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earth systems review exam 2

earth systems review exam 2 - Chapter 8-Difference between...

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Chapter 8 -Difference between weather: short term day to day condition of the atmosphere and meteorology: study of -climate: long term average of weather conditions -differences between air masses -maritime tropical-mT Gulf/Atlantic-unstable, late spring to early fall, and mT Pacific- stable to conditionally unstable , low in moisture content(W US experiences less rain— Cali wildfires) influence N. America -maritime polar-N Hemi oceans, cool humid (moisture in air) unstable conditions -Aleutian and Icelandic subpolar low-pressure -continental polar-form only in N. hemisphere, developed in winter and cold-weather conditions -middle and high latitude weather -replace warm air producing lifting, cooling, and condensation - stable air, clear skies, high pressure, anticyclonic wind flow •As air masses move away from their source area they slowly take up the characteristics of the surface it passes over. •For example, lake effect by the Great Lakes (westerly winds) -Dry, cold air becomes humidified as it flows over the great lakes -The prevailing wind is from west and north -Impact is greatest in WINTER because of the greater influence of cP air masses. **don’t worry about #s worry about characteristics and concepts *Where each are located *what happens if maritime polar( west to east ) and maritime tropical ( east to west ) converge---cyclone, tornado, hurricane -m for maritime, c for continental A-arctic P-polar T-tropical E-equatorial AA-Antarctic *Atmospheric Lifting Mechanisms - when air masses lift, they cool adiabatically
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-moisture in saturated air can condense and form clouds and perhaps precipitation convergent -low pressure, upward winds -common, low plains, low pressure causes lifting because its going towards high pressure -air flowing from different directions into same low pressure area is converging, displacing air upward. -SE and NE trade winds converge forming ITCZ -forms cumulonimbus---rain convectional -warm air lifted up to generate clouds due to high pressure -from a maritime source region to a warmer continental region -sources of surface heating-surface of dark soil in a plowed field -hot summer days -if unstable conditions make thunderstorms and lightning orographic -diff between windward and leeward side of mountain— rainshadow : dry region occurs on leeward side, precipitation on windward side -MOUNTAIN-moisture condenses from lifting air on windward side, descending air on leeward heats by compression, any remaining water in air evaporates -air can start ascent up mountain warm and moist and finish descent hot and dry -Washington frontal lifting -cold air mass characterized as aggressor, moves faster than warm air
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-cP and mT air masses that collide, warm air overtaken by cold -how clouds and storms are generated - front: leading edge of an advancing air mass, narrow zone forming a line of conflict between two air masses.
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