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Carbs_Part+II_Student_F10 - CarbohydratesPart II Chapter 4...

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Carbohydrates—Part II Chapter 4
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Glucose homeostasis Blood glucose must be kept within relatively narrow range Primarily hormonal regulation: insulin glucagon
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Epinephrine “Fight-or-Flight” hormone Previously called _adrenaline_ Released during periods of stress Promotes _ glycogenolysis** _
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When glucose regulation fails Diabetes Insufficient or ineffective insulin Hypoglycemia Excessive insulin release hours after meal
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Symptoms of hypoglycemia Weakness Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia) Sweating Anxiety Hunger Trembling
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Management of hypoglycemia Consume fiber-rich carbs instead of refined Adequate protein intake Small, frequent meals
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Glycemic response How _quickly_ glucose rises after meal How _high_ glucose level rises How quickly glucose returns to normal Desirable: _slow_glucose absorption _modest_ rise in blood glucose _smooth_ return to normal levels
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Glycemic index Foods classified according to glycemic response they elicit Glucose control may be improved by focusing on foods with _low_ glycemic index May also improve blood lipids & lower heart disease risk May aid in weight management (fiber—satiety link)
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Glycemic index of some foods
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Controversy surrounding glycemic index Limited scientific evidence Index determined for relatively few foods _Wide variation_in testing results Values affected by _physical_ & chemical characteristics of food Lab testing methods Individual differences in _digestive processes_
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