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Carbs_F10_Student - CARBOHYDRATES 1 Chapter 4 OVERVIEW...

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1 CARBOHYDRATES Chapter 4
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2 OVERVIEW Monosaccharides 1 Disaccharides 2 Polysaccharides- more than 3 Digestion & Absorption Glucose in the Body Health Effects Intake Recommendations for:Sugars Starch Fibers Diabetes Mellitus Artificial sweeteners
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3 CARBOHYDRATES Provide about ½ of all energy we use Found in all _plant_ foods (and in _milk_)
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4 MONOSACCHARIDES C 6 H 12 O 6 _Glucose_ (hexose) _Galactose_ (hexose) _Fructose_ (pentose)
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5 DISACCHARIDES Maltose ( glucose + _glucose_) Sucrose ( glucose + _fructose_) Lactose ( glucose + _galactose_) ^ composition**
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6 GLUCOSE Form found in _blood_ Part of all disaccharides Major component of polysaccharides
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7 FRUCTOSE _Sweetest_ Occurs naturally in fruits & honey In high- fructose corn syrup Same formula as glucose but different __stucture_
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8
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9 GALACTOSE Rarely found as single sugar Sugar beets Gums Seaweed Flaxseed Mucilage Whey Some vegetables
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10
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11 CONDENSATION--build, release water
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12 HYDROLYSIS-- breaking apart, adding water
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13 MALTOSE Consists of _2 glucose units_ Produced when starch broken down Produced during fermentation (EtOH production) Found in barley; few other foods
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14 SUCROSE Glucose + Fructose In fruits, vegetables & grains _Table Sugar (refined from sugarcane and sugar beets)
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15 LACTOSE _Glucose + Galactose_ Primary CHO in _animal milk_(including human) Provides 50% of kcalories in nonfat milk
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16 COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES (POLYSACCHARIDES) Glycogen CHO storage form in __animals__(incl humans) Composed of glucose units Starches CHO storage form in __plants__ Composed of glucose units Fibers Provide _structure_ in stems, trunks, roots, leaves, and plant skins Composed of variety of monosaccharides & other CHO-containing derivatives
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17 GLYCOGEN Food not significant source Composed of glucose molecules in highly branched chain allows for _rapis hydrolysis_ rapid _energy_ release Manufactured and stored in liver and muscles
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