f_0019839_16909 - Cyber War and Cyber Defense We Depend on...

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Fall 2010 The Ambassadors REVIEW 18 Cyber War and Cyber Defense: We Depend on the Kindness of Strangers James A. Lewis Director and Senior Fellow Technology and Public Policy Program Center for Strategic and International Studies o one expected the Internet, originally a set of new communications protocols designed to make telecommunications more efficient and survivable, to reshape business, politics and military conflict. The Clinton administration commercialized the Internet in the early 1990s. There was an immensely rapid uptake by businesses and consumers, followed shortly thereafter by a strong interest among militaries and intelligence agencies as to how to exploit the new technology. While a 1995 cover story for Time Magazine was entitled “Onward Cyber Warriors,” the desire to use the Internet as a weapon outpaced the ability of the new technology to cause damage. We did not depend as much on networks in 1995, and we were not as connected globally. This has changed markedly in the last five years. Businesses found that using the new Internet protocols let them be more efficient and lower costs. Companies could replace critical infrastructure control systems, which once ran over dedicated telephone lines and used proprietary programs, with commercially available software that ran over the Internet. There were large savings, but also a large increase in risk. It is difficult to break into a dedicated telephone line and decipher proprietary programs. It is much simpler, as we have discovered, to “hack” into the Internet. The developers of the Internet did not pay attention to security. It was a closed military project used by a small community of scientists, engineers, and military officials. Some of the Internet pioneers also had strong views on the role of government and its relations to innovation, and they sought to build a system that was open, encouraged easy connectivity, was non-hierarchical in its makeup, and did not use a strong, organized system of governance based on nation-states. The intent would be a self-organizing community where innovation would flourish. This vision has been hugely successful in creating a new global infrastructure to which hundreds of millions of people and devices connect and, increasingly, rely upon. But the lack of emphasis on security also created huge new vulnerabilities. The technology of the Internet was not built with network security in mind. Computers were once large, expensive, machines, unconnected to anything else. Secure the building that housed them, and they were secure. Then came the personal computer, small, cheap, but also not
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This note was uploaded on 01/25/2012 for the course COMM 321 taught by Professor Erinmcclellan during the Spring '11 term at Boise State.

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f_0019839_16909 - Cyber War and Cyber Defense We Depend on...

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