Module 11.1

Module 11.1 - Ex. Monkey experiment: they were given a toy...

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Module 11.1 General Principles of Motivation Motivation is hard to define Motivation: the process that determines the reinforcement value of an outcome Homeostasis: the maintenance of an optimum level of biological conditions within an organism Motivated behaviors do not maintain exact constancy because our behavior often anticipates future needs Ex. Eating large breakfast so you will not be hungry later in the day Allostasis: maintaining levels of biological conditions that vary according to an individual's needs and circumstances Incentives: external stimuli that pull us toward certain actions Most motivated behaviors are controlled by a combo of drives and incentives Ex. Eat because you are hungry (drive) and because you see appealing food in front of you (an incentive) Intrinsic motivation: a motivation to do an act for its own sake Extrinsic motivation: based on the reinforcements and punishments that the act may bring The two kinds of motivation often combine A combination does not necessarily led to better performance.
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Unformatted text preview: Ex. Monkey experiment: they were given a toy and liked to play with it. Then the toy was put over food. They began playing with it less. It had become work and not play . Known as the: Overjustification effect: when people receive more extrinsic motivation than necessary to perform a task their intrinsic motivation declines Hierarchy of needs: (proposed by Maslow) an organization from the most insistent needs to the ones that receive attention only when all others are under control Self actualization: the need for creative activities to fulfill your potential (at the top of the pyramid) People who satisfy more of their higher needs tend to be mentally healthier than others However, under certain circumstances, almost any need can take priority over another This theory is also culture specific People differ on how well they defer gratification (choose the action that produces the bigger payoff later instead of the smaller pleasure now...
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Module 11.1 - Ex. Monkey experiment: they were given a toy...

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