{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

billiards.ams

# Flux proposition 13 suppose that l has an everywhere

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: e ow. The proposition below is certainly plausible on physical grounds; in any case it follows from standard approximation arguments applied to (11a), and so we omit its proof. Flux Proposition, 13. Suppose that L has an everywhere positive rst-return function RL . Then (a) ux( ) is a measure on the subsets of L. Printed: February 14, 1995 Filename is Article/18Billiards/billiards.ams.tex 11 Billiards inside a cusp (b) Volume-measure locally near L is the product-measure of ux cross Lebesgue-measure on \time". Speci cally, suppose U L is a subset whose rst-return is uniformly positive, that is, the number := liminf v2U RU (v) is positive. Then For any S ( ;0] (U): vol(S) = Z ux(U \ t S) dt : 0 Inducing a transformation. For an arbitrary cueball set , its rst-return function tells us when a cueball returns to . The induced map , T , tells us where. It is de ned on the subset of those v 2 which actually return to at time R (v), T (v) := R (v)(v) : is a closed subset of then the domain of T is simply where is nite.) As an illustration, were the union of the two meshes at the ends of our submerged tube, then T would be de ned just on the upstream surface and map it in a 1-to-1 fashion to the downstream surface. As suggested by the physical situation of water owing through a tube, the induced map preserves ux. (c) For an arbitrary set of cueballs, the induced map T is measure-preserving wherever it is de ned: If B is included in the range of T then (Of course if R ux T 1 (B) = ux B : This is too is an approximation argument, achieved by splitting into countably many pieces whose rst-return functions are nearly constant and then using that ows at constant speed. x4 Conservativity on an Infinite Cusp A particular case where the induced map T is everywhere de ned is when consists of all cueballs on the boundary @ . A symbiosis exists between this induced transformation and the ow: Transformation [email protected] is conservative i is conservative. Even though Poincare's recurrence theorem does not apply to this transformation {the measure it preserves being in nite because @ has in nite length{ nonetheless, on a nite-area table, [email protected] inherits conservativity from the associated billiard ow . We conclude this article by turning the implication around, in that we will use an induced transformation to prove conservativity of the ow. Pinched-cusp Theorem, 14. The billiard ow under a pinched cusp, even one of in nite area, is conservative. A ow is pinched if, arbitrarily far out the cusp, there are cross-sections L of arbitrarily small ux. So our billiard ow is pinched exactly when liminf f (x) = 0 ; x!1 Math. Intelligencer, vol.17 no.1, (1995), 8{16. 12 J.L. King since the value f (x) is proportional to the ux of the set of cueballs with footpoint on the vertical line-segment going from x; 0 up to x; f (x) . As an example of a pinched cusp of in nite area, consider 1 f (x) := x 1 sin(x) + x+1 : Even though for this cushion the supremum of f (x) is in nite, nonetheless the theorem asserts that a cueball placed at a random location and then hit in a random direction will pass arbitrarily near to its starting position and direction. In contrast, it would seem di cult to show by means of the calculus technique of the Introduction that for this cushion there is even a single (non-periodic) recurrent trajectory. Squeeze Play on an In nite Cusp. Intuitively, conservativity on a nite-area table came from being unable to squeeze a gallon into a pint-sized bottle. This time, our bottle has in nite volume but, being vague for a moment, it still has in some sense a pint-sized neck. Our gallon of water will not be abl...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

### What students are saying

• As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

• I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

• The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern