military of china ch3 - T‘AI KUNo’s 51x SECRET...

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Unformatted text preview: T‘AI KUNo’s 51x SECRET TEACHINGS ambitions. Those who covet profits will be extremely happy at the prospects, and their remaining doubts will be'ended. “Now without doubt the Tao for attacking is to first obfuscate the king’s clarity and then attack his Strength, destroying his greatness and eliminating the misfortune of the people. Debauch him with beautiful women, entice him with profit. Nurture him with flavors, and provide him with the com- pany of female musicians. Then after you have caused his subordinates to become estranged from him, you must cause the pe0ple to grow distant from him while never letting him know your plans. Appear to support him and draw him into your trap. Do not let him become aware of what is happening, for only then can your plan be successful. “When bestowing your benefieence on the peOpIe, you cannot begrudge the expense. The people are like cows and horses. Frequently make gifts of food and clothing and follow up by loving them.34 “The mind is the means to Open up knowledge; knowledge the means 'to open up the source of wealth; and wealth the means to open up the people. Gaining the allegiance of the people is the way to attract Worthy men. When one is enlightened by Sager advisers, he can become king of all the world-” 59 60 III DRAGON SECRET TEACHING 18. The King’s \Nings King Wu asked the T’ai Kung; “When the king commands the army he must have ‘legs and arms’ [top assistants] and "feathers and wings’ [aides] to bring aboat his awesomeness and spirituainess. How should this be done?” The T’ai Kung said: “Whenever one mobilizes the army it takes the com- manding general as its fate. Its fate lies in a penetrating understanding of all aspeCts, not clinging to one technique. In accord with their abilities assign duties—each one taking charge of what they are good at, constantly chang- ing and transforming with the times, to create the essential principles and or- der. Thus the general has seventy-two :‘legs and arms’ and ‘feathers and wings’ in order to respond to the Tao of Heaven. Prepare their number ac- cording to method, being careful that they know its orders and principles. When you have'all the different abilities and various skills, then the myriad affairs will be complete.” King Wu asked: “May I ask about the various categories?” The T’ai Kung said: “Pu-395132 [Chief of Planning]? one: in charge of ad- vising abOut secret plans for responding to sudden events; invesrigaring Heaven so as to eliminate sudden change; exercising general supervision over ali planning; and protecting and preserving the lives of the people. “Pianning officers, five: reSponsible for planning seCurity and danger; an- ticipating the unforeseen; discussing performance and ability; making clear rewards and punishments; appointing officers; deciding the doubtful; and determining what is advisable and what is not: “Astrologers, three: undertaking responsibiiity for the stars and calendar; observing the wind and cb’t’; predicting auspicious days and times; investi- gating signs and phenomena; verifying disasters and abnormalities; and T’AI KUNo‘s 51x sscnar TEACHiNGs knowing Heaven’s mind with regard to the moment for completion or aban- donnient.36 “Topographers, three: in charge of the army’s disposition and Strategic configuration of power when moving and stopped [and of] information on strategic advantages and disadvantages; precipitous and easy passages, both near and far; and water and dry land, mountains and defiles, so as not to lose the advantages of terrain. “Strategists, nine: responsible for discussing divergent views; analyzing the probable success or failure of various operations; selecting the weapons and training men in their use; and identifying those who violate the ordi- nances. “Supply officers, four: responsible for calculating the requirements for food and water; preparing the food stocks and supplies and tranSporting the provisions along the route; and supplying the five grains so as to ensure that the army will nor suffer any hardship or shortage. “Officers for Flourishing Awesomeness, four: responsibie for picking men of talent and strength; for discussing weapons and armor; for setting up at- tacks that race like the wind and strike like thunder so that [the enemy] does not know where they come from. ' “SeCIet Signals officers,” three: responsible for the pennants and drums, for clearly {signaling} to the eyes and ears; for creating deceptive signs and seals [and] issuing false designations and orders; and for stealthin and hast- ily moving back and forth, going in and out like spirits. “Legs and Arms, four: responsible for undertaking heavy duties and han— dling difficult tasks; for the repair and maintenance of ditches and meats; and for keeping the walls and ramparts in repair in order to defend against and repel [the enemy]. “Liaison officers, two: responsible for gathering what has been lost and supplementing what is in