Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 The History of Policing Early Police...

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Chapter 1: “The History of Policing” Early Police: policing was a private matter; modern policing did not appear until 14th century in France and the 19 th century in England. Difference between civil power of police vs. military power? Police are civil power of govt. – to maintain order Military used in time of war to kill and destroy enemy; conquer another by defeating them. Police should not be trained to kill and destroy the enemy. Should not think in terms of “enemy” or of “them vs. us” Police mission to solve problems and serve public. Evolution of Policing “Hue and Cry” Vigilantes and Bounty Hunters Duty to help – crime not to assist “Common Law” and our system of policing borrowed from English. Common Law- based on prior judicial decisions; based on precedent; cases that have been heard and decided. Common Law: body of law developed in England primarily from judicial decisions based on custom and precedent… Statutory Law: statutes are defined as laws which are passed by the federal Congress and the various state legislatures. These statutes are the basis for statutory law. The legislature passes statutes which are later put into the federal code of laws. Triangle of Crime : Criminal (offender), victim, and the opportunity Sir Robert Peel – recognized as “founder of modern policing” – developed Peel’s Nine Principles Peel’s Nine Principles: Basic Mission: Prevent Crime (Crime Prevention: the anticipation, recognition and appraisal of crime risks and the steps taken to remove or reduce those risks..) Ability to perform mission is related to public approval Willing co-operation of community and voluntary compliance to law is related to the respect the community has for police. Degree of public cooperation is related to the need for physical force Preserve public favor not by catering to public but by providing impartial service Physical force only as last resort “police are public and public are police” Never “appear to usurp the power of judiciary” Test of efficiency of police is the absence of crime. NOT the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it! Peel’s Police Department -3400 originally hired -during first 8 years 5000 fired 6000 resigned 510 (15%) of original hired remained -14,400 total hires in 8 years Primary Problem = Drinking (military influence)
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Henry Fielding - Although best known as the author of Tom Jones, he can also be credited with laying the foundation for the first modern police force. Created in 1748 Created first official crime report. Resistance to Creating a Police Force -fear of police and 3 more examples (……) Constables – in colonial America, law enforcement was primarily the responsibility of constables. They were paid for their service through fines.
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