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Weight_S10_Student - Weight Management Chapter 9 Prevalence...

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Unformatted text preview: Weight Management Chapter 9 Prevalence of overweight • ~66% of adults are overweight • Highest among women,blacks, and Hispanics, and the poor • ~33% of children between 2-19 overweight or “at risk for overweight” Obesity trends Enzymes in fat metabolism • lipoprotein lipase (LPL) promotes fat storage; produced by fat cells – Women: fat cells in hips, thighs, and breasts produce LPL – Men: fat cells in abdomen • LPL activity increases after weight loss easy to regain weight Fat cell development Genetic causes of obesity • Seems to affect susceptibility to obesity • leptin • ghrelin Leptin • Acts as hormone • Released when food in stomach – suppresses appetite – increases energy expenditure • In mice, when given IV, reduces fat cell size AND number Leptin treatment Adiponectin • Higher amounts in lean people than in obese • Reduction in: – inflammation – insulin resistance – Type 2 diabetes – CVD Ghrelin • Hormone • Stimulates apetite & energy storage • Levels high before meal; decline in proportion to kcal ingested • High levels in underweight • Decreased levels after gastric bypass – Why?-doctors unsure Sleep and weight • Link between short sleep duration and high BMI • Lack of sleep: – Increases ghrelin – Decreases leptin Environmental causes of obesity: Overeating • diet histories don’t always reflect overeating • In our society, high-fat, high-kcal foods: – Readily available – Heavily advertised – Tasty – Relatively inexpensive • Ex: Grilled chicken sandwich or salad vs....
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Weight_S10_Student - Weight Management Chapter 9 Prevalence...

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