f_0023443_19185 - The Seven States of the Former Yugoslavia...

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Fall 2011 The Ambassadors REVIEW 40 Source : Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2011. The Seven States of the Former Yugoslavia: An Evaluation Thomas P. Melady, Ph.D. Professor and Senior Diplomat in Residence, Institute of World Politics United States Ambassador to the Holy See, 1989-1993 United States Ambassador to Uganda, 1972-1973 United States Ambassador to Burundi, 1969-1972 Senior Advisor to the US Delegation to the United Nations General Assembly President Emeritus of Sacred Heart University Former United States Assistant Secretary for Post Secondary Education J. Cushman Laurent Candidate for Master’s Degree, Institute of World Politics Executive Assistant to the Sr. Diplomat in Residence, Institute of World Politics he area formerly known as Yugoslavia, positioned at the crossroads of East and West, is a melting pot of ethnicities and religions. As one country, Yugoslavia’s rich multi- culturalism was a source of contention, culminating in a series of bloody conflicts in the early 1990s. The Dayton Accords of 1995 brought peace to the region and created separate nations organized along ethnic and religious lines. Sixteen years after the signing of the Dayton Accords, we examine the geo- political situation in each of the seven independent states of the former Yugoslavia. Bosnia and Herzegovina In the early 1990s, there was considerable ethnic-religious conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Dayton Peace Accords had the immediate impact of bringing the inter- ethnic strife to an end. Bosnia and Herzegovina was confirmed as a sovereign state. Today, the country is slightly smaller than West Virginia and has a population of over four and a half million. 1 1 “Bosnia and Herzegovina,” The CIA World Factbook , 16 August 2011. T
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Fall 2011 The Ambassadors REVIEW 41 However, the political solution that ended the war is complex. There are two tiers of government. The first tier is a national government, responsible for Bosnia- Herzegovina’s economic, fiscal and foreign policies. The second tier of government administers the internal functions of two entities: the Bosniak Croat Federation and Republika Srpska (RS). The first entity—the Bosniak Croat Federation—is composed primarily of people of Bosniak and Croatian ethnic backgrounds. Republika Srpska—the second entity—is overwhelmingly Serb. An additional area, the Br č ko District in northeastern Bosnia, was previously held by both entities. It is now a self-governing administrative unit under international supervision. In addition to the tiered government, an Office of the High Representative (OHR) was created under the Dayton Accords with “the authority to impose legislation and remove officials.” 2 Created during the great rush to obtain an agreement to end the conflict, there was subsequently serious doubt about creating an external authority that could interfere in the internal matters of a sovereign state. In our opinion, Republika Srpska does not support the institution of the OHR because it feels that those aligned with the OHR are
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This note was uploaded on 01/25/2012 for the course COMM 321 taught by Professor Erinmcclellan during the Spring '11 term at Boise State.

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f_0023443_19185 - The Seven States of the Former Yugoslavia...

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