L1introduction(ch1)

L1introduction(ch1) - INTRODUCTION What is Artificial...

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INTRODUCTION What is Artificial Intelligence ? (chapter 1) Cse352 Lecture Notes (1) Professor Anita Wasilewska
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Introduction • AI is a broad field. It means different things to different people. • AI is concerned with getting computers to do tasks that require human intelligence. Example 1 : Complex Arithmetic −Computers can do this very easily. Example 2: Recognizing a face − People do easily, but it was very difficult to automate.
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Introduction (Cont.) • AI is concerned with difficult tasks , which require complex and sophisticated reasoning process and knowledge.
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Why to automate Human Intelligence? (and to which degree is it possible?)
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Why to automate Human Intelligence ? • Reason 1: To understand human intelligence better: We may be able to rest and refine theories of Human Intelligence by writing programs which attempt to simulate aspects of human behavior. • Reason 2: To have smarter programs and machines; by studying human reasoning we may develop useful techniques for solving difficult problems.
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Introduction (Cont.) Science Fiction Human-like robots whether such a goal is possible or even desirable − belongs to science fiction, but does have impact on the practical work of writing smarter programs and developing better models of human reasoning.
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Introduction (Cont.) • AI for us is a technical subject; we put emphasis on “Computational Techniques” and less on psychological modeling and philosophical issues. • AI is both a branch of science and a branch of engineering. As ENGINEERING, AI is concerned with the concepts, theory and practice of building intelligent machines.
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AI as a branch of Science and Engineering Examples: 1. Expert Systems that give advice about specialized subjects; e.g., medicine, mineral exploration, etc…. 2. Question-Answering Systems for answering queries posed in restricted, but large subset of English and other natural languages. 3. Theorem Proving Systems . 4. Systems for program verifications. It is a very important field of CS.
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Knowledge in Intelligent Entities “Intelligent entities seem to anticipate their environments and the consequences of their actions.” We assume that they posses knowledge of their environments.
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Knowledge in Intelligent Entities (Cont.) • What is such knowledge? • What forms can it take? • How do entities use knowledge? • How is knowledge acquired?
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Knowledge in Intelligent Entities (Cont.) We have: • Procedural Knowledge. • Declarative Knowledge. We talk about and define: • Knowledge Representation. • Knowledge Base.
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Forms of Knowledge There are two major ways we can think about machine having knowledge about its world: • IMPLICIT − Procedural • EXPLICIT − Declarative
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• Examples: – The knowledge represented by the actual running or execution of a program is procedural − It is difficult to extract the knowledge from the text of the program code for other uses. It is contained in the very procedures that uses it. – Spider knowledge about spinning the web and
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L1introduction(ch1) - INTRODUCTION What is Artificial...

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