china ch3 - T‘AI KUNo’s 51x SECRET...

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Unformatted text preview: T‘AI KUNo’s 51x SECRET TEACHINGS ambitions. Those who covet profits will be extremely happy at the prospects, and their remaining doubts will be'ended. “Now without doubt the Tao for attacking is to first obfuscate the king’s clarity and then attack his Strength, destroying his greatness and eliminating the misfortune of the people. Debauch him with beautiful women, entice him with profit. Nurture him with flavors, and provide him with the com- pany of female musicians. Then after you have caused his subordinates to become estranged from him, you must cause the pe0ple to grow distant from him while never letting him know your plans. Appear to support him and draw him into your trap. Do not let him become aware of what is happening, for only then can your plan be successful. “When bestowing your benefieence on the peOpIe, you cannot begrudge the expense. The people are like cows and horses. Frequently make gifts of food and clothing and follow up by loving them.34 “The mind is the means to Open up knowledge; knowledge the means 'to open up the source of wealth; and wealth the means to open up the people. Gaining the allegiance of the people is the way to attract Worthy men. When one is enlightened by Sager advisers, he can become king of all the world-” 59 60 III DRAGON SECRET TEACHING 18. The King’s \Nings King Wu asked the T’ai Kung; “When the king commands the army he must have ‘legs and arms’ [top assistants] and "feathers and wings’ [aides] to bring aboat his awesomeness and spirituainess. How should this be done?” The T’ai Kung said: “Whenever one mobilizes the army it takes the com- manding general as its fate. Its fate lies in a penetrating understanding of all aspeCts, not clinging to one technique. In accord with their abilities assign duties—each one taking charge of what they are good at, constantly chang- ing and transforming with the times, to create the essential principles and or- der. Thus the general has seventy-two :‘legs and arms’ and ‘feathers and wings’ in order to respond to the Tao of Heaven. Prepare their number ac- cording to method, being careful that they know its orders and principles. When you have'all the different abilities and various skills, then the myriad affairs will be complete.” King Wu asked: “May I ask about the various categories?” The T’ai Kung said: “Pu-395132 [Chief of Planning]? one: in charge of ad- vising abOut secret plans for responding to sudden events; invesrigaring Heaven so as to eliminate sudden change; exercising general supervision over ali planning; and protecting and preserving the lives of the people. “Pianning officers, five: reSponsible for planning seCurity and danger; an- ticipating the unforeseen; discussing performance and ability; making clear rewards and punishments; appointing officers; deciding the doubtful; and determining what is advisable and what is not: “Astrologers, three: undertaking responsibiiity for the stars and calendar; observing the wind and cb’t’; predicting auspicious days and times; investi- gating signs and phenomena; verifying disasters and abnormalities; and T’AI KUNo‘s 51x sscnar TEACHiNGs knowing Heaven’s mind with regard to the moment for completion or aban- donnient.36 “Topographers, three: in charge of the army’s disposition and Strategic configuration of power when moving and stopped [and of] information on strategic advantages and disadvantages; precipitous and easy passages, both near and far; and water and dry land, mountains and defiles, so as not to lose the advantages of terrain. “Strategists, nine: responsible for discussing divergent views; analyzing the probable success or failure of various operations; selecting the weapons and training men in their use; and identifying those who violate the ordi- nances. “Supply officers, four: responsible for calculating the requirements for food and water; preparing the food stocks and supplies and tranSporting the provisions along the route; and supplying the five grains so as to ensure that the army will nor suffer any hardship or shortage. “Officers for Flourishing Awesomeness, four: responsibie for picking men of talent and strength; for discussing weapons and armor; for setting up at- tacks that race like the wind and strike like thunder so that [the enemy] does not know where they come from. ' “SeCIet Signals officers,” three: responsible for the pennants and drums, for clearly {signaling} to the eyes and ears; for creating deceptive signs and seals [and] issuing false designations and orders; and for stealthin and hast- ily moving back and forth, going in and out like spirits. “Legs and Arms, four: responsible for undertaking heavy duties and han— dling difficult tasks; for the repair and maintenance of ditches and meats; and for keeping the walls and ramparts in repair in order to defend against and repel [the enemy]. “Liaison officers, two: responsible for gathering what has been lost and supplementing what is in error; receiving honored guests; holding discus- sions and talks; mitigating disasters; and resolving difficulties. “Officers of Authority, three: responsible for implementing the unortho» dox and deceptive; for establishing the different and the unusual, things that people do not recognize; and for putting into effect inexhaustible transfor- mations.38 I “Ears and Eyes, seven: responsible for going about everywhere, listening to what peOple are saying; seeing the changes; and observing the officers in all four directions and the army’s true situation. “Claws and Teeth, five: responsible for raising awesomeness and martiai [spirit]; for stimulating and encouraging the Three Armies, ca using them to 61 62 T’AI KUNG’S SIX SECRET TEACHINGS risk hardship and attack the enemy’s elite troops without ever having any doubts or second thoughts. ' “Feathers and Wings; four: responsible for flourishing the name and fame [of the army]; for shaking distant lands [with its image]; and for moving all within the four borders in order to weaken the enemy’s spirit. “Roving officers, eight: responsible for spying on [the enemy’s] licentious- ness and observing their changes; manipulating their emotions; and observ- ing the enemy’s thoughts in order to act as spies. “Officers of Techniques, two: responsibie for spreading slander and false- hoods and for calling on ghosts and spirits in order to confuse the minds of the populace. “Officers of Prescriptions, three: in charge of the hundred medicines; man~ aging blade wounds; and curing the various maladies. “Accountants, two: responsible for accounting for the provisions and foodstuffs within the Three Armies’ encampments and ramparts; for the fis— cal materials employed; and for receipts and disbursements.” 19. A Discussion of Generals King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “What should a general be?” The T’ai Kung replied: “Generals : have five critical talents and ten excesses.” ' King Wu said: “Dare I ask you to enumerate them?” The T’ai Kong elaborated: “What we refer to as the five talents are cour— age, wisdom, benevolence, trustworthiness, and loyalty. If he is courageous he cannot be overwhelmed. If he is wise he cannot be forced into turmoil. If he is benevolent he will love his men. If he is trustworthy he will not be de- ceitful. If he is loyal he will not be of two minds. “What are referred to as the ten errors are as follows: being courageous and treating death lightly; being hasty and impatient; being greedy and lov— ing profit; being benevolent but unable to inflict suffering; being wise but afraid; being trustworthy and liking to trust others; being scrupulous and incorruptible but not loving men; being wise but indecisive; being resolute and self-reliant; and being fearful while liking to entrust responsibility to other men. “One who is courageous and treats death lightly can be destroyed by vio- lence. One who is hasty and impatient Can be destroyed by persistence. One who is greedy and loves profit can be bribed. One who is benevolent but un- able to inflict suffering can be worn down. One who is wise but fearful can be distressed. T’AI KUNG’S SIX SECRET TEACHINGS “One who is trustworthy and likes to trust others can be deceived. One who is scrupu10us and incorruptible but does not love men can be insulted. One who is wise but indecisive can be suddenly attacked. One who is reso— lute and self-reliant can be confounded by events. Che who is fearful and likes to entrust responsibility to others can be tricked. “Thus ‘warfare is the greatest affair of state, the Tao of survival or exrinc- tion.”9 The fate of the state lies in the hands of the general. ‘The general is the support of the state,"‘° a man that the former kings all valued. Thus in commissioning a general, you cannot but carefully evaluate and investigate his character. “Thus it is said that two armies will not be victorious, nor will both be de- feated. When the army ventures out beyond the borders, before they have been out ten days—even if a state has not perished—one army will certainly have been destroyed and the general killed.” King Wu: “Marvelous!” 20. Selecting Generals King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “Ifa king wants to raise an army, how should he go about selecting and _ training heroic officers and determining their moral qualifications?” The T’ai Kung said: “There are fifteen cases where a knight’s external ap- pearance and internal character do not cohere. These are: “He appears to be a Worthy but [actually} is immoral. “He seems warm and conscientious but is a thief. “His countenance is reverent and respectful, but his heart is insolent. “Externally he is incorruptible and circumspect, but he lacks respect. “He appears perceptive and sharp but lacks such talent. “He appears profound but lacks all sincerity. “He appears adept at planning but is indecisive. .. “He appears to be decisive and daring but is incapable. “He appears guileless but is not trustworthy. “He appears confused and disoriented but on the contrary is loyal and substantial. “He appears to engage in specious discourse but is a man of merit and achievement. “He appears courageous but is afraid. “He seems severe and remote but on the contrary easily befriends men. “He appears forbidding but on the contrary is quiet and sincere. 