error; receiving honored guests; holding discus- sions and talks; mitigating disasters; and resolving difficulties. “Officers of Authority, three: responsible for implementing the unortho» dox and deceptive; for establishing the different and the unusual, things that people do not recognize; and for putting into effect inexhaustible transfor- mations.38 I “Ears and Eyes, seven: responsible for going about everywhere, listening to what peOple are saying; seeing the changes; and observing the officers in all four directions and the army’s true situation. “Claws and Teeth, five: responsible for raising awesomeness and martiai [spirit]; for stimulating and encouraging the Three Armies, ca using them to 61 62 T’AI KUNG’S SIX SECRET TEACHINGS risk hardship and attack the enemy’s elite troops without ever having any doubts or second thoughts. ' “Feathers and Wings; four: responsible for flourishing the name and fame [of the army]; for shaking distant lands [with its image]; and for moving all within the four borders in order to weaken the enemy’s spirit. “Roving officers, eight: responsible for spying on [the enemy’s] licentious- ness and observing their changes; manipulating their emotions; and observ- ing the enemy’s thoughts in order to act as spies. “Officers of Techniques, two: responsibie for spreading slander and false- hoods and for calling on ghosts and spirits in order to confuse the minds of the populace. “Officers of Prescriptions, three: in charge of the hundred medicines; man~ aging blade wounds; and curing the various maladies. “Accountants, two: responsible for accounting for the provisions and foodstuffs within the Three Armies’ encampments and ramparts; for the fis— cal materials employed; and for receipts and disbursements.” 19. A Discussion of Generals King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “What should a general be?” The T’ai Kung replied: “Generals : have five critical talents and ten excesses.” ' King Wu said: “Dare I ask you to enumerate them?” The T’ai Kong elaborated: “What we refer to as the five talents are cour— age, wisdom, benevolence, trustworthiness, and loyalty. If he is courageous he cannot be overwhelmed. If he is wise he cannot be forced into turmoil. If he is benevolent he will love his men. If he is trustworthy he will not be de- ceitful. If he is loyal he will not be of two minds. “What are referred to as the ten errors are as follows: being courageous and treating death lightly; being hasty and impatient; being greedy and lov— ing profit; being benevolent but unable to inflict suffering; being wise but afraid; being trustworthy and liking to trust others; being scrupulous and incorruptible but not loving men; being wise but indecisive; being resolute and self-reliant; and being fearful while liking to entrust responsibility to other men. “One who is courageous and treats death lightly can be destroyed by vio- lence. One who is hasty and impatient Can be destroyed by persistence. One who is greedy and loves profit can be bribed. One who is benevolent but un- able to inflict suffering can be worn down. One who is wise but fearful can be distressed. T’AI KUNG’S SIX SECRET TEACHINGS “One who is trustworthy and likes to trust others can be deceived. One who is scrupu10us and incorruptible but does not love men can be insulted. One who is wise but indecisive can be suddenly attacked. One who is reso— lute and self-reliant can be confounded by events. Che who is fearful and likes to entrust responsibility to others can be tricked. “Thus ‘warfare is the greatest affair of state, the Tao of survival or exrinc- tion.”9 The fate of the state lies in the hands of the general. ‘The general is the support of the state,"‘° a man that the former kings all valued. Thus in commissioning a general, you cannot but carefully evaluate and investigate his character. “Thus it is said that two armies will not be victorious, nor will both be de- feated. When the army ventures out beyond the borders, before they have been out ten days—even if a state has not perished—one army will certainly have been destroyed and the general killed.” King Wu: “Marvelous!” 20. Selecting Generals King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “Ifa king wants to raise an army, how should he go about selecting and _ training heroic officers and determining their moral qualifications?” The T’ai Kung said: “There are fifteen cases where a knight’s external ap- pearance and internal character do not cohere. These are: “He appears to be a Worthy but [actually} is immoral. “He seems warm and conscientious but is a thief. “His countenance is reverent and respectful, but his heart is insolent. “Externally he is incorruptible and circumspect, but he lacks respect. “He appears perceptive and sharp but lacks such talent. “He appears profound but lacks all sincerity. “He appears adept at planning but is indecisive. .. “He appears to be decisive and daring but is incapable. “He appears guileless but is not trustworthy. “He appears confused and disoriented but on the contrary is loyal and substantial. “He appears to engage in specious discourse but is a man of merit and achievement. “He appears courageous but is afraid. “He seems severe and remote but on the contrary easily befriends men. “He appears forbidding but on the contrary is quiet and sincere. 