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Unformatted text preview: September 27, 2011 Lecture 7 I. Energy a. Capacity to do work b. 2 Forms b.i. Kinetic – Energy of motion b.ii. Potential – Stored energy c. Laws of Thermodynamics c.i. Energy cannot be created or destroyed; however, can be converted c.ii. When E is converted, some energy is converted to heat = kinetic energy of random moving particles c.ii.1. Cannot perform work c.ii.2. Disperses d. Total amount of E in universe is not changing d.i. Total amount available to do work is decreasing over time e. Entropy – S e.i. Measure of disorder e.ii. Organized E is usable – low S e.iii. Disorganized E – heat: less usable E e.iii.1. High S e.iv. Entropy increases in universe f. Conversion f.i. Much of E is dispersed as heat f.ii. Car engine: 20-30% efficient f.iii. Cells: 40% efficient g. Cellular work g.i. Mechanical g.ii. Transport g.iii. Chemical h. E supply h.i. Potential E – energy stored in bonds of high E molecules h.ii. Kinetic E – Released when bonds broken h.iii. Metabolism h.iii.1. Chemical reactions change arrangements of the atoms i. Enthalpy i.i. Total bond E of a system = potential E j. Free E = G j.i. Amount of E available to do work under conditions of a biochemical rxn j.ii. Related to S & H j.ii.1. H = G + TS j.ii.2. G = H - TS j.iii. Delta = any change that occurs in a system between initial state (before rxn) and final stage (after rxn) j.iii.1. Temperature held constant during reaction j.iii.2. Delta(G) = Delta(H) – (T)Delta(S) j.iii.3.j....
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This note was uploaded on 01/26/2012 for the course BIO 119:101 taught by Professor Martin during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.
- Fall '08