63 64 T‘AI KUNG’S SIX SECRET TEACHINGS “He appears weak and insubstantial, yet when dispatched outside the state there is nothing he does not accomplish, no mission that he does not ex- ecute successfully. ‘ “Those who the world disdains the Sage values. Ordinary men do not know these things; only great wisdom can discern the edge of these matters. This is because the knight’s externai appearance and internal character do not visibly cohere.” King Wu asked: “How does one know this?” The T’ai Kung replied: “There are eight forms of evidence by which you may know it. First, question them and observe the details of their reply. Sec- ond, verbally confound and perplex them and observe how they change. Third, discuss things which yOu have secretly learned to observe their sincer- ity. Fourth, clearly and explicitly question them to observe their virtue. Fifth, appoint them to positions of financial responsibility to observe their hon— esty. Sixth, test them with beautiful women to observe their uprightness. Sev- enth, confront them with difficulties to observe their courage. Eighth, get them drunk to observe their deportment. When all eight have been fully ex- piored, then the Worthy and unworthy can be distinguished." 21. Appointing the General C King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “What is the Tao for appointing the com- manding general?” The T’ai Kung said: “When the state encounters danger, the ruler should vacate the Main Hall, summon the general, and charge him as follows: ‘The security or endangerment of the Altars of State all lie with the army‘s com— manding general. At present such-and-such a state does not act properly sub- missive. I would like you to lead the army forth to respond to it.’ “After the general has received his mandate, command the Grand Scribe to bore the sacred tortoise shell to divine an auspicious day. Thereafter, to pre- pare for the chosen day, observe a vegetarian regime for three days, and then go to the ancestral temple to hand over the fu and Web axes.“ “After the ruier has entered the gate to the temple, he stands facing west. The general enters the temple gate and stands facing north. The ruler person— ally takes the yfleh ax and, holding it by the head, passes the handle to the general, saying: ‘From this to Heaven above will be controlled by the Gen- eral of the Army.’ Then taking the fa axe by the handle, he should give the blade to the general, saying: ‘From this to the depths below will be con- trolled by the Genera! of the Army. When you see vacuity in the enemy you should advance; when you see substance you should halt.42 Do not assume "t’ar KUNc’s six SECRET TEACHINGS that the Three Armies are large and treat the enemy lightly. Do not commit yourself to die just because you have received a heavy responsibility. Do not, because you are honored, regard Other men as lowly. Do not rely upon your- self alone and contravene the masses. Do not take verb‘al‘ facility to be a sign of certainty. When the officers have not yet been seated, do not sit. When the officers have not yet eaten, do not eat. You should share heat and cold with them. If you behave in this way the officers and masses will certainly exhaust their strength in fighting to the death.’43 ' “After the general has received his mandate, he bows and responds to the ruler: ‘I have heard that a country cannot follow the commands of another state’s government, while an army [in the field] cannot follow central gOv- ernment control. Someone of two minds cannot properly serve his ruler; someone in doubt cannot respond to the enemy. I have already received my mandate and taken sole control of the aWesome power of the fu and Julie}: axes. I do nor dare return alive. I would like to request that you condescend to grant complete and sole command to me. If you do not permit it, I dare not accept the post of general.‘ The king then grants it, and the general for- mally takes his leave and departs.“ “Military matters are not determined by the ruler’s commands; they all proceed from the commanding general. When [the commanding general] approaches an enemy and decides to engage in battle, he is not of two minds. In this way there is no Heaven above, no Earth below, no enemy in front, and no ruler to the rear. For this reason the wise make plans for him, the coura- geous fight for him. Their spirit soars to the blue clouds; they are swift like galloping steeds. Even before the blades clash, the enemy surrenders submis- sively. “War is won outside the borders of the state, but the general’s merit is es- tablished within it. Officials are promoted and receive the highest rewards; the hundred surnames rejoice; and the general is blameless. For this reason the winds and rains will be seasonable; the five grains will grow abundantly; and the altars of state will be secure and peaceful.” King Wu said: “Excellent.” 