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Lipids_Part+II_Student - Lipids Part II Chapter 5 Roles of...

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Lipids – Part II Chapter 5
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Roles of lipids Energy _Thermal_ insulation _Shock_ protection Maintenance of cell membrane integrity
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Essential fatty acids _Linoleic acid****_ 18 carbons; omega-6 _Linolenic****__ 18 carbons; omega-3 Proper balance of both needed ****essential
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Linolenic acid 18-carbon omega-3 fatty acid Essential Body can produce small amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (_EPA_) and docosahexaenoic acid (_DHA_) from _linolenic acid_
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EPA Lowers _inflammation_ Reduces risk of heart disease Important for brain/mental health Sources: fish fish oil human breast milk
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DHA Lower _TG_ levels Low levels of DHA associated with _ADHD,_Alzheimer’s & depression_ Improved _visual_acuity & attention in infants of mothers with higher DHA levels supplement during pregnancy Found in _fish oil & breast milk_
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Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiencies Typically only in: Infants Young children fed _low-fat or fat- free_diets Hospitalized patients fed diets free from _PUFAs_ for extended period of time ** young children need fat, low fat diets not relevant
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EFA deficiency symptoms _growth retardation_ Reproductive failure Skin lesions _kidney_ disorders _liver_ disorders Neurological & visual problems
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Fat storage TGs broken down, absorbed, then _reassembled_ inside adipose cell
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Fat as energy source Contributes about _60_% of energy during rest More during prolonged exercise or during prolonged fast/food deprivation Stored TGs broken down into glycerol + fatty acids _released into blood_
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