commtech[2] - IS 3413 Introduction to Telecommunications...

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IS 3413 – Introduction to Telecommunications for Business Instructor: Yoris A. Au, Ph.D. Packet Switching and Network Technologies Part 3 1
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2 Chapter 17 LAN Extensions: Fiber Modems, Repeaters, Bridges, and Switches
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3 Topics Covered 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Distance Limitation and LAN Design 17.3 Fiber Modem Extensions 17.4 Repeaters 17.5 Bridges and Bridging 17.6 Learning Bridges and Frame Filtering 17.7 Why Bridging Works Well 17.8 Distributed Spanning Tree 17.9 Switching and Layer 2 Switches 17.10 VLAN Switches 17.11 Bridging Used with Other Devices
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4 17.1 Introduction This chapter discusses two important concepts: mechanisms that can extend a LAN across a longer distance and LAN switching introduces repeaters, bridges, and the spanning tree algorithm used to prevent forwarding loops
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5 17.2 Distance Limitation and LAN Design Distance limitation is a fundamental part of LAN designs When designing a network technology, engineers choose a combination of factors that can be achieved at a given cost Capacity Maximum delay Distance Hardware is designed to emit a fixed amount of energy if wiring is extended beyond the design limits stations will not receive a sufficiently strong signal, and errors will occur
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6 17.3 Fiber Modem Extensions Extension mechanisms do not increase the signal strength nor do they merely extend cables Most extension mechanisms use standard interface and insert additional hardware components that can relay signals across longer distances The simplest LAN extension mechanism consists of an optical fiber and a pair of fiber modems used to connect a computer to a remote Ethernet Figure 17.1 illustrates the interconnection Each of the fiber modems contains hardware to perform two chores: accept packets over the Ethernet interface and send them over the optical fiber and accept packets that arrive over the optical fiber and send them over the Ethernet interface
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7 17.3 Fiber Modem Extensions
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8 17.4 Repeaters A repeater is an analog device used to propagate LAN signals over long distances A repeater does not understand packets or signal coding Instead, it merely amplifies the signal received and transmits the amplified version as output Repeaters were used extensively with the original Ethernet, and have been used with other LAN technologies Recently, repeaters have been introduced with infrared receivers to permit a receiver to be located at a longer distance from a computer Consider a situation in which the infrared receiver for a cable television controller must be in a different room than the controller A repeater can extend the connection, as Figure 17.2 illustrates
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9 17.4 Repeaters
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10 17.5 Bridges and Bridging A bridge is a mechanism that connects two LAN segments The bridge listens in promiscuous mode on each segment i.e., receives all packets sent on the segment
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commtech[2] - IS 3413 Introduction to Telecommunications...

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