22. The General’s Awesomeness King Wu asked: “How does the general create awesomeness? How can he be enlightened? How can he make his prohibitions effeCtive and get his orders implemented?” The T‘ai Kung said: “The general creates awesomeness by executing the great, and becomes enlightened by rewarding the small. Prohibitions are 65 66 T’Al KUNG‘s 51x SECRET reacnmos made effective and laws implemented by ca teful scrutiny in the use of pun— ishments. Therefore if by exeCuting one man the entire army will quake, kill him. If by rewarding one man the masseswill be pleased, reward him. In exe- Cuting, value the great; in rewarding, value the small. When you kill the powerful and the honored, this‘is punishment that teaches the pinnacle. When rewards extend down to the cowherds, grooms, and stablemen, these are rewards penetrating downward to the lowest. When punishments reach the pinnacle and rewards penetrate to the lowest, then your awesomeness has been effected.” 23. Encouraging the Army King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “When we attack I want the masses of the Three Armies to contend with each other to scale the wall first, and compete with each other to be in the forefront when we fight in the field. When they hear the sound of the gongs [to retreat] they will be angry, and when they hear the sound of the drums [to advance] they will be happy. How can we ac- complish this?” The T’ai Kung said: “A general has three techniques for attaining victory.” King Wu asked: “May I ask what they are?” ' The T’ai Kong: “ 'f in winter the general does not wear a fur robe, in sum~ mer does not carry a fan, and in the rain does not set up a canopy, he is called a ‘general of proper form.” Unless the general himself submits to these obser- vances, he will not have the means to know the cold and warmth of the offi- cers and soldiers. “If, when they advance into ravines and obstacles or encounter muddy ter- rain, the general always takes the first steps, he is termed a ‘general of strength.’ If the general does not personally exert his strength, he has no means to know the labors and hardships of the officers and soldiers. “If only after the men are settled in their encampment does the general re- tire; only after all the cooks have finished their cooking does he go in to eat; and if the army does not light fires to keep warm he also does not have one, he is termed a ‘general who stifles desire.’ Unless the general himself prac- tices stifling his desires, he has no way to know the hunger and satiety of the officers and troops. “The general shares heat and cold, labor and suffering, hunger and satiety with the officers and men. Therefore when the masses of the Three Armies hear the sound of the drum they are happy, and when they hear the sound of the gong they are angry. When attacking a high wall or crossing a deep lake, T’AI KUNo’s SIX SECRET TEACHINGS under a hail of arrows and stones, the officers will compete to be first to scale the waIl. When the naked blades clash, the officers will compete to be the first to go forward. It is not because they like death and take pleasure in be- ing wounded, but because the general knows their feelings of heat and cold, hunger and satiety, and clearly displays .his knowledge of their labor and suf- fering.” 24. Secret Tallies“ King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “If we lead the army deep into the territory of the feudal lords where the Three Armies suddenly suffer some delay or re- quire urgent action-uperhaps a situation to our advantage, or one to our dis- advantage-harm I“ want to communicate between those nearby and those more distant, respond to the outside from the inside, in order to supply the use of the Three Armies—how should we do it?” w The T’ai Kung said: “The ruler and his generals have a system of secret tal- lies, altogether consisting of eight grades. “There is a tally signifying a great victory over the enemy, one foot long. “There is a tally for destroying the enemy’s army and killing their general, nine inches long. “There is a tally for forcing the surrender of the enemy’s walls and captur- ing the town, eight inches long. “There is a rally for driving the enemy back and reporting deep penetra- tion, seven inches long. “There is a tally to alert the masses to prepare for stalwart defensive mea- sures, six inches long. “There is a tally requesting supplies and additional soldiers, five inches long. “There is a tally signifying the army’s defeat and the general’s death, four inches long. “There is a tally signifying the loss of all advantages and the army’s surren- der, three inches long. “Detain all those who bring in and present tallies, and if the information from the tally should leak out, execute all those who heard and told about it. These eight tallies, which only the ruler and general should secretly know, provide a technique for covert communication that will not allow outsiders to know the true situation. Accordingly, even though the enemy has the wis- dom of a Sage, no one will comprehend their significance.” King Wu said: “Excellent.” 