Lecture 10 - Rocks

Lecture 10 - Rocks - Lecture 9 Rocks Rocks magma...

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Lecture 9 Rocks
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Rocks
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magma crystallization weathering and erosion deposition deformation melting
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The Rock Cycle Full cycle does not always take place due to "shortcuts" or interruptions e.g., Sedimentary rock melts e.g., Igneous rock is metamorphosed e.g., Sedimentary rock is weathered e.g., Metamorphic rock weathers
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Three Rock Types Igneous - cools and crystallizes from magma; intrusive and extrusive Sedimentary - deposited at Earth’s surface by physical, chemical, or biologic agents and then buried Metamorphic - rocks formed by the transformation of preexisting solid rocks due to changes in temperature and pressure
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Igneous Rocks in North America
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Sedimentary Rocks in North America
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Metamorphic Rocks in North America
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Igneous Rocks Form as magma cools and crystallizes Rocks formed inside Earth are called plutonic or intrusive rocks Rocks formed on the surface Formed from lava (a material similar to magma, but without gas Called volcanic or extrusive rocks
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Igneous rocks Crystallization of magma Ions are arranged into orderly patterns Crystal size is determined by the rate of cooling Slow rate forms large crystals Fast rate forms microscopic crystals Very fast rate forms glass
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Igneous Rocks Classification is based on the rock's texture and mineral constituents Texture Size and arrangement of crystals Types Fine-grained – fast rate of cooling Coarse-grained – slow rate of cooling Porphyritic (two crystal sizes) – two rates of cooling Glassy – very fast rate of cooling
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Igneous Rock Textures fine grained - basalt coarse grained - diorite porphyritic - granite glass - obsidian
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Intrusive and Extrusive Igneous Equivalents
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Igneous rocks Mineral composition Explained by Bowen's reaction series which shows the order of mineral crystallization (fractional crystallization) Influenced by crystal settling in the magma
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Bowen’s Reaction Series
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Bowen’s Reaction Series
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Intrusive Igneous Activity Most magma is emplaced at depth An underground igneous body is called a pluton Plutons are classified according to Shape Tabular Massive
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2012 for the course EAS 2600 taught by Professor Ingalls during the Fall '08 term at Georgia Tech.

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Lecture 10 - Rocks - Lecture 9 Rocks Rocks magma...

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