63 64 T‘AI KUNG’S SIX SECRET TEACHINGS “He appears weak and insubstantial, yet when dispatched outside the state there is nothing he does not accomplish, no mission that he does not ex- ecute successfully. ‘ “Those who the world disdains the Sage values. Ordinary men do not know these things; only great wisdom can discern the edge of these matters. This is because the knight’s externai appearance and internal character do not visibly cohere.” King Wu asked: “How does one know this?” The T’ai Kung replied: “There are eight forms of evidence by which you may know it. First, question them and observe the details of their reply. Sec- ond, verbally confound and perplex them and observe how they change. Third, discuss things which yOu have secretly learned to observe their sincer- ity. Fourth, clearly and explicitly question them to observe their virtue. Fifth, appoint them to positions of financial responsibility to observe their hon— esty. Sixth, test them with beautiful women to observe their uprightness. Sev- enth, confront them with difficulties to observe their courage. Eighth, get them drunk to observe their deportment. When all eight have been fully ex- piored, then the Worthy and unworthy can be distinguished." 21. Appointing the General C King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “What is the Tao for appointing the com- manding general?” The T’ai Kung said: “When the state encounters danger, the ruler should vacate the Main Hall, summon the general, and charge him as follows: ‘The security or endangerment of the Altars of State all lie with the army‘s com— manding general. At present such-and-such a state does not act properly sub- missive. I would like you to lead the army forth to respond to it.’ “After the general has received his mandate, command the Grand Scribe to bore the sacred tortoise shell to divine an auspicious day. Thereafter, to pre- pare for the chosen day, observe a vegetarian regime for three days, and then go to the ancestral temple to hand over the fu and Web axes.“ “After the ruier has entered the gate to the temple, he stands facing west. The general enters the temple gate and stands facing north. The ruler person— ally takes the yfleh ax and, holding it by the head, passes the handle to the general, saying: ‘From this to Heaven above will be controlled by the Gen- eral of the Army.’ Then taking the fa axe by the handle, he should give the blade to the general, saying: ‘From this to the depths below will be con- trolled by the Genera! of the Army. When you see vacuity in the enemy you should advance; when you see substance you should halt.42 Do not assume "t’ar KUNc’s six SECRET TEACHINGS that the Three Armies are large and treat the enemy lightly. Do not commit yourself to die just because you have received a heavy responsibility. Do not, because you are honored, regard Other men as lowly. Do not rely upon your- self alone and contravene the masses. Do not take verb‘al‘ facility to be a sign of certainty. When the officers have not yet been seated, do not sit. When the officers have not yet eaten, do not eat. You should share heat and cold with them. If you behave in this way the officers and masses will certainly exhaust their strength in fighting to the death.’43 ' “After the general has received his mandate, he bows and responds to the ruler: ‘I have heard that a country cannot follow the commands of another state’s government, while an army [in the field] cannot follow central gOv- ernment control. Someone of two minds cannot properly serve his ruler; someone in doubt cannot respond to the enemy. I have already received my mandate and taken sole control of the aWesome power of the fu and Julie}: axes. I do nor dare return alive. I would like to request that you condescend to grant complete and sole command to me. If you do not permit it, I dare not accept the post of general.‘ The king then grants it, and the general for- mally takes his leave and departs.“ “Military matters are not determined by the ruler’s commands; they all proceed from the commanding general. When [the commanding general] approaches an enemy and decides to engage in battle, he is not of two minds. In this way there is no Heaven above, no Earth below, no enemy in front, and no ruler to the rear. For this reason the wise make plans for him, the coura- geous fight for him. Their spirit soars to the blue clouds; they are swift like galloping steeds. Even before the blades clash, the enemy surrenders submis- sively. “War is won outside the borders of the state, but the general’s merit is es- tablished within it. Officials are promoted and receive the highest rewards; the hundred surnames rejoice; and the general is blameless. For this reason the winds and rains will be seasonable; the five grains will grow abundantly; and the altars of state will be secure and peaceful.” King Wu said: “Excellent.” 22. The General’s Awesomeness King Wu asked: “How does the general create awesomeness? How can he be enlightened? How can he make his prohibitions effeCtive and get his orders implemented?” The T‘ai Kung said: “The general creates awesomeness by executing the great, and becomes enlightened by rewarding the small. Prohibitions are 65 66 T’Al KUNG‘s 51x SECRET reacnmos made effective and laws implemented by ca teful scrutiny in the use of pun— ishments. Therefore if by exeCuting one man the entire army will quake, kill him. If by rewarding one man the masseswill be pleased, reward him. In exe- Cuting, value the great; in rewarding, value the small. When you kill the powerful and the honored, this‘is punishment that teaches the pinnacle. When rewards extend down to the cowherds, grooms, and stablemen, these are rewards penetrating downward to the lowest. When punishments reach the pinnacle and rewards penetrate to the lowest, then your awesomeness has been effected.” 23. Encouraging the Army King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “When we attack I want the masses of the Three Armies to contend with each other to scale the wall first, and compete with each other to be in the forefront when we fight in the field. When they hear the sound of the gongs [to retreat] they will be angry, and when they hear the sound of the drums [to advance] they will be happy. How can we ac- complish this?” The T’ai Kung said: “A general has three techniques for attaining victory.” King Wu asked: “May I ask what they are?” ' The T’ai Kong: “ 'f in winter the general does not wear a fur robe, in sum~ mer does not carry a fan, and in the rain does not set up a canopy, he is called a ‘general of proper form.” Unless the general himself submits to these obser- vances, he will not have the means to know the cold and warmth of the offi- cers and soldiers. “If, when they advance into ravines and obstacles or encounter muddy ter- rain, the general always takes the first steps, he is termed a ‘general of strength.’ If the general does not personally exert his strength, he has no means to know the labors and hardships of the officers and soldiers. “If only after the men are settled in their encampment does the general re- tire; only after all the cooks have finished their cooking does he go in to eat; and if the army does not light fires to keep warm he also does not have one, he is termed a ‘general who stifles desire.’ Unless the general himself prac- tices stifling his desires, he has no way to know the hunger and satiety of the officers and troops. “The general shares heat and cold, labor and suffering, hunger and satiety with the officers and men. Therefore when the masses of the Three Armies hear the sound of the drum they are happy, and when they hear the sound of the gong they are angry. When attacking a high wall or crossing a deep lake, T’AI KUNo’s SIX SECRET TEACHINGS under a hail of arrows and stones, the officers will compete to be first to scale the waIl. When the naked blades clash, the officers will compete to be the first to go forward. It is not because they like death and take pleasure in be- ing wounded, but because the general knows their feelings of heat and cold, hunger and satiety, and clearly displays .his knowledge of their labor and suf- fering.” 24. Secret Tallies“ King Wu asked the T’ai Kung: “If we lead the army deep into the territory of the feudal lords where the Three Armies suddenly suffer some delay or re- quire urgent action-uperhaps a situation to our advantage, or one to our dis- advantage-harm I“ want to communicate between those nearby and those more distant, respond to the outside from the inside, in order to supply the use of the Three Armies—how should we do it?” w The T’ai Kung said: “The ruler and his generals have a system of secret tal- lies, altogether consisting of eight grades. “There is a tally signifying a great victory over the enemy, one foot long. “There is a tally for destroying the enemy’s army and killing their general, nine inches long. “There is a tally for forcing the surrender of the enemy’s walls and captur- ing the town, eight inches long. “There is a rally for driving the enemy back and reporting deep penetra- tion, seven inches long. “There is a tally to alert the masses to prepare for stalwart defensive mea- sures, six inches long. “There is a tally requesting supplies and additional soldiers, five inches long. “There is a tally signifying the army’s defeat and the general’s death, four inches long. “There is a tally signifying the loss of all advantages and the army’s surren- der, three inches long. “Detain all those who bring in and present tallies, and if the information from the tally should leak out, execute all those who heard and told about it. These eight tallies, which only the ruler and general should secretly know, provide a technique for covert communication that will not allow outsiders to k...
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