67 68 T’AI KUNG’s 51x SECRET TEACHINGS 25. Secret Letters King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “The army has been led deep into the territory of the feudal lords and the commanding general47 wants to bring the troops together, implement inexhaustible changes, and plan for unfathomable ad- vantages. These matters are quite numerous; the simple tally is nOt adequate to clearly express them. As they are separated by some distance, verbal com- munications cannot get through. What should we do?” The T’ai Kung said: “Whenever you have secret affairs and major consid- erations, letters should be employed rather than tallies. The ruler sends a let— ter to the general; the general uscs a letter to query the ruler. The letters are [composed] in one unit, then divided. They are sent out in three parts, with only one person knowing the contents. ‘Divided‘ means it is Separated into three parts. ‘Sent out in three parts, with only one person knowing’ means there are three messengers, each carrying one part; and when the three are compared together, only then does one know the contents. This is referred to as a ‘secret letter.’ Even if the enemy has the wisdom of a Sage, they will not be able to recognize the contents.” “Excellent,” said King Wu. 26. The Army’s Strategic Power King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “What is the Tao for aggressive warfare?” The T’ai Kung replied: “Strategic power is exercised in accord with the en- emy’s movements. Changes stem from the confrontation between the two ar~ mies. Unorthodox [cb’r'] and orthodox [Chang] tactics are produced from the inexhaustible resources [of the mind]. Thus the greatest affairs are not dis- cussed, and the employment of troops is not spoken about. Moreover, words which discuss ultimate affairs are not worth listening to.48 The employment of tr00ps is not so definitive as to be visible. They go suddenly, they come suddenly. Only someone who can exercise sole control, without being gov- erned by other men, is a military weapon. “If [your plans]49 are heard about, the enemy will make counterplans. If you are perceived, they will plot against you. If you are known, they will put you in difficulty. If you are fathomed, they will endanger you. “Thus one who excels in warfare does not await the deployment of forces. One who excels at eliminating the misfortunes of the people manages them before they appear. Conquering the enemy means being victorious over the r’ar Kunc’s 51x sscne‘r TEACHiNGS formless?o The superior fighter does not engage in battle. Thus one who fights and attains victory in front of naked blades is not a good general. One who makes preparations after [the battle] has been lost is not a Superior Sage! One whose skill is the same as the masses is-noiia State Artisan. “In military affairs nothing is more important than certain victory. In em~ ploying the army nothing is more important than obscurity and silence. In movement nothing is more important than the unexpected. In planning nothing is more important than not being knowable. “To be the first to gain victory, initially display some weakness to the en- emy and only afterward do battle. Then your effort will be half, but the achievement will be doubled. “The Sage takes his signs from the movements of Heaven and Earth; who knows his principles? He accords with the Tao of yin and yang and follows their seasonal activity. He follows the cycles of fullness and emptiness of Heaven and Earth, taking them as his constant. All things have life and death in accord with the form of Heaven and Earth. Thus it is said that if one fights before seeing the situation, even if he is more numerous, he will certainly be defeated. “One who excels at warfare will await events in the situation without making any movement. When he sees he can be victorious, he will arise; if he sees he cannot be victorious, he will desist. Thus it is said he does not have any fear, he does not vacillate. Of the many harms that can beset an army, vacillation is the greatest. Of disasters that can befall an army, none surpasses doubt. “One who excels in warfare will not lose an advantage when he perceives it or be doubtful when he meets the moment. One who loses an advantage or lags behind the time for action will, on the contrary, suffer from disaster. Thus the wise follow the time and do not lose an advantage; the skillful are decisive and have no doubts. For this reason when there is a sudden clap of thunder, there is not time to cover the ears; when there is a flash of lightning, there is nottime to close the eyes. Advance as if suddenly startled; employ your troops as if deranged?1 Those who oppose you will be destroyed; those who come near will perish. Who can defend against such an attack? “Now when matters are not discussed and the general preserves their se- crecy, he is spirit-like. When things are not manifest but he discerns them, he is enlightened. Thus if one knows the Tao of spirit and enlightenment, no en- emieswill act against him in the field, nor will any state Stand against him.” “Excellent,” said King Wu. 69 70 T’AI KUNG‘s 51x SECRET TEACHINGS 2 7. The Llnorthodox Army King Wu asked the T’ai Kung, ‘fln general, what are the great essentials in the art of employing the army?” " The T’ai Kung replied: “The ancients who excelled at warfare were not able to wage war above Heaven, nor could they wage war below Earth."2 Their success and defeat in all cases proceeded from the spiritual employ- ment of strategic power [shift]. Those who attained it flourished; those who lost it perished. “Now when our two armies, opposing each other, have deployed their ar- mored soldiers and established their battle arrays, releasing some of your troops to create chaos in the ranks is the means by which to fabricate decep- tive changes. “Deep grass and dense growth are the means by which to effect a con- cealed escape. “Valleys with streams and treacherous ravines are the means by which to stop chariots and defend against cavalry. “Narrow passes' and mountain forests are the means by which a few can attack a large fOI'CE. “Marshy depressions and secluded dark areas are the means by which to conceal your appearance. “[Deploying] on clear, open ground without any concealment is the means by which to fight with strength and courage.” “Being as swift as a flying arrow, attacking as suddenly as the release of a crossbow are the means by which to destroy brilliant plans. “Setting up ingenious ambushes and preparing unorthodox troops, stretching out distant formations to deceive and entice the enemy are the means by which to destroy the enemy‘s army and capture its general. 3 “Dividing your troops into four and splitting them into five are the means by which by attack their circular formations and destroy their square ones. “Taking advantage of their fright and fear is the means by which one can attack ten. _ “Taking advantage of their exhaustion and encamping at dusk are the means by which ten can attack one hundred. “Unorthodox technical skills are the means by which to cross deep waters and ford rivers. “Strong crossbows and long weapons are the means by which to fight across water. T‘AI KUNG’S SIX SECRET TEACHINGS “Distant observation posts and far-off scouts, explosive haste and feigned retreats are the means by which to force the surrender of walled fortifica- tions and compel the submission of towns. “Drumming an advance and setting up a great tumult are the means by which to implement unorthodox plans. “High winds and heavy rain are the means by which to strike the front and seize the rear. “Disguising some men as enemy emissaries is the means by which to sever their supply lines. “Forging {enemy} commands and orders and wearing the same clothes as the enemy are the means by which to be prepared for their retreat. “Warfare which is invariably in accord with righteousness is the means by which to incite the masses and be victorious over the enemy. “Honored ranks and generous rewards are the means by which to encour— age obeying orders. “Severe punishments and heavy fines are the means by which to force the weary and indolent to advance. “Happiness and anger, bestowing and taking away, civil and martial mea- sures, at times slowly, at others rapidly—all these are the means by which to order and harmonize the Three__Armies, to govern and unify subordinates. “Occupying high ground is the means by which to be alert and assume a defensive posture. “Holding defiles and narrows is the means by which to be solidly en- trenched. “Mountain forests and dense growth are the means by which to come and go silently. “Deep moats, high ramparts, and large reserves of supplies are the means by which to sustain your position for a long time. “Thus it is said, ‘One who does not know how to plan for aggressive war- fare cannOt be spoken with about the enemy. One who cannot divide and move [his troops about] cannot be spoken with about unorthodox strate- gies.54 One who does not have a penetrating understanding of both order and chaos cannot be spoken with about changes.’ “Accordingly it is said: “ ‘If the general is not benevolent, then the Three Armies will not be close to him. “ ‘If the general is not courageous, then the Three Armies will not be fierce. “‘If the general is not wise, then the Three Armies will be greatly per- plexed. 7] 72 “ ‘li the general is not perspicacmus, iounded. “‘If the general is not quick-Witted and 30116, lose the moment.” I “ “If the general is not constantly alert, the Three Armies will waste the'L' ii preparations. “ ‘If the general is not strong and forceful, then the Three Armies will fat in their duty.’ _ “Thus the general is their Master of Fate. The Three Armies are order-eel with him, and they are disordered with him. If one obtains a Worthy to semi.2 as general, the army will be strong and the state will prosper. If one does in "C obtain a Worthy as general, the army will be weak and the state will perish. ” “Excellent,” said King Wu. 28. The Five Notes King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “From the sound of the pitch pipes, can “3 know the fluctuations of the Three Armies, foretell victory and defeat?” The T‘ai Kung said: “Your question is profound indeed! Now there tire. twelve pipes, with five major notes: hung, slicing, cbz'ao, abeng, and Jail-'56 These are the true, orthodox sounds, unchanged for over ten thousand gen- erations. “The spirits of the five phases are constants of the Tao.” Metal, world, water, fire, and earth-“each according to their conquest relationship—{can be employed to] attack the enemy. In antiquity, during the period of the Three Sage Emperors, they used the nature of vacuity and nonfiaction to g ’V' ern the hard and strong. They didn’t have characters for writing; everything proceeded from the five phases. The Tao of the five phases is the naturalrt€55 of Heaven and Earth. The division into the six chic” is [a realizationfmc marvelous and subtle spirit. ' “Their method was, when the day had been clear and calm—without any clouds, wind, or rain—to send light cavalry out in the middle of the nigh"?-t to approach the enemy’s fortifications. Stopping about nine hundred paces away, they would all lift their pipes to their ears and then yell out to startle the enemy. There would be a very small, subtle sound that would responti in ' the pitch pipes. “If the rhino note responded among the pipes, it indicated a white tiger- “If the cheng note responded in the pipes, it indicated the Mysterious Mili- tary. “If the shang note responded in the pipes, it indicated the Vermillion Bird- T’AI KUNG’S 51X SECRET TEACHINGS “If you ya note responded in the pipes, it indicated the Hooked Forma- tion. “If none of the five notes responded in the pipes, it was knng, signifying a Green Dragon. ‘ - t " “These signs of the five phasesare evidence to assist in the conquest, the subtle moments of sucoess and defeat.” “Excellent,” said King Wu. The T’ai Kung continued: “These subtle, mysterious notes all have exter- nal indications.” . “How can we know them?” King Wu asked. The T’ai Kung replied: “When the enemy has been startled into move- ment, listen for them. If you hear the sound of the pan drum, then it is chino. If you see the flash of lights from a fire, then it is cheng. If you hear the sounds of bronze and iron, of spears and halberds, then it is shang. If you hear the sound of people sighing, it is yz‘i. If all is silent, without any sound, then it is hung. These five are the signs of sound and appearance.” 29. The Army’s Indications King Wu asked the T‘ai Kung: “Before engaging in battle I want to first know the enemy’s strengths and weaknesses, to foresee indications of victory or defeat. How can this be done?” The T’ai Kung replied: “Indications of victory or defeat will be first mani- fest in their spirit. The enlightened general will investigate them, for they will be evidenced in the men. “Clearly observe the enemy’s coming and going, advancing and withdraw- ing. Investigate his movements and periods at rest, whether they speak about portents, what the officers and troops report. If the Three Armies are exhila- rated [and] the officers and troops fear the laws; respecr the general’s com- mands; rejoice with each other in destroying the enemy; boast to each other about their courage and ferocity; and praise each other for their awesome- ness and martial demeanor—these are indications of a strong enemy. “If the Three Armies have been startled a number of times, the officers and troops no longer maintaining good order; they terrify each other [with sto- ries about] the enemy’s strength; they speak to each other about the disad- vantages; they anxiously look about at each other, listening carefully; they talk incessantly of ill omens, myriad mouths confusing each other; they fear neither laws nor orders and do not regard their general seriously—these are indications of weakness. 73 74 “I’m KUNG’S 51x SECRET TEACHINGS “When the Three Armies are well ordered; the deployment’s strategic con~ figuration of power solid—with deep meats and high ramparts—and more- over they enjoy the advantages of high winds and heavy rain; the army is un- troubled; the signal flags and pennants pbint to the front; the sound of the gongs and bells rises up and is clear; and the sound of the small and large drums Clearly rises—these are indications of having obtained spiritual, en- lightened assistance, foreteliing a great victory. “When their formations are not solid; their flags and pennants confused and entangled with each other; they go contrary to the advantages of high wind and heavy rain; their officers and troops are terrified; and their cb’i broken while they are not unified; their war horses have been frightened and run off, their military chariots have broken axles; the sound of their gongs and bells sinks down and is murky; the sound of their drums is wet and damp—these are indications foretelling a great defeat. “In general, when you attack city walls or surround towns, if the color of their cb’i is liked dead ashes, the city can be slaughtered.” If the city’s ch’i drifts out to the north, the city can be conquered. If the city’s cb’t’ goes out and drifts to the west, the city can be forced to surrender. If the city’s cb’t' goes out and drifts to the south, it cannot be taken. If the city’s cb’i goes out and drifts to the east, the city cannot be attacked. If the city’s cb’t' goes out but then drifts back in, the city’s ruler has already fled. If the city’s eb’z' goes out and overspreads our army, the soldiers will surely fall ill. If the city’s cb’i goes out and just rises up without any directionfo the army will have to be employed for a long time. If, when you have attacked a walled city or sur- rounded a town for more than ten days without thunder or rain, you must hastily abandon it, for the city must have a source of great assistance. “Those are the means by which to know that you can attack and then go on to mount the attack, or that you should not attack and therefore stop.” “Excellent,” said King Wu. 30. Agricultural Implements King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “If All under Heaven are at peace and settled, while the state is not engaged in any conflicts, can we dispense with main- taining the implements of war? Can we forego preparing equipment for de- fense?” The T’ai Kung said: “The implements for offense and defense are fully found in ordinary human activity. Digging sticks serve as chevaux-de-fiz'se and calttops. Oxen and horse-pulled Wagons can be used in the encampment and as covering shields. The different hoes can be used as spears and Spear- T’Al KUNG’S SIX SECRET TEACHINGS tipped halberds. Raincoats of straw and large umbrellas serve as armor and protective shields. Large hoes, spades, axes, saws, mortars, and pestles are tools for attacking walls. Oxen and horses are the means to transport provi- sions. Chickens and dogs serve as lookouts. Thetloth that women weave serves as flags and pennants. “The method that the men use for leveling the fields is the same for attack- ing walls. The skill needed in spring to cut down grass and thickets is the same as needed for fighting against chariots and cavalry. The weeding meth- ods used in summer are the same as used in battle against foot soldiers. The grain harvested and the firewood cut in the fall will be provisions for the mil- itary. In the winter well-filled granaries and storehouses will ensure a solid defense. “The units of five found in the fields and villages will provide the tallies and good faith that bind the men together. The villages have officials and the offices have chiefs who can lead the army. The villages have walls surround- ing them, which are not crossed; they provide the basis for the division into platoons. The transportation of grain and the cutting of hay provide for the state storehouses and armories. The skills used in repairing the inner and outer walls in the spring and fall, in maintaining the moats and channels are used to build ramparts and fortifications. “Thus the tools for employing the military are completely found in ordi- nary human activity. One who is good at governing a state will take them from ordinary human affairs. Then they must be made to accord with the good management of the six animals,61 to the opening up of wild lands, and the settling of the people where they dwell. The husband has a number of acres that he farms, the wife a measured amount of material to weave—this is the Way to enrich the state and strengthen the army.” “Excellent,” said King Wu. 75 76 Jr; an» IV TIGER SECRET TEACHING [3%. 3 1. The Army’s Equipment King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “When the king mobilizes the Three Armies, are there any rules for determining the army’s equipment, such as the implew ments for attack and defense, including type and quantity?” ._ The T’ai Kong said: “A great question, my king! The implements for at- tack and defense each have their own categories. This results in the great awesomeness of the army?“ King Wu said: “I would like to hear about them.” The T’ai Kung replied: “As for the basic numbers when employing the army, if commanding ten thousand armed soldiers the rules for [the various types of equipment and their] employment are as follows. “Thirty-six Martial Protective Large Fit-195a Chariots. Skilled officers, Strong crossbowmen, spear bearers, and halberdiers—total of twenty~four for each flank [and the rear].63 The chariots have eight-foot wheels. On it are set up pennants and drums which, according to the Art of War, are referred to as ‘Shaking Pear.’ They are used to penetrate solid formations, to defeat strong enemies. “Seventy-two MartialnFlanking Large Covered Spear and Halberd Fu-bsa‘ Chariots.“ Skilled officers, strong crossbowmen, spear bearers, and hal- berdiers comprise the flanks. They have five-foot wheels and winch—powered linked crossbows which fire multiple arrows for self-protection.6S They are used to penetrate solid formations and defeat strong enemies. “One hundred and forty Flank-supporting Small Covered Fu—bsz’i Chari- ots equipped with winch-powered linked Crossbows to fire multiple arrows for self-protection. They have deer wheels and are used to penetrate solid formations and defeat strong enemies. “Thirty-six Great Yellow Triple-linked Crossbow Large Fu-bsz‘é Chariots. Skilled officers, strong crossbowmen, spear bearers, and halberdiers com- ...
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